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The study was carried out to examine the pressure groups and organizational performance in Nigeria tertiary institutions: (A study of federal polytechnic, Oko), the contributions made by pressure groups to the Tertiary Institutions in Nigeria, using federal polytechnic, Oko as the study. The study attempts a conceptualization of pressure groups and democracy. It also examines the relevance of pressure groups generally, as well as their attitude to and participation in the Tertiary Institutions in particular. The specific contributions of these groups to the Tertiary Institutions as well as obstacles to their effectiveness are discussed. The paper concludes by advocating the need for the groups to achieve a wider spread and to participate more actively in the Tertiary Institutions as ways of becoming more relevant in the Tertiary Institutions.


















Cover Page                                                                                                               i

Title Page                                                                                                                 ii

Declaration                                                                                                              iii

Certification                                                                                                            iv

Approval page                                                                                                         v

Dedication                                                                                                                vi

Acknowledgements                                                                                                vii

Table of Contents                                                                                             viii-ix

Abstract                                                                                                                    x



INTRODUCTION                                                                                                   1

1.1       Background to the Study                                                                             1

1.2       Statement of the Problem                                                                            4

1.3       Research Questions                                                                                     6

1.4       Purpose of the Study                                                                                    6

1.5       Significance of the Study                                                                            7

1.6       Scope of the Study                                                                                       7

1.7       Limitations of the Study                                                                              8

1.8       Definition of Terms                                                                                      8

1.9       Organizations of the Study                                                                         10



Literature Review and Theoretical Framework

2.1       Literature Review                                                                                         11

2.2       Theoretical Framework                                                                               26



Research Methodology

3.1       Research Design                                                                                           29

3.2       Area of the Study                                                                                         29

3.3       Population of the Study                                                                               29

3.4       Sample size and Sampling Techniques                                                     30

3.5       Method of Data Collection                                                                         31

3.6       Instrument for Data Collection                                                                  31

3.7       Reliability of the Instrument                                                                       32

3.8       Validity of the Instrument                                                                           32

3.9       Distribution and Retrieval of Instruments                                                32

3.10    Method of Data Analysis                                                                            33




Data Presentation and Analysis

4.1       Data Presentation                                                                                         34

4.2       Analysis of Research Questions                                                                38

4.3       Interpretation of Results                                                                              42




5.1       Summary of findings                                                                                   43

5.2       Conclusion                                                                                                    43

5.3       Recommendations                                                                                       45

References                                                                                                    48

Appendix A                                                                                                  50

Appendix B                                                                                                  51








1.1       Background to the Study

The term pressure group is used interchangeably with such terms as interest groups or organized interests. Henry Ehrman (1972) defines pressure groups as voluntary associations of individuals who band together for the defence of a particular interest. Interest in this sense is a conscious desire to have a public policy or the authoritative allocation of values, and to move in a particular, general or specific direction.

The term pressure group is however loosely used here to include trade or industrial unions, professional associations and any other associations whose focus extends beyond the realization of the parochial interests of their members. Barber (1975) categorized pressure groups generally into two, namely defensive pressure groups and promotional pressure groups. While defensive pressure groups are basically concerned with the protection of their members’ interests and have a defined membership, promotional pressure groups are concerned with promoting some general public interest as opposed to their own self-interest. Trade or industrial unions, professional associations and human rights associations therefore fall into the category of promotional pressure groups, otherwise referred to here as functional pressure groups.

According to John and Erna Perry (1976), interest groups or pressure groups are many and varied. Some are formally organized, others are not. However, the more formally organized tend to be the more durable whereas those informally organized usually dissolve after the crisis that originated them is resolved. The longevity or durability or these groups, their consistency as well as their high sense of commitment to the realization of set goals all contribute to making them functional.

Functional pressure groups can therefore be defined as those pressure or interest groups whose activities are not limited or restricted to the promotion and protection of parochial interests but who are vocal and determined in pursuing policies and goals that have relevance to citizens in their own society. Viewed within the context of political participation, such groups often criticize unpopular or unfavourable government policies, organized conferences, seminars, rallies, and even demonstrations or protest marches to express their displeasure and, in some cases, to suggest alternatives to programmes or policies which they consider unfavourable. Functional groups work towards sensitizing and mobilizing the populace against unpopular acts of government. In this respect, mention could be made of such groups as the Nigerian Bar Association (NBA), Nigerian Medical Association (NMA), Nigerian Labour Congress (NLC), human rights organisations such as the Committee for the Defence of Human Rights (CDHR), as well as pro-democracy groups such as the Campaign for Democracy (CD), Academic Staff Union of Universities, (ASUU), National Association of Nigerian Students, and the Press.

Democracy as a concept has been defined in various ways and given various interpretations. The generalized or loose nature of the concept would account for this. However, according to Banwo (1997), the basic features of democracy which serve as a consensus among the contending perspectives on what democratic system ought to entail or manifest include the right to elections, a representative form of governance and freedom of choice, respect for the rule of law and equality before the law, accountability, the guarantee of the rights of individuals, an independent judiciary, as well as a decentralization or delegation of power and authority between all tiers of government.

Obviously, functional pressure groups have contributed to the Tertiary Institutions in Nigeria just as some may have contributed to the problem of democratization in Nigeria, either overtly or covertly. In the view of Obasanjo and Mabogunje (1992), pressure groups are to a very large extent necessary and healthy for a thriving democratic culture to evolve. Obasanjo and Mabogunje are, however, also of the opinion that such groups must not be seen to be operating under the influence of foreign bodies. Moreover, the leadership under which these groups operate some of the time, the prevailing situation in the country, the organizational structure of these groups as well as the general mood of the society determine, to a very large extent, the effectiveness of these groups and profoundly influence their contributions to the Tertiary Institutions.

1.2       Statement of the Problem

Pressure Groups are distinct from political parties in the sense that they do not seek political posts and they do not contest elections. But one important element that makes them what they are is the function which they play in every political system and more, in a democratic state. This function has to do with being a watchdog to the government, ensuring that the government does not make policies that are arbitrary to

their members and indeed, the entire populace in the state. They achieve these objectives through different means like strikes, protests, lobbying, petitions and others.

In Nigeria, there are a lot of pressure groups which play different roles in different capacities. (e.g the Nigerian Labour Congress, Nigerian Union of Teachers, Nigerian Union of Journalists, the Trade Union Congress etc).

These pressure groups have operated in different areas of the polity and have also contributed immensely. However, though they have been praised in some quarters for their contributions in the political system in general and the policy process in particular, they have also received criticisms by some Nigerians and foreigners. The criticisms against pressure groups have often come on the selfish interest of their members which they most times pursue without considering the macro effect such interest will have on the entire masses and the political system in general. At other times, the means which they use in pursuing their interest to turn out to cause more harm than good on the polity. The lackluster attitude of the pressure groups in Nigeria have also helped in making it easy for the legislature in Nigeria to make meaningless laws for the country and laws that do not benefit the common man on the street. Thus, pressure groups have received many criticisms in Nigeria on account of their activities and their contributions to the policy process and the political system of the country.

Based on the above, this research work looks at the role of pressure groups in the policy process in Nigeria especially in the fourth republic especially in the light of arbitrary laws being made by the government in recent times that do not conform to democratic practices. The work also studies the role of pressure groups in Nigeria in the consolidation of Democracy in the country. Thus, we shall be guided by the following questions:

  1. Have Pressure groups in Federal Polytechnic, Oko contributed positively to some organizations in the institutions?
  2. Have pressure groups strengthened the organizational performance in Nigeria tertiary institutions?

The researcher decided to use Federal Polytechnic, Oko as the study.

1.3       Research Questions

In order to fulfill the research objectives the following research questions were posed and would be addressed.

  1. Have Pressure groups in Federal Polytechnic, Oko contributed positively to some organizations in the institutions?
  2. Have pressure groups strengthened the organizational performance in Nigeria tertiary institutions?
  3. To what extent has pressure groups in Federal Polytechnic, Oko performed their role?


1.4 Purpose of the Study

The broad objective of this study is to examine the pressure groups and organizational performance in Nigeria tertiary institutions of Federal polytechnic Oko, while Specific objectives are as follows:

  1. To examine the positive contributions of Pressure groups in Federal Polytechnic, Oko to some organizations in the institutions?
  2. To examine how the pressure groups have strengthened the organizational performance in Nigeria tertiary institutions?
  3. To identify the extent pressure groups in Federal Polytechnic, Oko have performed their role?

1.5       Significance of the Study

            This research work is of great relevance to the society at large. This is applicable to the government, the readers of this research work and to the researcher.

The benefit of this research work to the government is that by the end of the research, the weak-points and short – comings of all the sectors of the nation would be pinpointed and displayed based on findings, thereby proffering solution to the problem.

To the reader, they will be upgraded intellectually and also will be highly informed of the up and doings of the pressure groups in Nigeria tertiary institutions. It will also give the reader’s insight on how the pressure groups and organizational performance in Nigeria tertiary institutions are achieved, also partake in the pressure groups in Nigeria, geared towards the achievement of organizational performance.

1.6       Scope of the Study

The essence of this research work is to study  pressure groups and organizational performance in Nigeria tertiary institutions.. The research intends to focus on Federal polytechnic Oko.

1.7       Limitations of the Study

In the course of writing and carrying out this project work, the research encountered many difficulties; some errors in the results of the research and from external sources of data collection. These are factors  standing as constraints thereby limiting the effect of the research result.

Among these are, time finance , scope and use of wrong statistics in data analysis, due to time limit, the research work is a time consuming one. A lot of time is taken to observe the subjects.

Most  times the behaviour of the staff changes even when they are aware that they are being observed by the researcher, this is by taking their behavior. The researcher also observed that these senior staff some time give true and false information in order to cover their branches.

At sometime the research work lasted over two months due to large scope of area of the study.

1.8       Operationization/Definition of Terms

Pressure groups: A group that tries to influence public policy in the interest of a particular cause.

Tertiary Institution: An educational institution at which some or of the students who attend the institution are taught at a tertiary level of education.

Organizational Performance: It comprises the actual output or results of an organization as measured against intended goals and objectives.


Etzioni (1970) opined that politics stands for the competition (and in most cases such competitions could be fierce and unhealthy) for the control of the public policy making process within the organized framework of government.

Okuosa (1996), further argued that in a democratic society, power acquisition and control is achieved privately or collectively, irrespective of gender through a process of active participation and representation, which then means that the question of gender discrimination is ruled out in terms of contestation or even nomination of persons or groups into political offices.

Political Power

By the concept of power, it means the capacity to overcome part or all the resistance to introduce changes in the face of opposition and this includes sustaining a course of action or preserving a status quo that would otherwise have been discontinued. The concept of political power or powerlessness is applicable when the capacity to overcome resistance is related to the control of public policy. Consequently, the political power that women or any group of persons in a society have would be linked directly to a degree of their participation in the political process of that society Maclosky (1968)

Policy-making: It’s the formulation of ideas or plans that are used by an organization or government as a basis for making decisions

1.9       Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows. Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (background of the study), statement of the problem, purpose of the study, research questions, significance of the study, scope of the study etc. Chapter two being the review of the related literature presents the theoretical framework, conceptual framework and other areas concerning the subject matter.     Chapter three is a research methodology covers deals on the research design, area of the study, population of the study, sample and sampling techniques, methods of data collection, instruments for data collection, reliability of the instruments, validity of the instruments, distribution and retrieval of instruments and methods of data analysis. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.  Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.


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