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Background of the study

Soap is formed by chemical reaction involving caustic soda and fatty acid by a process known as saponification. In this reaction, salt of fatty acid is formed. There are two different caustic soda, potassium hydroxide which forms soft and liquid soap, sodium hydroxide that forms hard when used in production.

Longman (2000) viewed soap as class of product that serve and clans surrounding with a high demand of foaming agent in the society. It is a cleansing agent described chemical as an alkaline metal salt of a long carbon chain mono carboxytic acid. The hydrocarbon portion is hydrophobic while carboxylate portion is hydrophilic.

Vin Pansky and Glady’s (2001) in England generalized soap as a class of substances known as surface agent or surfactants. These are substances which when dissolved in a solvent even at very low concentration have the property of hovering the surface energy and hence alter the surface behaviour of the solvent to an extreme degree. In general, the surface active agents are composed of fairly large molecules which contain separate groups of dissimilar nature, one group being of hydrophilic or water alternating character which the other group has a hydropholic or oil attracting character and it also exhibits its actions in aqeous and non aqeous system .

Slieves et al (2004) said that high quality industrial soap can be produced using sodium hydroxide and vegetable oil. Ordinarily, soap today is simply a mixture of sodium salts of long chain fatty acid. Fatty acids are the basic raw materials such as caustic soda and various sodium phosphates. A large number of additives aiming towards the production of high quality soap include various herbal extract.

In the production of toilet soap involving herbal extracts, fat slitting and distillation of plant upstream is required and is therefore mostly found in integration of plant chemistry with fine chemicals. This soap can be kept for a long duration still maintaining very high quality and cleaning effectiveness which is the criteria of patronage by quality soap buyers.

Statement of the Problem

Nowadays, people are using different herbal toilet soaps that are expensive and less effective. The expensive nature of the herbal soaps in the market is due to the costly integration of specific extracts with fine chemicals used in their production. Furthermore, it is a challenge to device an easy way of producing cheap and affordable effective herbal toilet soap for human skin care.

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study is to produce an effective and less expensive or affordable toilet soaps using Aloevera, Basil, and Guava leaf extracts. These herbs contain major antioxidant pigments, antimicrobial properties carotene and polyphenols giving them high dietary antioxidant values among plants. The benefits in using these herbs in soap production are that they have properties that can prevent and cure many chains of infections and dual diseases. They also have the capability of restoring healthy skin in individual whose skins are diseased. Vin Pansky and Glady’s (2001).  

The general purpose of the study is practical appraisal to effective teaching and learning of production of soap.

Specifically, the study intends:

  1. to determine simple methods of producing cheap and effective toilet soaps using herbs extracts.
  2. to find out the best combination of local herbal extract for producing quality soap that should be suitable to various skin types.
  3. to ascertain the effect of the various herbs in treatment of skin rashes.
  4. to identify herbs that has skin smoothness and cleansing properties.


Significance of the Study

The study would be of immense significance to the following categories of people:

  1. Students: Students are to benefit from this study in the sense that when they acquire the skill on how to produce soap and the target, it will make them not be independent/depend on their parents for survival even while in school. Their parents might not be financial buoyant to provide all they need in school, with this skill they have acquired, they can provide other things which a student needs in school. Example, handout, textbooks and other little payments.
  2. Teacher: With the current economic recession in Nigeria, many teachers especially those working under the government schools are not able to meet up with their livelihood due to underpayment or rather late payment by government. Acquisition of soap making skill will serve as an addendum to the teachers’ revenue or income.
  3. Parents: When parents have the skill of soap making, it will enable them to take care of their children’s skin without much suffering and they could make extra income from soap selling to augment their meager salaries.
  4. Society: Everything is not all about education. No matter the level of one’s knowledge/certificate, one needs to be trained or aware of such skills for the betterment of his/her family, and society because if people will have the knowledge of this skill, it will reduce the idea of people stealing. When one has this skill and seeing little money every day, he/she will never be tempted to steal or take property that does not belong to them.

Scope of the Study

The scope of the study covers the effect of three different herbal extracts on the production of toilet soap with their controls. The study finds out their impact on various soap properties on its treatment. It also finds out the differential effect on the proportion of combinations on students body bearing in mind two sample methods of producing soap.

Research Questions

  1. What are the effects on various herbal soaps on the skin?
  2. What are the best combinations that give the best soap smoothness of the skin?
  3. What are the effects of various herbs in the treatment of skins rushes?

What are herbs that have skin smoothness and cleansing properties?


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