The production of cassava flour by the method of traditional processing method (sun drying) and modern processing method (oven drying) was carried out using cassava sliced cubes or peeled cassava.
Indeed, the traditional Nigeria techniques of cassava flour production was studied with a view of achieving same product mechanically. Result of this studies show that the processing time can be much reduced if mechanized.
The effects of variations in the processing parameters on the productions were discussed. It was also observed that the percentage of moisture was highest in the sun drying at 18% followed by oven drying at 9%, this was due to the fact that the higher the moisture content, the longer the drying time. Also, while the optimum drying temperature varied for sun drying but it was 800c for oven drying process used respectively.
Based on the work, the colour of sun dried sample was brighter compared with mechanized sample. It is therefore recommended that for good production of cassava flour with good flour mixture, appearance and taste, the flour should be enriched with protein and vitamin additive to increase the nutritional values, thus improving the health of millions of Nigerians whose consumption of cassava flour are high in the areas of bread baking.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE ii
APPROVAL PAGE iii
LETTER TRANSMITTAL iv
- INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Aims and objective of the research work 2
- SCOPE OF PROJECT 2
1.3 LIMITATION 3
1.4 LITERATURE AND METHOD OF
- Traditional method of cassava flour production 3
- Modern method of cassava flour production 4
- Oven drying method 4
- Uses of cassava flour 5
- Large scale purpose 5
- Small scale purpose 5
- Characterization of the flour products. 6
2.0 LITERATURE SURVEY/REVIEW 7
- Cassava 7
- Characteristics of cassava 7
- Cassava growing 8
- Culture 9
- Importance of cassava 10
- Utilization and production statistics 14
- Reasons for drying in cassava flour 16
- Classification of dryers 17
- Batch drying 18
2.9.1 Continuous drying 18
- MATERIALS AND EXPONENTIAL
- Material / equipment used 34
- Experimental procedures 35
- Sun drying and oven drying method 35
- Analytical procedure 36
- Flow chart for sun drying method 37
- Flow chart for oven drying method 39
- Cyomide content determination 40
- Moisture content determination 41
- Determination of ash content 43
- Protein content determination 43
- Results 45
- Results for oven drying at optimum temp. 48
- Result / data analysis
- Calculation for % moisture content (oven drying)
- DISCUSSION (SUN DRYING) 56
- Establishing of optimum drying temperature 56
5.0 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
- Drying rate curve at optimum temp 800c (oven drying)
APPENDIX ii Moisture content determination
APPENDIX iii Drying rate curve (sun drying)
APPENDIX IV Determination of moisture content in sun drying
- Cassava flour is the finer fraction obtained from a whole series of processing operations such as drying operation, milling operation, (sieving) operation.
The purest flour selected from the purest flour stream, released in the mill is often called patent flour, it ha slow mineral )or ash) content and is remarkably free from traces of impurities.
Cassava flour are of various types, namely, bread making flour, biscuit four, self raising flour.
Drying operation which is usually the final stage in most chemical manufacturing processes. It largely involves simultaneous heat and mass transfer, fluid flow, material handling. The significance of drying operations in chemical allied industries cannot be over-emphasized. Some of these include: to increase the shelf life of the material, to lesson the transport cost, space and weight requirement for easy packaging etc.
1.1 AIMS AMD OBJECTIVES OF THE RESEARCH WORK
Since traditional Nigerian techniques of cassava flour production have been studied with a view to mechanizing the processes. The results of the this research work show that the processing, time can be much reduced if mechanized. Their various findings also show that drying is an essential and crucial procedure in the cassava flour processing. The effect variation is processing parameters on the production shall be discussed in datail.
1.2 SCOPE OF TE PROJECT
Although cassava flour ca be produced using drying equipment and using sun drying but the difference will be in the colour, taste and texture and of course nutritionally one is heavier than the other upon consumption. Invariably, in order to achieve the laid down standards/ objectives, an insight is generally needed to the whole project work.
At the end of this project, we will show the significance of the cassava flour production using drying equipment, advantage of mechanized production as well as recommendation for its improvement.
Cassava flour production involves series of processes which includes the following processes: feelings, washing, size reduction, drying, milling, slaving and packaging
1.4 LITERATURE ON METHOD OF PRODUCTION
Basically, cassava flour production method is classified under the ld method / traditional processing method and the modern processing method.
1.5 TRADITIONAL METHOD OF CASSAVA FLOUR PRODUCTION UNDER SUN DRYING METHOD.
This method specifically made use of natural sunlight as the drying medium, here, the peeled washed cassava cubes or sliced tubers is put into perforated plastic ware.
The tubers is then dried by placing it outside for the sun to dry it up and the moisture content is checked for every showers depending on the intensity of the sunray until it stabilized.
Upon obtaining a bone dry level, we dry milled it into fine powder and it was later sieved using the multi sieve to obtain uniform size gardings and to remove any form of impurities. At this level, an instant cassava flour had been produced.
1.6 MODERN METHOD OF CASSAVA FLOUR PRODUCTION
The modern method of cassava flour production are thus: Oven Drying Method and Rotary Drying Method.
1.7 OVEN DRYING METHOD
This method employed the use of oven drying equipment (from food science & Technology department). In this case, oven drying is similar to sun drying but the difference here was that the oven dryer was employed to do the drying process.
Here, the sliced cassava tuber were placed in the oven at various temperature to check the optimum temperature which was obtained at 800c and moisture content was checked for every 10 minutes till it stabilized. And after 200 minutes (about 3hrs, 30mins), a bone dried cassava is obtained. All other processes of obtaining cassava flour is carried out here as done in the case of sun drying method.
1.8 USES OF CASSAVA FLOUR
The flour obtained from cassava is characterised into two broad scale depending on how they are put in usage namely: on large scale use and (2) on Small scale usage.
1.9 LARGE SCALE OR COMMERCIAL PURPOSE
- Cassava flour are used in pharmaceutical; industries.
- Cassava flour are used in food processing industries for bread making, biscuit making etc.
- Cassava flour is used as self raising flour
1.9.1 ON SMALL SCALE PRODUCTION
- Cassava flour are used in the production of locally made or process stable food common in the southern region called AMALA
- Used in the production of locally made cake
1.9.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF THE FLOUR PRODUCTS
The flour product can be grouped into the following depending on the purpose in which the flour is to put into use.
BREAD MAKING PRODUCTS:
They are flour products used in bread making, eaten in Nigeria, will from a dough capable of satisfactory, leaving action.
For making of biscuits (cooking in Nigeria) a weak flour is required that makes a dough having more extensibility but less spring than that of a bread dough. Many have been reduced to a soft fine powder.
SELF RAISING FLOUR PRODUCT
This is used for puddings cakes and pastry. The raising agents that produced the carbon dioxide gas required for distension are an alkaline body, bicarbonate of soder and an acid body generally acid calcium phosphate (A.C.P)
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