Page Length: 55

Size: 256 KB

Format: PDF & Word






Paint is a term used to describe a number of substances that consists of a pigment suspended or paste vehicle such as oil or water. However paint is often referred to as any material that may be applied as a continuous layer to a surface. It is commonly used to protect, colour, or provide texture to objects. With a brush or roller or spray gum, paint is applied in a thin coat to various surfaces such as wood, metals or stone. (

Paint has been recognized to provide aesthetic and protective requirements. Although its primary purpose is to protect the surface to which it is applied, it is also a form of decoration.

The components of paints are pigments, vehicles (solvents), extenders, binders and additives. However not all paints contain all the components e.g. gloss paint do not contain extenders which are organic coarse particle materials. The pigment gives the paint its colour, solvents makes it easier to apply, resins helps it to dry and additives adds to everything from fillers to antifungicidal agents. Hundreds of different pigments both natural and synthetic exist. The basic white pigment is titanium-di-oxide , selected for its excellent concealing properties and black pigment is commonly made from carbon black. Other pigments used to make paints includes iron oxide and caldium sulfide for red, metallic salts for yellow and oranges and iron blue and chrome yellow for blue and green.

Solvents are various low viscous volatile liquid. They include petroleum, mineral spirits and aromatic solvents such as benzol, alcohols, esters, ketones and acetones. The natural resins commonly used are linseed coconut and soybean oil, while alkyd, acrylics, epoxies and polyurethane number among the most synthetic resins. Additives serve many purposes. Some like calcium carbonate and aluminum silicate are simply fillers that give the paint body and substance without changing its properties. Other additives produce certain desired characteristics in paint such as the thixotropic  agents that gives paints its smooth texture, driers anti-settling agents, anti-skinning agents, defoamers, and a host of others that enables paint to cover well and last long.

Volatile organic carbons are (VOCs) are usually produced as a by-product during the production of paint when conventional chemicals are used. Inhaling these chemicals may pose serious health problems to both producers and users. Hence, serious care should be taken to avoid health hazards poised on both producers and consumers at the point of application.

Paint is generally custom made to fit the needs of industrial customers. For example, one might be especially interested in a fast- drying paint, while another might desire a paint that provides good coverage over a long life time. Paint intended for the customer can be custom made. Paint manufacturers provide such a wide range of colours that it is impossible to keep large quantities of each on hand. To meet a request for different colours of paint e.g. aquamarine, canary yellow or maroon, the manufacturer will select a base that is appropriate for the deepness of the colour required ( lighter paints bases will have high amount of titanium-di-oxide, the white pigment while darker tones will have less.). then according to pre determined formula, the manufacturer can introduce various pigments from calibrated cylinders to obtain proper colour.

We have different variant or varieties of paints. Some of them are as follows.

  1. Primer: is a preparatory coating put on materials before applying the paint itself. The primed surface ensures better adhesion of the paint, thereby increasing the durability of the paint and providing improved protection for the painted surface.
  2. Emulsion paint: Are water based paints in which the paint materials are dispersed in a liquid that consists mainly of water.
  3. Flat finish: these are paints that are generally used on ceilings or walls that are in a bad shape. The finish is used for hiding imperfections in walls and it is economical in effectively covering relatively great areas.
  4. Egg shell finish: It has some sheen supposedly like that of an egg shell. The finish provides great washability.
  5. Vanish: They are paints without pigments. They provide protective coating without changing the colour of the surface.(

Other variants includes glaze, pearl (satin), wood stain, semi gloss. Etc


The problem statements of this research work are as follows

  1. Due to government policy on ban of imported goods there is need to use locally made material in the production of goods and services.
  2. The cost of importing paint pigments are becoming expensive due to increase in dollar, thereby increasing the cost of paint production.
  3. Beside cost, there is a need to research and observe the usefulness of locally sourced materials in paint production



The aim of the research work is to produce emulsion paint using dyed cassava starch as pigment.


The objectives of this research work are as follows

  1. To carry out quality control measures on the paint produced.
  2. To reduce production cost/seek for alternative method of production.
  3. To compare the quality of the paint made with dyed cassava starch pigment to those made with normal conventional chemical pigment.


The scope of this project research work is organized to cover all vital aspects of emulsion paint formulation and production using dyed cassava starch as raw  material as a replacement for the conventional chemical pigment used in emulsion paint production. However, emphasis will be laid on the systematic procedure for processing the local pigment used.


Considering the high cost of importing or buying pigment from the paint market thereby making the paint more costly in the market thereby causing economic constraint and untold hardship to consumers, there are need to look at our local materials and know if we can get some of these raw materials needed for the production of these paints, materials like cassava starch. Thereby reducing the cost of production. It can also be a source of income to our local cassava farmers. It can also be introduced in our higher institutions as a form of entrepreneurship course so as to allow student choose paint manufacturing as an occupation after school. This work promotes the utilization of local content.



DISCLAIMER: All project works, files and documents posted on this website, are the property/copyright of their respective owners. They are for research reference/guidance purposes only and some of the works may be crowd-sourced. Please don’t submit someone’s work as your own to avoid plagiarism and its consequences. Use it as a reference/citation/guidance purpose only and not copy the work word for word (verbatim). The paper should be used as a guide or framework for your own paper. The contents of this paper should be able to help you in generating new ideas and thoughts for your own study. is a repository of research works where works are uploaded for research guidance. Our aim of providing this work is to help you eradicate the stress of going from one school library to another in search of research materials. This is a legal service because all tertiary institutions permit their students to read previous works, projects, books, articles, journals or papers while developing their own works. This is where the need for literature review comes in. “What a good artist understands is that nothing comes from nowhere. The paid subscription on is a means by which the website is maintained to support Open Education. If you see your work posted here by any means, and you want it to be removed/credited, please contact us with the web address link to the work. We will reply to and honour every request. Please notice it may take up to 24 – 48 hours to process your request.

WeCreativez WhatsApp Support
Administrator (Online)
Hello and welcome. I am online and ready to help you via WhatsApp chat. Let me know if you need my assistance.