A project was carried out to produce high quality liquid air refreshner for domestic uses. The project was carried out using the following apparatus. Beakers (250ML), one conical flask, hydrometer, thermometer, two – 5ml of measuring cylinders, one reactor (plastic reactor), stirrer, weighing balance.
The chemicals used in the production of liquid air refreshner are: Amyl alcohol, ethanol, acetone, benzyl acetate, vitus vinyera (grape root extract), citranol (lemon grass extract), sodium benzoate, sodium lauryl sulphate, naphthalene, phenol and water as solvent.
Different sequence of addition of the chemicals was investigated and two correct sequence development. They are: Filtrate + Amyl Alcohol + Benzyl acetate + Acetone + Water + Sodium Benzoate + SLS + Naphthalene + Phenol.
Filtrate + Amyl alcohol + Water + Sodium Benzoate + Benzyl acetate + Phenol + Acetone + SLS + Naphthalene.
The effectiveness of the liquid air refreshner were tested using micro-organisms. From the result obtained, formation B gave phenol coefficient of 7.86 which was slightly above the standard phenol coefficient of odour control which is 7.74. Formulation A gave exactly 7.14 as the phenol coefficient which conforms with the standard phenol coefficient of odour control material costing as well as economics costing was equally carried out.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Title Page ii
Letter of Transmittal iii
Approval Page v
Table of Content x
- Introduction 1
- Motivation 4
- Objectives Of The Project 5
- Concept Of Odour 6
- Electronic Nose 7
- Benefits Of Electronic Nose 9
2.0 Literature Review 10
- How Deodorants Work 11
- Compounds Used As Deodorants 13
- Factors Affecting The Activity Of
Liquid Deodorant 14
- Characteristics Of Any Air Freshner 15
- Anti-Microbial Agents And Preservative 16
- Common Anti-Microbial Agent And Their Uses. 19
- The Causes Of Odours 20
- Principles Guiding The Common And Affective Odour Control Methods 22
2.7.1 Odour Control Methods. 22
- Odour Measurement And Evaluation 23
- Odorous Substance (Osono Genes)
- Classification Of Liquid Air Freshener 26
- Perfume As A Spray Type Liquid Air Freshener 28
- Some Materials Used In Odour
Control Formulation 30
- Test For Standard 37
- Experimental Procedure 49
- Raw Material Used 49
- Equipment And General Process Description 49
- Equipment Used 50
- Environmental Conditions 50
- Preparation Of The Filtrate 50
- General Process Description 51
- Costing 53
- Results 57
- Evaluation\Test Of Odour Control
- Discussion 59
- Conclusion 64
5.1 Recommendation 66
- HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
In the wake of early arts of advent of civilization efforts were made to prevent putrefaction and decaying of consumable food products. Many people suffer from all sorts of diseases as a result of air pollution and un-kept environment.
The use of disinfectants and air fresheners (deodorant) proceeded the scientific understanding of their action and seems to have arisen from the observation that certain substances stopped the putrefaction of meat or rotting of wood and even control of pollution.
The term deodorant (Air freshener) was first used by Pringle in 1950 to describe substance that prevent awful smell or odour from the environment. The idea was eventually applied to the treatment of odours from a piggery arenas. However, it was not until the nineteenth century that “Air freshener” came into general use.
The corner-stone of modern air fresheners was land by the end of the last century. By then the growing coal-tar industry was already producing phenol, phenolsulphonate, pyrethrin, cresol, creosote fractions and it was found that efficient deodorant could be made by using the ethyl or isopropyl alcohol.
In 1903, a third type of deodorant made its appearance, a coloured oil fluid (light blue) deodorant made by moral which was an emulsions of high aromatic chemicals. The fluid contained about 30 – 40% of phenols. A part from their much higher germicidal coefficients they were miscible in sea or very hard water without breakdown or loss in germicidal efficiency for this reason, they were largely indented for by the ‘Royal Navy’ in preference to other deodorizers.
In the pursuit of these deodorant that perfume emerge; which tends to pave way for liquid air fresheners.
Only occasionally has a new original odour been developed, such as old spice, which immediately won spontaneous and favourable response from consumers. Not many persons realize how complex the creation of an acceptable fragrance has become; it requires professionals knowledge, skill and experience, coupled with specialization in synthetic chemistry technical problems followed by consumer panel testing.
Air re-freshener takes times to act. The inherent rates of action of deodorants vary enormously; some powerful chemicals are effective in few seconds but must powerful chemicals requires minutes, hours and even days. A higher temperature, a higher concentration of air re-freshener and a smaller number of organism to be killed decreases the time required.
Some air re-fresheners are more active in acid, others in alkaline environment. All air re-fresheners are to some extent neutralized by organic matter. The power of penetration is important in enabling an air freshener reach organism protected by organic matter, and odour etc.
It has been said by the Head of States and even passed into law, that importation of foreign goods must be stop. And that Nigerians as a whole should embark on made in Nigeria goods. The need arises for its production from locally raw material in order to reduce cost of buying from abroad and subsequently importation into the country.
This project is designed towards providing alternative sources of raw materials for production of liquid deodorants. This will in very production of liquid deodorants. This will in very large measure and in minimizing, if not stopping entirely, the present syndrome which does not only constitute a severe drain on our economy but has also turn our country into a fertile dumping ground for both low quality and out dated liquid deodorant and it will also create job opportunities for the producers in the country.
This work is aimed at developing an economical and indigenous way of producing liquid deodorant using locally raw materials in the best interest of small-scale industries thereby conserving their foreign exchange earnings.
But in Nigeria, over ninety percent of the liquid deodorant in use are imported either as finished or semi-finished product. Even the very little produced locally are still based on synthetic raw materials, which are also imported. This is rather unfortunate considering that numerous natural sources locally available form which the basic raw materials for the production of liquid deodorant can be obtained.
In cognizance of these facts, it becomes necessary and indeed of paramount importance that alternative sources of raw material be sought.
Even if the raw materials become locally available in commercial quantities and at reasonable cost, and with other to achieve a certain richness and natural character in liquid deodorants.
Although study processing of materials and reconstructing them by synthesis, the moment is far when gravity, solubility, refractive index, optical rotation, acid value, extra-value and among others knowledge of these physical characteristics helps in the designing of the quality of the eventual product obtained.
Finally an attempts is made at formulating specific brands of liquid deodorants from different oils using standard procedures.
1.3 CONCEPT OF ODOUR
Odours whether emanating from a sweet-smelling gardenia or a rank sweat sock are volatile chemicals that can kill olfactory neukons. Odour can induce bad mood, interfere with falling asleep, disturb sleep induce headche, nausea, fit of coughing, interfere with reading and thinking, interfere with recreation, induce vomiting, and interfere with bad breathing.
We smell by a chemical and physiological process. The keys to this process have only recently been discovered. Smells are carried on objectives, air and water. We smell by certain molecules dissolving onto hair-like cilia receptors that extend down from the olfactory bulb of the brain and into the nasal cavity.
The nose can distinguish more than 10,000 different odours in nature with only about 1000 different odour nerve receptors available in the nose for that purpose.
We detect odours by using at least a thousand different special genes that are active exclusively in the cells of our odour nerve receptors. These special genes help our odour nerve receptors paint a picture for each colour. Any slight change in the molecular “picture” can charge a sweet smell into a foul one and vice versa.
1.4 ELECTRONIC NOSE
Scientists have endowed computers with eyes to see (digital cameras) ad ears to hear (via microphones and sophisticated recognition software). Now they are taking computes further into the realm of the senses with the development of an “Artificial Nose”.
An electronic nose must be “trained” to recognize an odour abnormality. Electronic noses combined with artificial neural (ANN) technology allow these instruments to be trained. ANNS are artificial intelligence Networks which, like humans, can “Learn” through exposure to stimuli.
1.5 Benefits of electronic noses
The benefits of electronic noses include compactness, portability, real-time analysis, and automation. In some instances, electronic noses can be used to argument or replace panels of human experts. In other cases, electronic noses can be used to reduce the amount of analytical chemistry that is performed in food production especially when qualitative results will do.
An electronic nose has applicability as a diagnostic tool. An electronic nose can examine odours from the body (eg breath, wounds, body fluid etc) and identity possible problems.
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