TABLE OF CONTENT
Title Page – – – – – – – – – – i
Approval page – – – – – – – – – ii
Dedication – – – – – – – – – – iii
Acknowledgement – – – – – – – – – iv
Table of Content — – – – – – – – – v
Abstract – – – – – – – – – – – viii
1.0 Introduction – – – – – – – – – 1
1.1 Background of the study – – – – – – – 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem – – – – – – – 4
1.3 Objectives of the Study – – – – – – – 6
1.4 Significance of the Study- – – – – – – 7
1.5 Research Question – – – – – – – – 8
1.6 Research Hypothesis- – – – – – – – 8
1.7 Scope and Limitation of Study – – – – – – 9
1.8 Definition of Key Terms – – – – – – – 10
2.0 Review of Related Literature – – – – – – 13
2.1 Nature of Local Government – – – – – – 17
2.2 Foundation of Nigerian Local Government
(Native Authority 1903-1950) – – – – – – – 21
2.3 The Collapse of the Native Authority System (1950-1966) – 24
2.4 Local Government Under Military Rule (1966-1976 – – 26
2.5 The 196 Local Government Reforms and After-Match
1976-1983- – – – – – – – – 27
2.6 Local Government Since 1999- – – – – – 29
2.7 Theoretical Framework- – – – – – – 30
3.0 Introduction – – – – – – – – – 37
3.1 Area of Study- – – – – – – – – 37
3.2 Sources of Data Collection- – – – – – – 38
3.3 Method of Data Distribution and Collection- – – 38
3.4 Sampling Techniques – – – – – – – 39
3.5 Sampling Population — – – – – – – 39
3.5.1 Population Sample Survey – – – – – – 40
3.6 Data Analysis and Procedure – – – – – – 44
4.0 Data Presentation and Analysis — – – – – 47
4.1 Response Ration – – – – – – – – 47
4.2 Demographic Characteristics of Respondents – – – 47
4.3 Responses of People on some of the Research
Question – – – – – – – – – 50
4.4 Test Hypothesis – – – – – – – – 53
4.5 Implications of Results and Findings — – – – 59
5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation- – – 62
5.1 Summary – – – – – – – – – – 62
5.2 Conclusion – – – – – – – – – 63
5.3 Recommendations – – – – – – – – 63
Bibliography — – – – – – – – – 66
Appendix – – – – – – – – – 69
This study focuses on projects administration in the Idemili
North and South Local Governments of Anambra State. The
problem that attracted this study is poor projects
administration/implementation in the two categories of Local
Government in Nigeria. Most urban local governments are over
crowded, dirty and noisy and the rural ones lack basic facilities.
These unwanted elements are not unconnected with the careless
way and manner projects are implemented in these local
bureaucracies. The survey research method was adopted in
eliciting information through questionnaire. The population of the
study comprised junior, senior and managerial staff of the Idemili
North and South Local Government Areas of Anambra State. The
multi-stage (2-stage) sampling technique was used in selecting
groups that fell into the sample. Three research questions and
three null hypothesis guided this study, and the statistical
instrument chi-square (X2) was used to analyze the data. The
findings showed that irregular and inadequate funding, political
interference and lack of extrinsic motivational factors are
seriously working against effective projects implementation in the
local governments. Sequel to these findings the researcher hereby
recommends that the well to do community people should be
sensitized to help in projects implementation of their area, zerobase budgeting system to be adopted to check abandonment of
projects, as well as adopting external projects implementation
1.1 Background of the Study
It is a truism that every organization has in its entirety a
combination of people, working together with a view to achieving
common organizational goals and objectives.
As a matter of fact, since people of various tribes and different
age brackets are involved, it becomes obviously clear that
administration of human and material resources must also be
Administration must exist in any organization set-up for a
defined purpose. According to Nwosu (1980.31), administration
generally takes place in the context of organization which means
in the context of a planned system of Cooperative effort in which
individuals have assigned functions. In other words, local
government administration is concerned with the management of
the affairs of her areas.
One of the major problems that confront urban areas is poor
execution of projects in their area, which essentially hinges on
how to deployed the available human and material resources to
meet the welfare needs of the local populace.
However, like in many other third-world countries, local
government administration has been described as inefficient and
incapable of accomplishing the goals and objectives of the
communities under their care.
The explanation for this are discerned from:
1. Weak financial base of the local government
2. Influence of politics
3. Lack of effective political leadership
4. Lack of Skilled Personnel
5. Lean motivational packages
6. Financial mismanagement
Orewa and Adewumi (1983:99-100) indicated that even in the
early 1950s, during the colonial era that Nigerian Local
Governments have been unable to efficiently and effectively
perform their statutory functions and this was attributed to lack
of financial resources and maladministration.
This situation eventually led to the take-over of some local
government functions by the Federal Government starting from
the period of the tier system of local government (1950).
This loss of functions which increased with the creation of states
in 1967, continued until the far reaching Local Government
Reforms of 1976.
As a matter of fact, in its bid to make for uniformity in both
structure and organization, the 1976 local government reforms in
Nigeria made no distinction between small and large local
government areas, and also between rural and urban local
It only noted differences in their sizes caused by population and
individual resources (human and material) and recognized the
possibility of dividing one local government unit into lower tiers
called Administrative and Development Areas, etc. But they
would not be accorded Federal Governments recognition or fiscal
allocation (Reform Guide lines 1976:5).
It is actually true that project administration which involves
planning and implementation is an after-math of the Pyramidal
tradition of bureaucratic organization, which failed to achieve
the set objectives at the end of the targeted period of time. So
project administration or management emerged as a “Panacea” to
the multifarious problems of the traditional bureaucratic
organizations. The American Heritage Dictionary defines a project
as an undertaking requiring concentrated effect. Harrison (1945)
on his own part defines a project as a non-routine, non-repetitive
undertaking normally with discrete time, financially and
technical performance goals.
From the foregoing, project administration or management must
be within both time and estimates, as well as standard
Project administration or project implementation strategies starts
with planning. But in most local governments in Nigeria
implementation precedes planning. This is an aberration with
failure as its resultant effects. It is these problems arising from
poor or non implementation of projects at the local government
level that this study is set to address.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
A number of reforms has been put in place in the local
government system in Nigeria. The most prominent of all of them
being the 1976 reforms.
The reason for the reforms, is that there is problem of nonperformance with respect to provision and general low standard
of living. The principal aim has been to give local governments
definite and precise functions and strategies of implementing the
projects which were designed to promote development at the
Most public organization have been unable to attain the
organizational objectives for which they were set up. Local
government structure is not an exception in this case.
Constitutionally, local governments are charged with the
responsibility of bringing governance closer to the rural dwellers.
This appears far from being attained due to frequent fraudulent
practices in the country. What is responsible for the
dysfunctional of this structure of governance? Is this shortcoming
traceable to the poor funding of the system?
However, inefficiency, low productivity and bureaucratic redtapism are common characteristics of public service especially
local governments. Since local governments are unable to satisfy
their statutory functions they are seen by many as conveyor belts
and draining pipes of government scare resources. They are busy
doing something but at the end achieving nothing. They have
large workforce and no records of application of extrinsic
motivational factors that would make them viable.
Despite the fact that the 1976 reform of the local government
system by the federal government was very clear on the statutory
functions that ought to be executed by the local governments, yet
the general public still continued to complain about the
unproductiveness of the local government due to various factors.
Management of most local governments in Anambra State, of
which Idemili North and South Local Governments are no
exceptions are finding it difficult to cater for the employees, pay
their salaries and promote them as and when due as is done in
other establishments of both Federal and State Governments.
As a result, there is a luke-worm attitude to duty, low morale,
lack of dedication and commitment, low productivity and other
negative work attitudes among the employees of the local
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The general objective of this study is on effective projects
administration in Idemili North and South Local Government.
The specific objectives are
a. To find out the factors that are impinging on effective
projects implementation in the two local government.
b. To examine the effect of political interference on the projects
and programmes of the local governments.
c. To find out factors (intrinsic or extrinsic) that impact on
workers performance on projects implementation in the two
1.4 Significance of the Study
This study has both empirical and theoretical significances and
they are as detailed below:
Empirically, the outcome of this research will be of great
importance to all the tiers of government in the Federal Republic
of Nigeria, and employers of labour both in the private and public
sector organization. If all things are equal then managers who
shall adopt the recommendations of the study shall go a long way
in checking threats to industrial peace and harmony. The study
will also reveal the various ways of enhancing morale, dedication
and sense of commitment in the local government system.
Theoretically, it will constitute a contribution in the field of public
administration. This would also serve as another source of
knowledge in the management of human and material resources
of various establishments and organizations.
Finally, the study would help the future researchers who would
like to do a research in issues pertaining to local governments in
1.5 Research Questions
These research questions guided the study.
a. What are the foundation and nature of local government in
b. What factors are impinging on effective project
implementation in Idemili North and South Local
c. Does political interference in the projects and programmes
of the local governments affect their productivity?
d. Which motivational factors (intrinsic or extrinsic) impact on
workers performance on projects implementation in the two
e. How far have the Local Government reforms helped
f. What relationship does the factor that led to the collapse of
National Assembly have with Nigerian Local Government?
1.6 Research Hypothesis
Based on the research questions, the following hypotheses guided
1. Ho:- Irregular or non availability of funds does not
affect project implementation in Idemili North and
South Local Governments
HI:- Irregular or non availability of funds affect project
implementation in Idemili North and South Local
2. Ho:- Political interference on the projects of the local
governments does not undermine the achievement of
the projects objectives.
Hi:- Political interference on the projects of the local
governments undermine the achievement of the
3. Ho:- Non-effective external supervision makes workers in
these local governments responsive to their duties in
Hi:- Non-effective external supervision does not make
workers in these local governments responsive to their
duties in projects implementation
1.7 Scope and Limitations of Study
This study is restricted to six communities in Idemili North and
South local governments out of the Seventeen Communities of
the Local Governments. A certain population of the workers in
both local governments were also considered. The communities
are Ogidi, Oraukwu, Nkpor, Ojoto, Alor and Oba.
As a result of lean finances of the researcher and unfavourable
terrain, it was not possible for consistent visitation of the
communities while the research lasts.
Due to the education background of rural dwellers, filling of the
questionnaire proved to be a major problem to the researcher.
Consequently, the sample size was slightly affected.
Questionnaires were administered to only people with some
measure of literacy and residing in the selected areas, so as to
achieve reasonable responsiveness. It was also discovered that
there was general unwillingness and apathy with which the
people of the area viewed at academic work of this nature. Some
people were hesitant to freely give out information for this type of
research. The above hindrances not withstanding the research
were carried out successfully.
1.8 Definition of Key Terms
Local Government Policy: This involves decision making
apparatus that is being used by Local Government in the
administration and implementation of its community
development projects or plans as appropriate.
Community Development: This is a form of development that is
restricted to a defined community /rural areas, planned and
executed separately or jointly between government officials and
the rural/community people. Community development is not very
different from other types of development, all of which aim at
bringing about an improved conditions and standards. It is
always advised that people of the area in which the project is
being executed should be involved in decision-making starting
from the beginning.
Local Government: This is the system of administration of
districts by selected representatives of the people who live there.
In Nigeria, this is the third tier of government with the ultimate
aim of enhancing the development of the rural communities.
Rural Areas: These are local government areas that are lacking
in many infrastructural amenities like electricity, pipe-borne
water, roads and telecommunications, health facilities,
educational structures etc.
Urban Areas: These are areas that have most of essential
infrastructural facilities like electricity industries, pipe-borne
water, good health services centers like well equipped hospitals
Rural- Urban Migration: There is a difference between rural and
urban areas in Nigeria, whereas, urban areas have essential
infrastructural facilities rural areas have little or non thus ths
drift from rural to urban areas and this christened Rural-urban
migration or drift.
Poor-Policy Making and Implementation: After enacting a
policy, it is incorporated in the financial plan to enable
implementation be carried out. However, as a result of omission
or commission but more of commission and perverted social
values and political over tune, policies are badly conceived and
Urban-Congestion: Congestion in Nigerian Urban Local
Governments, finds its explanation in the congestion of housing,
roads, road traffic and space and is directly related to over
population and land-use abuses.
Over-Population: This is one major human factor of urban
environmental problem in Nigeria. It is explained as the
unrestricted influx of people to the urban centers beyond the
capacity of urban municipal infrastructure to accommodate.
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