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Evaluation  is a prelude to strategic  action – strategies once identified must be evaluated to determine whether it is serving the purpose.

However, this topic is based on “The use of  public relations  as  a tool of eradication of cultism in Nigerian tertiary institutions with institute of Management & Technology Enugu as the case study. The main data gathering instrument were questionnaires questions. Frequency and percentage were utilized in analysis of data.

The major findings of the study were

  1. Cultism activities is spreading like  wild fire in all the institution in the country.
  2. Immediate implementation of strategies has to be put in place to control the spread.
  3. Government should assist school authorities in fighting the war.
  4. Identified cult members should be expelled from school  without concession.
  5. Cultism is a crime to man and God so, should be avoided .




HYPOTHESIS                                                                         I

HYPOTHESIS                                                                         II

HYPOTHESIS                                                                         III

HYPOTHESIS                                                                         IV















TITLE PAGE                                                                           II

APPROVAL PAGE                                                                           III

DEDICATION                                                                        IV

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT                                                                 V

ABSTRACT                                                                                     VII

LIST  OF TABLES                                                                            IX

TABLE  OF CONTENTS                                                                  X


INTRODUCTION                                                                  1

Background of the study                                                 1

Statement of  Research problem                                      14

Objective of Study                                                          16

Significance of Study                                                               17

Research Question                                                          18

Research Hypothesis                                                                19

Definition of Terms                                                                 20

Assumptions                                                                            23

Limitation of Study                                                                  24



Source of Literature review                                                      26

The Review                                                                              26

Summary  of literature review                                         40


RESEARCH  METHODOLOGY                                          43

Research Design                                                                      43

Sample and Sample procedure                                        44

Measuring Instrument                                                              44

Data  Collection                                                                       45

Method of Data  Analysis                                                         46

Results                                                                                    47




DATA  ANALYSIS  AND RESULTS                                    49

Cultism Strategies desired to be evaluated                       49

Effect  of cultism should  be given further  studies           50

Change in the operation of Cult  Activities                       51

Research are useful Instruments                                      52

Any Success being recorded in the strategies                   53

Evaluation of strategy has effect                                                54

Discussion                                                                               58


Summary  and Recommendations                                             61

Summary of Findings                                                               61

Recommendations.                                                                   62











The  study  is  on public relations as a veritable  tool for the  eradication of  cultism  in Nigerian higher Institute of learning  with Institute of Management  and Technology, IMT, Enugu as case study. To say how  public relations could achieve this fact, examining its history becomes inevitable. This  is justified  in George Stantayama’s quotation when he said “those who a cannot remember  the past are doomed to repeat it”. As long as the study focuses on public relations as a tool for the eradication  of secret  cult in IMT, it is then essential to examine  the history  of secret  cult, their mode of operation, their aims and objectives, their method of recruitment and their names and  Headquarters in  Nigeria. It is  when all these facts about secret cult and public relations  are known that lasting solution to it could be recommended in  IMT using public  relations as its  Chief tool.

Public relations is as old as mankind. Public relations affects almost  everyone who has a contact with other  human beings. All of us,  in one way or the other, practices  or, at  least, experience public relations  daily. In the  ancient times,  priests  served as public relations  advisers to their kings. They were experts in public opinions  and persuasions. The kings consulted  them before  any major decision or important  ceremonial  events were undertaken. Also the priests conducted literature, poems  of praises and lamentations  and edicts to govern the people.

Julius Caesar was a master of persuasive techniques, faced with an imminent  battle, caser would rally public support through assorted publications and staged event. There were also the establishment  daily newspaper called the “ACTA DIURINA” or daily record containing government  decrees   and other information.

The public relations in Nigeria has come a long way, its  beginning  has been linked with the second world war. As  presented  by Nigerian  Institute of public Relations  (NIPR) 1988  anniversary publication “25 years of public relations in Nigeria”. The colonial government  before  world war II was concerned with  collection of taxes and the running of a police force to maintain law and   order in three protectorates  amalgamated into Nigeria in 1914.  If there was  any public  relations practices  before the world war II, it was merely a maintenance  of relationship with the traditional rulers to get in touch with the people. During  the second world war however, the  need arose for the  colonial government  to set up an information   officer which was later known as the public relations officer of the government. According   to  Adebola (1992) “the  public  relations office was primarily set up to publicize the colonial war and  to encourage the youth to join the war.

In  the post independence  era however, there was significant development in government public relations activities. The NIPR (1988) anniversary  publication  reveals that government  took the advantage of the information ministry and utilized effectively the machinery at the federal level to build its image. Since political  culture allowed autonomous control of information channel at the state level, the party in power effectively utilized the machinery to promote its images.

There were Liaison  officers in each state  and during the shagari administration, (1979-83) the ministry of ministry of information became  a part  of the office if the president.  Even  with the  advent of the  military in 1983 the Federal government believed in the power of public relations in the act  of governance .

In the private sector  many  Organizations have  contributed to the  growth of modern public relations practice in Nigerian. For instance, in 1949 the United African Company,    UAC, established its public  relations department and thus  became the pioneer pf  public   relations practice in the private sector in Nigeria. Its basic objectives were  to inform business and commerce about business activities  as well as to project UAC as a major Nigerian Industrial, technical and commercial company involved in the stability of the economic life  and progress of  Nigeria.

People associated with large Organization often are  unaware of what is  happening  with the institution that affect their  interest and as a  result, serious misunderstanding occur between management and its  publics and thus, goodwill is scarified. To   explain corporate policies, actions  and bring about  better understanding with workers, students, management require public relations technique.

Public  relations  has grown as important  as institutions recognized that they  have social responsibility to serve the public. In the  past corporations existed solely to make money for their owners but today, corporations functions as a creator of employment, social  institutions and  benefactor  of education, patrons of arts and advocate  of good government.

Modern  public  relations involves research, communication, complex  activities  and  evolution. It  involves  doing right and talking  about it, all  in a planned  and systematic manner. It is not  lobbying, talking  about ourselves all the  time without  backing our talks with concrete  actions.  Public relations is not window dressing, vicious propaganda or lies, unnecessary details and shallow gimmicks, it does  not mean putting beautiful women  in the  front office, expecting them to perform public relations wonders with their smiles and charms.

Planned PR  is more effective than fire alarm  PR because, PR even plain a head for future crisis  of the unexpected  events. Before  we can say what public relations is, let us first  understand what  PR is not, it is  not the HOD, mass  common in  his chauffeneur  -driven TOYOTA  camry, it  is not  the smooth-talking  ladies in IMT offices  convincing a group  of interested  students  to pay their  development   fees,  and it is not  the  mini stir students  flaunting  her near- nakedness  at bulging  eye admirers   etc.

Therefore, what  is public relations ? According to British   Institute of public  Relations (1945) “public  relations  is deliberate, planed  and sustained effort to establish and maintain mutual understating  between an organization and its publics”

The tools of this public relations are publicity, press agenting, promotion, propaganda, exhibition, Luncheon, public   opinion, media relations, calendar, personal  communication, seminars, visits    to opinion leaders, notice boards, students  handbooks, radio, TV and public speaking etc.

It is clear  to everybody’s understanding the meaning of “secret” as clandestine but when it is placed  before another word “cult” there is  a breach of though before its meaning can be  correctly    interpreted. Cult  is system  of  worship.

Undoubtedly, IMT Enugu   is one of the tertiary institutions in Nigeria but in a doldrums  today because of cult activities  in the school. The school authority had confirmed that cultism  has now gone out  of control and the  cultism  are carrying out all sorts of  atrocities  with in purity all over the  institutions. The basic  conditions for sustained academic culture are no disrepute. In place of academic rigour and search for truth, strange, anti- social  cult and inglorious  fratermty have taken over IMT. Examination  malpractices, banditry and Sundry vices now stock IMT.

Some of the bogging questions are :-

  1. Why cultism in IMT
  2. What can be done to curb it.

Before attempting to  answer there  questions, it  is pertinent to sketch a historical  background on how cult was initiated in Nigerian  high  institutions.

The  idea of  campus confraternity  began  in 1953 when Prof. Wole Soyinka established   and registered the pyrite confraternity. The  idea started  with the formation  of the eagles. A campus magazine devoted to fighting   colonial  regression as  represented  by the Buy,  a  Journal  committed to  promoting ideals of white supremacy, a the dame time reducing the  grandeur of Africanism.

Thus souinka, Pius Olegbe, Raph Opara, Aiginnokhuede, Ofoghale Armata Oyelola and two others  came together with the establishment of pyrate confraternity which was registered at the university of Ibadan. The noble laureate wrote in a small threatise on the formation of pyrates and  said “one thing we agreed was that  there would not be  any room for colonial would not be any room for colonial mentality I the club. Thus, the  pyrate confraternity was born. We were going to  be  a sort of counter revolution against colonialism”.

The fist initiation took place behind Tedder Hall in 1953 at university of Ibadan, where soyinka  was chosen was  the captain. The  group had a symbol of mystery which was krola, a kind  of soft drink at the times mixed with beer.

The group was not really a secret cult. Soyinka further noted “most of the rites, ceremonies  and mysteries  surrounding the club  activities  were later-day innovation of future generation who identified with the ideals of the club at the time.”

In 1942 however, there were  minor skirmishes  with in the pyrates fold for ideological difference. The fight was between those who  embarked radical politics and others  who had ice-cream consciousness and also those who betrayed the ideology of the pyrates founding fathers, which they claimed should be substituted  with indent conduct   and abuse of the pyrates status on the campus.

Confrontation ensued, many pyrates were suspended . they formed the Buccaneer with the  sole aim of destroying pyrates legacy. Despite the skirmishes, the two groups maintained  a relatively peaceful co-existence and even carried out humanitarian  gestures. But, events  took a new shape around 1987 when pyrates pulled out of University campuses after a grandiose midnight  meeting at Nsukka, Enugu State.

Since then cultism in Nigerian tertiary institutions have changed to terrorism, many devilish  things has happened. Recently, some students of IMT were murdered in cold blood while other were killed   by rival cult members at their residence. Similar incidents like this had happened in other Nigerian tertiary institutions all over the country.

Worst still, female secret cults like Black Brassierre, Amazon and Daughters of Jezebel have emerged like a rash. The  female secret cult are as violent as their male counterparts.

Some of the names and headquarters of these secret cults are: the black bee and black cat at UNN, the buccaneers  at ESUT, the  sea dogs at UNEC, the Ogboni confraternity with headquarters at ESUT, the Ondo State University; the Red Dogs, the Mafia group with headquarters at UNIPORT, the Eckanka, the Mgba-mgba Brothers with headquarters  at UNIZIK,  the  Black Beret; the free Masory  Fraternity with headquarters  at UNICAL ;the Vikings  with  Headquarters  at UNIPORT; the  Amazon, the Daughters of  Jezebel  with headquarters at Edo State; Black Brassiere, Temple of Elders, Burkina Faso revolution, Trojan Horse, Beo- Black movement etc.

This  packaged programme will be communicated to the  people  of the IMT community whom the project is meant  for. Finally, evolution of the programme will be undertaken to know the success or otherwise of the programme and also to know if an alternative solution would be sort.

Some identifiable  causes of this cultism  in IMT are :-

  1. Adolescent delinquency, in those days you had more matured students  who even  have  families   back home  but these days the reverse is the case.
  2. The triple effect of cultism on the lagers society. Some of the parents, even lecturers of these students are themselves secret cult members, so their themselves secret cult members, so their children or students copied from them.

iii.        Also the  free time available   to these students of IMT  occasioned by the  inadequacies  in facilities  and equipment are equally responsible.

  1. Other reasons why some of IMT students  may join secret cults are  for reasons of self protection and security. Some are even lured by friends  to join and some are forced into cults.

Finally, the management will be informed and encouraged  to establish  a functional library for gainful engagement of the  students in full-scale academic work hence no time for cult activates.


The  basic condition for sustained  academic culture has been eroded in IMT. The  institution had fallen into disrepute and the   product of  the institution are no more  what  they used to be. Cult activates are seriously affecting all academic  activities. Sometimes , students are attacked  in hostiles, classrooms, bus stops  etc. day- light and gang raping becomes the order of the day ; killing of students by members of cult is no longer  news, therefore the need to eradicate this problem in IMT through public relations communication becomes imperative.

Public  relations  as problems solving  communication  is expected  to create the necessary enlightenment  of the students  of  IMT and awaken them to  what  is needed of them in an academic community like IMT, especially  now that various levels of government and the general overhaul  of all Nigerian tertiary  institutions.  During  the  ministerial  nominee on June 2003, in the senate floar,  some of  the screening questions  bordered on the  economy, education, general  decay in the educational system and cultism.

In order  to  tackle this problem successfully, both the  students  and the general public of IMT and event the government  should take the challenge upon themselves  and give  the  IMT management an unalloyed  support for  the cutraliscation of the laudable  programme. No doubt  if this programme is well packaged and implemented the problem of cultism in IMT will come to pass.



Problem of this study include the following :-

  1. None information of the IMT publics about the  problems and dangers posed by cultism  in IMT.
  2. Inadequate mobilization and encouragement of the students to support the crusade against  secret cults.

iii       Inadequate  policies  and programmes  of IMT management to the students against cultism  in IMT, Enugu.

  1. No programmes that will help students to resist  any persuasion from friends  to join secret cults.



The  Objectives of this study include the following:-

  1. To find out the extent of  non-information on cultism and its dangers to IMT students .
  2. To ascertain the extent of adequacy of   mobilization and encouragement of the student to support the crusade against cultism.
  3. To examine the adequacy of policies and programme of IMT management on cultism to the students.
  4. To find out if there were laws that will help students resist joining secret cults.


The relevance of this study cannot be over-emphasized in that, the research  will help to excavate the evolution and the remote causes of this problem and proffer an enduring solutions to it in IMT in particular  and the whole nation at large.

This study is equally significant  because it will awaken the IMT management and other  educational institutions of the importance of public relations  as an effective and  wonderful tool for solving any institutional  problems of whatever ramifications.

The study is equally significant  because it will make one know the  modus  operandi of these secret cults nationwide. Also  their names and headquarters are equally covered  by this study.

The study is significant  because it will show when public and private Organizations acknowledge  the importance of PR in business.  And finally, it will clear areas people do have misconception about public relations and also touch and highlight  what public relations  is not.


To guide thus study, the following research questions were formulated.

  1. To what extent is  cultism detrimental  to humanity ?
  2. What efforts are the Nigerian Government making towards eradication of cultism ?
  3. What rules and regulations of the country prohibits  secret cults?
  4. Where and who initiated cultism, or in other words from where does cultism originated from?



H1     Public relations  is the basic tool for eradication of cultism in Nigeria.

H0     Public relations is not the basic tool for  eradication  of cultism  in Nigeria.

H2     Cultists  mode of operations need to be evaluated.

H0     Cultists mode of operations  need not  to be evaluated.

H3     Adequate researchers are the most essential instrument for  serious investigation.

H0     Adequate researches  are not the most essential instrument for serious investigation.

H4     Eradication  of cultism  favours schools

H0     Eradication  of cultism do not favour schools.




CONCEPUTAL :- Every member of the society, state and event the country that the  institution is  situated in.

OPERATIONAL :- The internal and external  publics of IMT internal publics  are  students, staff  and employers while the external publics are the community neighbours, government, groups or agencies other people the institution’s  activities affect their institutions.


Conceptual :- Public  conduct  of the  affairs of an establishment  a it  partials to the organizations  image towards  public opinion or views.

Operational :-The activities  or operations of IMT geared towards  resolving  issues and maintaining   cordial  relationship with the publics.


Conceptual:- Mental  instrument   held in the hand and used for making or  repairing something it is equally means anything that  helps one to do one’s job research tool like questionnaires.

Operational :-Strategies, avenues, techniques  employed or adopted by schools and government to eliminate the activities of the cultists in higher schools with particular reference to IMT, Enugu.


CONCEPTUAL :-To destroy something completely to put  an end to something .

Operational :-The fight, struggle   to  eliminate secret cults  from higher institutions  with reference to IMT, Enugu. It is equally a crusade or campaign against cultism


CONCEPTUAL:- Means  or system of religious  worship, especially one that is expressed in rituals, the mysterious  cults of these ancient people.

OPERATIONAL : it is  a negative, unprogressive unfriendly, in human and barbaric  way  of life that are motivated by bad peer  groups  and timely youthful exuberance existing on our higher institutions with  a particular  reference to IMT, Enugu. It is  campus confraternity  which has nowadays become so common and equally terrorism in our higher institutions .


Conceptual : An educational college set up for the  promotion  of academic research and dissemination of advanced learning the award and  conferment of degrees.

Operational :- Educational set up such as institute  of Management   and Technology, Enugu.


  1. It is assumed that public relations is the only effective tool for eradication of  cultism in  Nigerian tertiary institutions.
  2. It is also assumed  that  public  relations  practitioners have  enormous  role to play towards eradication of cultism.
  3. That the public relations programmes of the institution  would convey at any point  in time the stand of the institution  on any controversial  issue or matter as long as the system of planning and implementation is in conformity with the established  procedure for future  programmes . Goals of  the institute.


Although this study has accomplished  the purpose which  it  set out to achieve  one of the very limitation is that  the validity of the results or findings is depended on the honesty of the respondents  in providing  the needed information.

One of the major problems was that of lack  of time to carry out the  research extensively. Another one, as you expect, is finance, this led to the limiting  of the scope.

Cognizance  was also taken to the fact that  the academic calendar was o short and my academic work load was enormous. All these  reasons and  the  ones which I did not mention contributed to the  limitation of this study.



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