Evaluation is a prelude to strategic action – strategies once identified must be evaluated to determine whether it is serving the purpose.
However, this topic is based on “The use of public relations as a tool of eradication of cultism in Nigerian tertiary institutions with institute of Management & Technology Enugu as the case study. The main data gathering instrument were questionnaires questions. Frequency and percentage were utilized in analysis of data.
The major findings of the study were
- Cultism activities is spreading like wild fire in all the institution in the country.
- Immediate implementation of strategies has to be put in place to control the spread.
- Government should assist school authorities in fighting the war.
- Identified cult members should be expelled from school without concession.
- Cultism is a crime to man and God so, should be avoided .
LIST OF TABLES
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE II
APPROVAL PAGE III
LIST OF TABLES IX
TABLE OF CONTENTS X
Background of the study 1
Statement of Research problem 14
Objective of Study 16
Significance of Study 17
Research Question 18
Research Hypothesis 19
Definition of Terms 20
Limitation of Study 24
Source of Literature review 26
The Review 26
Summary of literature review 40
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 43
Research Design 43
Sample and Sample procedure 44
Measuring Instrument 44
Data Collection 45
Method of Data Analysis 46
DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS 49
Cultism Strategies desired to be evaluated 49
Effect of cultism should be given further studies 50
Change in the operation of Cult Activities 51
Research are useful Instruments 52
Any Success being recorded in the strategies 53
Evaluation of strategy has effect 54
Summary and Recommendations 61
Summary of Findings 61
- BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The study is on public relations as a veritable tool for the eradication of cultism in Nigerian higher Institute of learning with Institute of Management and Technology, IMT, Enugu as case study. To say how public relations could achieve this fact, examining its history becomes inevitable. This is justified in George Stantayama’s quotation when he said “those who a cannot remember the past are doomed to repeat it”. As long as the study focuses on public relations as a tool for the eradication of secret cult in IMT, it is then essential to examine the history of secret cult, their mode of operation, their aims and objectives, their method of recruitment and their names and Headquarters in Nigeria. It is when all these facts about secret cult and public relations are known that lasting solution to it could be recommended in IMT using public relations as its Chief tool.
Public relations is as old as mankind. Public relations affects almost everyone who has a contact with other human beings. All of us, in one way or the other, practices or, at least, experience public relations daily. In the ancient times, priests served as public relations advisers to their kings. They were experts in public opinions and persuasions. The kings consulted them before any major decision or important ceremonial events were undertaken. Also the priests conducted literature, poems of praises and lamentations and edicts to govern the people.
Julius Caesar was a master of persuasive techniques, faced with an imminent battle, caser would rally public support through assorted publications and staged event. There were also the establishment daily newspaper called the “ACTA DIURINA” or daily record containing government decrees and other information.
The public relations in Nigeria has come a long way, its beginning has been linked with the second world war. As presented by Nigerian Institute of public Relations (NIPR) 1988 anniversary publication “25 years of public relations in Nigeria”. The colonial government before world war II was concerned with collection of taxes and the running of a police force to maintain law and order in three protectorates amalgamated into Nigeria in 1914. If there was any public relations practices before the world war II, it was merely a maintenance of relationship with the traditional rulers to get in touch with the people. During the second world war however, the need arose for the colonial government to set up an information officer which was later known as the public relations officer of the government. According to Adebola (1992) “the public relations office was primarily set up to publicize the colonial war and to encourage the youth to join the war.
In the post independence era however, there was significant development in government public relations activities. The NIPR (1988) anniversary publication reveals that government took the advantage of the information ministry and utilized effectively the machinery at the federal level to build its image. Since political culture allowed autonomous control of information channel at the state level, the party in power effectively utilized the machinery to promote its images.
There were Liaison officers in each state and during the shagari administration, (1979-83) the ministry of ministry of information became a part of the office if the president. Even with the advent of the military in 1983 the Federal government believed in the power of public relations in the act of governance .
In the private sector many Organizations have contributed to the growth of modern public relations practice in Nigerian. For instance, in 1949 the United African Company, UAC, established its public relations department and thus became the pioneer pf public relations practice in the private sector in Nigeria. Its basic objectives were to inform business and commerce about business activities as well as to project UAC as a major Nigerian Industrial, technical and commercial company involved in the stability of the economic life and progress of Nigeria.
People associated with large Organization often are unaware of what is happening with the institution that affect their interest and as a result, serious misunderstanding occur between management and its publics and thus, goodwill is scarified. To explain corporate policies, actions and bring about better understanding with workers, students, management require public relations technique.
Public relations has grown as important as institutions recognized that they have social responsibility to serve the public. In the past corporations existed solely to make money for their owners but today, corporations functions as a creator of employment, social institutions and benefactor of education, patrons of arts and advocate of good government.
Modern public relations involves research, communication, complex activities and evolution. It involves doing right and talking about it, all in a planned and systematic manner. It is not lobbying, talking about ourselves all the time without backing our talks with concrete actions. Public relations is not window dressing, vicious propaganda or lies, unnecessary details and shallow gimmicks, it does not mean putting beautiful women in the front office, expecting them to perform public relations wonders with their smiles and charms.
Planned PR is more effective than fire alarm PR because, PR even plain a head for future crisis of the unexpected events. Before we can say what public relations is, let us first understand what PR is not, it is not the HOD, mass common in his chauffeneur -driven TOYOTA camry, it is not the smooth-talking ladies in IMT offices convincing a group of interested students to pay their development fees, and it is not the mini stir students flaunting her near- nakedness at bulging eye admirers etc.
Therefore, what is public relations ? According to British Institute of public Relations (1945) “public relations is deliberate, planed and sustained effort to establish and maintain mutual understating between an organization and its publics”
The tools of this public relations are publicity, press agenting, promotion, propaganda, exhibition, Luncheon, public opinion, media relations, calendar, personal communication, seminars, visits to opinion leaders, notice boards, students handbooks, radio, TV and public speaking etc.
It is clear to everybody’s understanding the meaning of “secret” as clandestine but when it is placed before another word “cult” there is a breach of though before its meaning can be correctly interpreted. Cult is system of worship.
Undoubtedly, IMT Enugu is one of the tertiary institutions in Nigeria but in a doldrums today because of cult activities in the school. The school authority had confirmed that cultism has now gone out of control and the cultism are carrying out all sorts of atrocities with in purity all over the institutions. The basic conditions for sustained academic culture are no disrepute. In place of academic rigour and search for truth, strange, anti- social cult and inglorious fratermty have taken over IMT. Examination malpractices, banditry and Sundry vices now stock IMT.
Some of the bogging questions are :-
- Why cultism in IMT
- What can be done to curb it.
Before attempting to answer there questions, it is pertinent to sketch a historical background on how cult was initiated in Nigerian high institutions.
The idea of campus confraternity began in 1953 when Prof. Wole Soyinka established and registered the pyrite confraternity. The idea started with the formation of the eagles. A campus magazine devoted to fighting colonial regression as represented by the Buy, a Journal committed to promoting ideals of white supremacy, a the dame time reducing the grandeur of Africanism.
Thus souinka, Pius Olegbe, Raph Opara, Aiginnokhuede, Ofoghale Armata Oyelola and two others came together with the establishment of pyrate confraternity which was registered at the university of Ibadan. The noble laureate wrote in a small threatise on the formation of pyrates and said “one thing we agreed was that there would not be any room for colonial would not be any room for colonial mentality I the club. Thus, the pyrate confraternity was born. We were going to be a sort of counter revolution against colonialism”.
The fist initiation took place behind Tedder Hall in 1953 at university of Ibadan, where soyinka was chosen was the captain. The group had a symbol of mystery which was krola, a kind of soft drink at the times mixed with beer.
The group was not really a secret cult. Soyinka further noted “most of the rites, ceremonies and mysteries surrounding the club activities were later-day innovation of future generation who identified with the ideals of the club at the time.”
In 1942 however, there were minor skirmishes with in the pyrates fold for ideological difference. The fight was between those who embarked radical politics and others who had ice-cream consciousness and also those who betrayed the ideology of the pyrates founding fathers, which they claimed should be substituted with indent conduct and abuse of the pyrates status on the campus.
Confrontation ensued, many pyrates were suspended . they formed the Buccaneer with the sole aim of destroying pyrates legacy. Despite the skirmishes, the two groups maintained a relatively peaceful co-existence and even carried out humanitarian gestures. But, events took a new shape around 1987 when pyrates pulled out of University campuses after a grandiose midnight meeting at Nsukka, Enugu State.
Since then cultism in Nigerian tertiary institutions have changed to terrorism, many devilish things has happened. Recently, some students of IMT were murdered in cold blood while other were killed by rival cult members at their residence. Similar incidents like this had happened in other Nigerian tertiary institutions all over the country.
Worst still, female secret cults like Black Brassierre, Amazon and Daughters of Jezebel have emerged like a rash. The female secret cult are as violent as their male counterparts.
Some of the names and headquarters of these secret cults are: the black bee and black cat at UNN, the buccaneers at ESUT, the sea dogs at UNEC, the Ogboni confraternity with headquarters at ESUT, the Ondo State University; the Red Dogs, the Mafia group with headquarters at UNIPORT, the Eckanka, the Mgba-mgba Brothers with headquarters at UNIZIK, the Black Beret; the free Masory Fraternity with headquarters at UNICAL ;the Vikings with Headquarters at UNIPORT; the Amazon, the Daughters of Jezebel with headquarters at Edo State; Black Brassiere, Temple of Elders, Burkina Faso revolution, Trojan Horse, Beo- Black movement etc.
This packaged programme will be communicated to the people of the IMT community whom the project is meant for. Finally, evolution of the programme will be undertaken to know the success or otherwise of the programme and also to know if an alternative solution would be sort.
Some identifiable causes of this cultism in IMT are :-
- Adolescent delinquency, in those days you had more matured students who even have families back home but these days the reverse is the case.
- The triple effect of cultism on the lagers society. Some of the parents, even lecturers of these students are themselves secret cult members, so their themselves secret cult members, so their children or students copied from them.
iii. Also the free time available to these students of IMT occasioned by the inadequacies in facilities and equipment are equally responsible.
- Other reasons why some of IMT students may join secret cults are for reasons of self protection and security. Some are even lured by friends to join and some are forced into cults.
Finally, the management will be informed and encouraged to establish a functional library for gainful engagement of the students in full-scale academic work hence no time for cult activates.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The basic condition for sustained academic culture has been eroded in IMT. The institution had fallen into disrepute and the product of the institution are no more what they used to be. Cult activates are seriously affecting all academic activities. Sometimes , students are attacked in hostiles, classrooms, bus stops etc. day- light and gang raping becomes the order of the day ; killing of students by members of cult is no longer news, therefore the need to eradicate this problem in IMT through public relations communication becomes imperative.
Public relations as problems solving communication is expected to create the necessary enlightenment of the students of IMT and awaken them to what is needed of them in an academic community like IMT, especially now that various levels of government and the general overhaul of all Nigerian tertiary institutions. During the ministerial nominee on June 2003, in the senate floar, some of the screening questions bordered on the economy, education, general decay in the educational system and cultism.
In order to tackle this problem successfully, both the students and the general public of IMT and event the government should take the challenge upon themselves and give the IMT management an unalloyed support for the cutraliscation of the laudable programme. No doubt if this programme is well packaged and implemented the problem of cultism in IMT will come to pass.
Problem of this study include the following :-
- None information of the IMT publics about the problems and dangers posed by cultism in IMT.
- Inadequate mobilization and encouragement of the students to support the crusade against secret cults.
iii Inadequate policies and programmes of IMT management to the students against cultism in IMT, Enugu.
- No programmes that will help students to resist any persuasion from friends to join secret cults.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The Objectives of this study include the following:-
- To find out the extent of non-information on cultism and its dangers to IMT students .
- To ascertain the extent of adequacy of mobilization and encouragement of the student to support the crusade against cultism.
- To examine the adequacy of policies and programme of IMT management on cultism to the students.
- To find out if there were laws that will help students resist joining secret cults.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The relevance of this study cannot be over-emphasized in that, the research will help to excavate the evolution and the remote causes of this problem and proffer an enduring solutions to it in IMT in particular and the whole nation at large.
This study is equally significant because it will awaken the IMT management and other educational institutions of the importance of public relations as an effective and wonderful tool for solving any institutional problems of whatever ramifications.
The study is equally significant because it will make one know the modus operandi of these secret cults nationwide. Also their names and headquarters are equally covered by this study.
The study is significant because it will show when public and private Organizations acknowledge the importance of PR in business. And finally, it will clear areas people do have misconception about public relations and also touch and highlight what public relations is not.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
To guide thus study, the following research questions were formulated.
- To what extent is cultism detrimental to humanity ?
- What efforts are the Nigerian Government making towards eradication of cultism ?
- What rules and regulations of the country prohibits secret cults?
- Where and who initiated cultism, or in other words from where does cultism originated from?
1.6 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
H1 Public relations is the basic tool for eradication of cultism in Nigeria.
H0 Public relations is not the basic tool for eradication of cultism in Nigeria.
H2 Cultists mode of operations need to be evaluated.
H0 Cultists mode of operations need not to be evaluated.
H3 Adequate researchers are the most essential instrument for serious investigation.
H0 Adequate researches are not the most essential instrument for serious investigation.
H4 Eradication of cultism favours schools
H0 Eradication of cultism do not favour schools.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
CONCEPUTAL :- Every member of the society, state and event the country that the institution is situated in.
OPERATIONAL :- The internal and external publics of IMT internal publics are students, staff and employers while the external publics are the community neighbours, government, groups or agencies other people the institution’s activities affect their institutions.
Conceptual :- Public conduct of the affairs of an establishment a it partials to the organizations image towards public opinion or views.
Operational :-The activities or operations of IMT geared towards resolving issues and maintaining cordial relationship with the publics.
Conceptual:- Mental instrument held in the hand and used for making or repairing something it is equally means anything that helps one to do one’s job research tool like questionnaires.
Operational :-Strategies, avenues, techniques employed or adopted by schools and government to eliminate the activities of the cultists in higher schools with particular reference to IMT, Enugu.
CONCEPTUAL :-To destroy something completely to put an end to something .
Operational :-The fight, struggle to eliminate secret cults from higher institutions with reference to IMT, Enugu. It is equally a crusade or campaign against cultism
CONCEPTUAL:- Means or system of religious worship, especially one that is expressed in rituals, the mysterious cults of these ancient people.
OPERATIONAL : it is a negative, unprogressive unfriendly, in human and barbaric way of life that are motivated by bad peer groups and timely youthful exuberance existing on our higher institutions with a particular reference to IMT, Enugu. It is campus confraternity which has nowadays become so common and equally terrorism in our higher institutions .
Conceptual : An educational college set up for the promotion of academic research and dissemination of advanced learning the award and conferment of degrees.
Operational :- Educational set up such as institute of Management and Technology, Enugu.
- It is assumed that public relations is the only effective tool for eradication of cultism in Nigerian tertiary institutions.
- It is also assumed that public relations practitioners have enormous role to play towards eradication of cultism.
- That the public relations programmes of the institution would convey at any point in time the stand of the institution on any controversial issue or matter as long as the system of planning and implementation is in conformity with the established procedure for future programmes . Goals of the institute.
1.9 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
Although this study has accomplished the purpose which it set out to achieve one of the very limitation is that the validity of the results or findings is depended on the honesty of the respondents in providing the needed information.
One of the major problems was that of lack of time to carry out the research extensively. Another one, as you expect, is finance, this led to the limiting of the scope.
Cognizance was also taken to the fact that the academic calendar was o short and my academic work load was enormous. All these reasons and the ones which I did not mention contributed to the limitation of this study.
DISCLAIMER: All project works, files and documents posted on this website, eProjectTopics.com are the property/copyright of their respective owners. They are for research reference/guidance purposes only and some of the works may be crowd-sourced. Please don’t submit someone’s work as your own to avoid plagiarism and its consequences. Use it as a reference/citation/guidance purpose only and not copy the work word for word (verbatim). The paper should be used as a guide or framework for your own paper. The contents of this paper should be able to help you in generating new ideas and thoughts for your own study. eProjectTopics.com is a repository of research works where works are uploaded for research guidance. Our aim of providing this work is to help you eradicate the stress of going from one school library to another in search of research materials. This is a legal service because all tertiary institutions permit their students to read previous works, projects, books, articles, journals or papers while developing their own works. This is where the need for literature review comes in. “What a good artist understands is that nothing comes from nowhere. The paid subscription on eProjectTopics.com is a means by which the website is maintained to support Open Education. If you see your work posted here by any means, and you want it to be removed/credited, please contact us with the web address link to the work. We will reply to and honour every request. Please notice it may take up to 24 – 48 hours to process your request.