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Title page i
Declaration ii
Certification page iii
Dedication iv
Acknowledgement v-vi
Table of Contents vii-ix
List of Tables x-xi
Abstract xii
Chapter One
1.1. Background of the study 1-5
1.2. Statement of the problem 5-6
1.3. Objectives of the study 6-7
1.4. Research Questions 7
1.5. Research Hypotheses 7-8
1.6. Scope of the study 8
1.7. Significance of the study 8-9
1.8. Definition of Terms 9
Chapter Two
2.1. Review of Literature 10
2.2. Review of Concepts 10
2.2.1. Concept of public relations 11-18
2.2.2. Concept of communication as a tool 18-19
2.2.3. Concepts of Industrial harmony 19-20
2.2.4. Concept of police 20-26
2.2.5. Concept of crisis Management in Nigeria Police 26-27
2.3. Review of related Literature 28
2.3.1. Ideal relationship between the police, media and
public relations 28-32
2.3.2. Public Relations and staff management Relationship 32-35
2.3.3 Role of public relations in crisis management 35
2.3.4 Causes of conflict among agencies 36
2.4. Theoretical Framework 37
2.5. Summary of Literature Review 38-39
Chapter Three: Research Methodology
3.1. Research Design 40
3.2. Population of Study 40-41
3.4 Sampling technique/ sample 43
3.5 Description of research instrument 44
3.6 Validity and reliability of data gathering instrument 44
3.7 Method of data collection 45
3.8 Method of Data analysis 45
Chapter Four:
Data presentation and discussion of findings
4.1 Data presentation and analysis 47-56
4.2 Testing of hypothesis 57-58
4.4 Discussion of findings 59-60
Chapter Five:
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
5.1 Introduction 61
5.2 Summary of findings 61-62
5.3 Conclusions 63
5.4 Recommendations 64-65
5.5. Suggestions for further studies 65
References 66
Appendix-A 67
Appendix B 68-71
List of Tables
Table 1: Gender 47
Table 2: Age Distribution 48
Table 3: Marital Status 49
Table 4: Educational Status 49
Table 5: Occupational Distribution 50
Table 6: Efficiency PPR department 51
Table 7: Effect of poor salary 51
Table 8: Effect of poor accommodation 52
Table 9: Effect of poor communication gadget 53
Table 10: The promotion of police 53
Table 11: The likeness of the public to the police 54
Table 12: Do the police brutalize the public 54
Table 13: The relationship between police and the press 55
Table 14: Are defaulters disciplined 55
Table 15: Police management of crisis 56
Table 16: Hypotheses testing table A. 57
Table 17: Hypotheses testing table B. 58
The objective of this study on “Public Relations: As A tool of Industrial Harmony. A study of
Nigeria Police Headquarters Enugu” look into the internal and external problems of Nigeria
police and how the police relations officer has succeeded or failed in resolving problems.
Problems such as the welfare of the police, its relationship with the public and how the police
manage crowd and crisis in Enugu State. To achieve this, survey research method was
adopted with questionnaire as the instrument to elicit responses from the respondents.
Findings drawn from the study revealed positive that police serving in Enugu faces internal
and external problems such as poor salary, poor equipments at home and offices, insufficient
accommodation, poor medical care and poor relationship with the publics; which makes it
difficult for the police to manage crisis due to inadequate information from the publics. The
study therefore recommended that police should stop extortion, bribery and corruption,
brutality, aiding and abating crimes because of their position in the society. The publics
should contribute positively to give vital information to the police to fight against crisis. The
Police Public Relations Department should handle the internal and external problems through
their cordial relationship with the press. Finally the government should take serious
maintenance of the police in their welfare, so that they would take their work seriously.
1.1 Background of study
According to the 7th edition of Oxford Advance Dictionary, “Public
Relations is described as the business of giving the public‟s, information
about a particular organization or person in order to create a good
Following from the description, the police rely upon the general public
for minimum level of support to accomplish their mission public
information is very vital to the police, because it is a strongly held value
in our culture that the informed and educated citizens are the best
participants in democratic government.
Alienation exists because the police and society. Attempts have been
made to bridge that gap between the police and the citizens. One often
hears police officers say that the Community does not understand the role
and how to inter-relate with the community.
In the past, police considered themselves as pure administrative officer,
enforcing law without discretion. But today police administration
recognizes that discretion is an important role. As a result the police
officer forgets his exact role in the force, because he uses discretion
The Police Public Relation Officer (PPRO) must be skilled in the
management tool POSDCORB, which means Planning, Organizing,
Staffing, Directing, Coordinating, Reporting and Budgeting. He does these
effectively with the cooperation and supervision of the State Commissioner
of Police, Deputy Commissioner of police and other senior police officers.
Furthermore, the police public relations officer uses the press to enhance
good relationship between the public‟s and the Nigeria police Enugu.
Before the independence of Nigeria in 1960, public relations practice was
not popular. Economic, social and political awareness program and activities
increased the knowledge of public relations.
Public relations practices were introduced into Nigeria from Britain through
the vehicle of colonialism. The introduction of public relations practice in
Nigeria was done through the initiative of the colonial government and its
obedient servants. Being and adjunct of journalism, public relations became
an important element in public communication in the colonial days. The
pioneers were already enjoying patronage of the people and those in
government. The government felt the need for another branch of
communication which would convey subtly, its feelings to the people
without really going through the rigors of metal composition of
communicative acts, during the Second World War (1940), the government
urge for more channels of communication. It became more pronounced,
especially in the need to present and analyze information about the war. This
eventually led the government to establish an office of information.
The British decided to employ the tactics of public relations through mobile
cinemas, posters, television programs. These programs were aimed at
sensitizing Nigerians on what they were doing for the benefit of the nation as
well as what the colonialist expected of Nigerians in return.
Since that time, public relations have been recognized as a profession in
Nigeria and in other West Africa States. In 1949 United Africa Company
became the first company to have public information unit. This is followed
by the establishment of public relations unit by the Samuel Epelle served as
the first public relations officer.
In 1963, the Nigerian institute of public relation (NIPR) was established as a
regulatory body for PR practice in Nigeria.
The lack of adequate knowledge of public relations, as a career and the
absence of its programs for understanding its practice hindered its growth in
Nigerian organizations. Until recently when the Federal Republic of Nigeria
promulgated Decree No. 16 of June, 1990 which upheld the practice of
public relations in Nigeria.
The origin of the Police is a product of social crisis in the society. The word
police is derived from the Greek word “polis” meaning that part of non
ecclesiastical administration, having to do with safety and order of the state.
Police work did not start as a paid profession. It started as a noble,
incorruptible profession with considerable responsibility and distinction. It
was the justice of the peace system in the society.
The Nigeria, Police began with a thirty-member consul guard formed in
Lagos colony is 1861, a 1,200-member armed paramilitary Hausa
constabulary was formed.
In 1896 the Lagos police was established. A similar force, the Niger coast
constabulary was formed in Calabar in 1984 under the newly proclaimed
Niger coast protectorate. In the north, the Royal Niger Company set up the
Royal Niger company constabulary in 1888 with headquarters at Lokoja.
When the protectorates of Northern and Southern Nigeria were proclaimed
in the early 1900s, part of the Royal Niger Company constabulary became
the Northern Nigerian police, and part of the Niger coast constabulary
became the Southern Nigeria police. Northern and Southern Nigeria were
amalgamated in 1914, but their police force (NPF) in lagos. During the
colonial period, most police were associated with local government (native
authorities). In the 1960s, under the First Republic, these forces were first
regionalized and then nationalized.
The 1960 constitution established the Nigerian force as a Federal force
charged with the responsibility for maintenance of law and order throughout
Nigeria. The command of the Nigerian police force was under the Inspector
General of Police (IGP).
Those of the regions were under the command of commissioners of police.
Recently the Nigeria Police Force (NPF) dropped the “force” in its name
and now answers Nigeria Police (Nigeria police is grouped into departments
A-F. “A” department takes care of administration, personnel-promotion,
dismissal, transfer, posting, medical budgeting, accounts, public relations
and printing. “B” department to “F” have their own respective duties our
major concern is “A” department where public relations belongs. There we
look into the administration of police department.
1.2 Statement of the problem
Public relations practice, utilizes communication skills and strategies, in
order to establish and maintain the several positive linkages among human
beings, in the context of society to minimize and eliminate the negative
attitudes and behavior.

If the citizens do not trust the police, they will not talk to them. They would
avoid police contact therefore, if distrust causes avoidance and failure to
communicate, the implications for the police organization are really very
dramatic. Citizens will not report crime. They will not give statements to
officers who are investigating crimes and they will not testify in court.
When the police organization views the community, it has sworn to protect
as a dangerous place full of people who are criminals. The police will be
carefully guided when they have contact with the citizens they are expected
to be protecting.
This study will look into the internal and external problems of the Nigeria
police and how the police public relations officer has succeeded or failed in
resolving problems. Problems such as the welfare of the police, its
relationship with the public and how the police manage crowd and crisis in
Enugu; would be treated.
1.3 Objectives of the study
The objectives of the study are as follows to:
1. Know the general welfare of the police in Enugu state.
2. Deal with the crime preventions and brutality by the police in Enugu
3. Determine how cordial the relationship between the police and press in
Enugu state exist.
4. Ascertain how police handle crowd and crisis management in Enugu
1.4 Research Questions
1. To what extent do the poor living conditions and welfare of the police
affect their performance?
2. To what extent do the police brutality and extortion damage their image
to the public?
3. How cordial is the relationship between the police and the press?
4. To what extent do the Nigeria police effectively handle crowd and crisis
1.5 Research Hypotheses
Ho1: there is no significant difference (p<0.5) between the responses of
senior and junior staff of the Nigeria police concerning the poor welfare of
the staff.
Ho2: there is no significant difference (p<0.5) between the junior and senior
staff of the Nigeria police as to the damage of their image over brutality and
Ho3: No significant difference exist between the senior staff and junior staff
(p<0.5) of the Nigeria police over cordial.
Ho4: There is no significant difference (p<0.5) between the senior staff and
junior staff of Nigeria police concerning effectively crowd and crisis
management in Enugu.
1.6 Scope and the limitation of study
The areas this study covers are problems facing the Nigeria police,
Problems like poor welfare, communication, accommodation and how they
relate with the general public and the press, innocent citizens, deviants and
criminals in Enugu state. The police public relation officer is located in
Police headquarters Enugu secretariat.
1.7 Significance of study
Public relations creates an understanding through effective communication
between the organization, its officers and the public.
This study will help the management to resolve crisis through maintaining
effectively public relations. Conditions of living and service will improve
reducing bribery, corruption and extortion of fifty naira (#50.00) on the road.
Further beneficiaries are the public and the press. The masses will
understand how hard the police are working and cooperate with them in
combating crime. The media will be used in sanitizing, educating and
mobilizing the public towards police efforts to polices the effectively.
Through the research findings, it would point out the plight of the Nigeria
police and take steps to improve their conditions of living.
If these observations are taken into consideration, the image, reputation,
respect, trust and dignity of the police will be restored, making it possible
and easy for future research to do it better.
1.8 Definition of Terms
Public relations: the activity of keeping good relationship between an
organization and the public.
Tool: An item of equipment that helps in a particular activity.
Industrial Harmony: When people are peaceful and agree with one another
or to make different people plans, situation suitable.
Police: the official organization that is responsible for protecting people and
property. Making people to obey the law, finding out about and solving
crimes and catching people who have committed a crime.
Headquarters: The main office of an organization such as the police, army
or a business company


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