TABLE OF CONTENTS
COVER PAGE ………………………………………………………………………………………………………i
Influence of NUT Activities on teachers working condition………………….35 Appraisal of Literature Review:…………………………………………………………………37
Implication of the findings to Educational Management…………………..79
Contribution to Knowledge…..………………………………………….………………..81
Recommendations for Further Studies…………………………………………………..82
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1: NUT influence on teachers’ welfare
Table: 3 NUT influence on teachers’ working conditions
Table: 4 Difference in primary and secondary school
teachers rating of NUT influence on teachers’ welfare
Table: 5 Difference in primary and secondary school
teachers’ perception on NUT influence on
teachers’ working conditions.
Table: 6 Difference in school heads and teachers perception
of NUT influence on teachers’ welfare
Table: 7 Difference in school heads and teachers’ perception
of NUT influence on teachers’ working conditions
Table: 8 Difference in rating of NUT influence on teachers’
welfare by primary and secondary school teachers (t-test)
Table: 9 Difference in rating of NUT influence on teachers’
working conditions by primary and secondary
school teachers (t-test)
Table: 10 Difference in rating of NUT influence on teachers’
welfare by school heads and teachers (t-test)
Table: 11 Difference in rating of NUT influence on teachers’
working conditions on school heads and teachers (t-test)
The study determined the rating of teachers and school heads on the influence of the Nigeria Union of Teachers (NUT) on teachers’ welfare and working conditions in the Central Senatorial District of Edo State. To guide the study six research questions were raised and four hypotheses were formulated and tested. The study covered public primary and secondary school teachers in the Senatorial District.
The study adopted the descriptive research design. A total of three hundred and forty eight (348) respondents made up of 319 teachers and 29 school heads were sampled from a population of 3199 teachers and 292 school heads in all public primary and secondary schools in Edo Central Senatorial District, using simple random sampling technique. Primary data were obtained from the respondents by means of questionnaire, while data analysis was done using frequency distribution, mean, and the t-test statistical analysis was used to test the four hypotheses.
Results of data analysis showed a general consensus among respondents (70.6%) that NUT had enhanced teachers’ welfare especially in relation to the following: establishments of a functional cooperative society to address the needs of members, organization of regular seminars/workshops in which members’ welfare were addressed and advocating for teachers when unjustly treated by government. It also revealed that 309 (90.1%) of the respondents agreed that NUT had improved the working conditions of teachers especially in facilitation of payment of teachers’ special allowance, enhancement of teachers’ salary as well as ensuring prompt payment of teachers’ salary. Based on these findings, the study recommended that NUT should incorporate scholarship schemes into its services to members and also provide loans for its members to make it more relevant to teachers’ welfare. NUT should intensify efforts in ensuring teachers regular promotion at when due since prompt promotion will encourage better job performance among teachers.
The Nigeria Union of Teachers (NUT) is both professional and trade union organization of all teachers in primary and post-primary school system throughout the country. The union was founded on 8th July, 1931 and now has thirty six state wings and Federal Capital Territory wing, Abuja, all of them with full time state secretaries and other supporting staff. There are also Local Government branches of the union in each of the 779 local government areas of the country.
The Nigeria Union of Teachers started with much concern on the image and professional growth of the teaching profession in Nigeria, but when the body felt that teachers were being shabbily treated, she registered as a trade union in 1941 with the sole aim of looking after the welfare and conditions of service of her members. Before the Trade Union Amendment Act, 2005 which has democratized labour and granted freedom to employees to decide which unions they wish to belong, the 1978 Trade Union Decree had made the membership of the Nigerians Union of Teachers mandatory on every teacher in the primary and post primary institutions in the country and also compelled financial support by members through check-off system. The democratization of labour has however not diminished the jurisdictional scope of Nigeria Union of Teachers as the only legal body to take care of the welfare of teachers in both, primary and post primary schools in Nigeria. The above claim is buttressed by Federal Republic of Nigeria official gazette of 6th July, 2006 No. 73, Vol. 93.
In this gazette, an attempt made by an association with the name Academic Staff of Secondary Schools of Nigeria to register as a trade union was turned down on the ground that the existing trade union (Nigeria Union of Teachers) is sufficient representative of the interest of the class of persons (Secondary school teachers/tutors) the association intended to represent. The position of Nigeria Union of Teachers is further consolidated by the Supreme Court Judgement of 11th January, 2008 in the case between the Registered Trustees of National Association of Community Health Practitioners of Nigeria and two others and Medical and Health Workers’ Union of Nigeria. In the above case, the Supreme Court ruled that the community health practitioners are members of the Medical and Health Workers’ Union of Nigeria and cannot transform into a Trade Union. The basis of the Supreme Court Judgement flows from the provision of the Trade Union Act and Fundamental right principles of 1999 constitution. Section 3(2) of Trade Union Act Cap 43 of Laws of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 1999 while empowering the Minister or the Registrar to register ‘a new trade union’ such registration will only be possible where no trade union already exist to take care of the interest of such workers.
Since Nigeria Union of Teachers (NUT) is the only recognized and legislated industrial union representing the industrial interest and welfare of teachers at the primary and post primary levels of our educational structure, she decided to set for herself laudable aims and objectives to fulfill her professional and trade union obligations to the generality of Nigerian teachers as contained in Article 2 (200) of NUT constitution.
Objectives of the Nigeria Union of Teachers as stated in the union’s constitution are:
- To foster unity and progress among all teachers in Nigeria
- To foster the spirit of active co-operation and comradeship between teachers and other workers.
- To raise the status of the teaching profession through improved quality of education and conditions of service.
- To promote and advance the course of education and the teaching profession throughout the federation and also endeavour to secure the removal of difficulties, abuses, anomalies and obsolete regulations detrimental to progress.
- To enhance the social and economic wellbeing of members and establish welfare funds for the benefit of members of the union.
- To provide a forum for the co-operation of teachers and the promotion of their welfare, the interests of education and teaching profession.
- To promote the corporate image of the union both nationally and internationally by ensuring the continued existence of a strong, virile and well articulated organization.
- To give leadership and stimulate interest in matters which foster national and international unity and understanding.
The activities of the NUT are based on the provisions of the outlined objectives. In order to effectively achieve these objectives and have an impact on the improvement of education and teaching profession, the Union operates functionally through defined components and sub-components. By its organizational arrangement, the NUT has a National body, state wings and Local Government Area levels through branches. The activities of the NUT are vested on various organs as contained in the Union constitution Article 5 (200). The constitution of the NUT is a supreme symbol of unity aimed at fostering unity and progress in Nigeria and to promote and advance the cause of education and teaching profession throughout the federation.
For the union to be able to carryout its activities that are aimed at improving the welfare and service conditions of teachers by addressing issues on irregular payment of salaries, irregular promotion of teachers, non-payment of fringe benefits, poor physical environment, lack of teaching materials, non-professionalization of teaching, non-implementation of teachers salary structure (TSS), the Nigeria Union of Teachers (NUT) employs different strategies and tactics which include: collective bargaining, consultation, cooperation, work to rule. Others are confrontation, lobbying and strike action.
These tactics and strategies are used by the NUT to cause positive change in the educational system and teaching profession. To what extent therefore has the influence of Nigeria Union of Teachers in the past ten years (2002 – 2012) using the above stated tactics and strategies positively affected Teachers Welfare and working conditions in Edo Central Senatorial District?
Emiola (1982) however observed that labour law contains some provisions by which the government regulates and moderates the activities of the NUT in its day to day operations and application of its strategies. According to him, the 1974 Labour law stipulates step and procedure to be followed in declining a trade dispute between the employer and the employee.
Teachers in Edo Central Senatorial District constitute a professional group that deserves to be protected. In order to create a conducive atmosphere for teachers and learners in the school system, the interest of the practitioners is made manifest through the Nigeria Union of Teachers (NUT), Edo State wing which indulges in the use of the activities of lobbying, dialoguing, collective bargaining, confrontation, consultation, cooperation, strike action among others where and when necessary.
The NUT has involved itself in these actions with a view to bringing out and causing a positive change in the lives of its members and improvement in the school system. The NUT has made suggestions contributions, decisions and representation/membership of committees on the improvement of the school system. This explains why the union has representations in Educational agencies such as Ministry of Education, Post Primary Education Board, State Universal Basic Education Board, Local Government Education Board. These boards are in constant dialogue and negotiation with NUT on how to resolve problems associated with the school system.
Some of the problems that have engaged the attention of the NUT range from irregular payment of teachers salaries, non-payment of leave grants, irregular promotions, inability to provide schools with running cost, (subvention) dilapidated school buildings and inability to provide teaching materials and other financial obligations.
The problem of this study therefore is to examine the rating of NUT influence on teachers’ welfare and working conditions in Edo Central Senatorial District in the past ten years (2002 – 2012).
The following research questions were raised to guide this study
- What is the rating of primary and secondary school teachers on the influence of NUT on Teachers’ welfare?
- What is the rating of primary and secondary school teachers on the influence of NUT on teachers’ working conditions?
- Is there a difference in the rating of primary and secondary school teachers on the influence of NUT on their welfare?
- Is there a difference in the rating of primary and secondary school teachers on the influence of NUT on their working conditions?
- Is there a difference between the rating of school heads and teachers on the influence of NUT on their welfare?
- Is there a difference in the rating of NUT influence on teachers’ working conditions by school heads and teachers’
Based on the research questions raised, the following hypothesis were formulated and tested
- There is no significant difference between the rating of primary and secondary school teachers on the influence of NUT on teachers welfare.
- There is no significant difference between the rating of primary and secondary school teachers on the influence of NUT on teachers working conditions.
- There is no significant difference between the rating of school heads and class teachers on the influence of NUT on teachers’ welfare
- There is no significant difference between the rating of the school heads and class teachers on the influence of NUT on teachers’ working conditions.
The purpose of this research is as follows:
- To find out the rating of NUT’s influence on the welfare and working conditions of teachers in Edo central Senatorial District.
- Ascertain the difference in the rating of primary and secondary school teachers on the influence of NUT on teachers’ welfare and working conditions.
- To analyze the difference in rating of school heads and teachers on the influence of NUT on their welfare and working conditions.
- To find out the rating of NUT on how it has been able to influence the provision of educational facilities to motivate the teachers in Edo central Senatorial District for greater job performance.
The study of influence of NUT on teachers’ welfare and working condition is of great benefit to Educational Managers and Administrators, the NUT, teachers, parents and students in Edo central Senatorial District. The Nigeria’s Union of Teachers controls the largest workforce in the state and by extension Edo Central Senatorial District. It is important that the working system of NUT as a trade union and professional organization is well understood. This no doubt would go a long way in averting industrial action involving such a large workforce which would result in great loss of money, manpower, developmental time and promote industrial peace and harmony in the school system. The finding would be useful to NUT as an organization in knowing how well it had met the needs of its members.
The study would be useful to students of labour studies and student teachers who may want to know something about NUT. The study in addition may be useful to government in determining the methods of handling issues and problems that affect teachers overtime and also enable the educational agencies and the NUT adopt ways of ensuring continuous industrial peace, stability and progress in the school system.
Finally, the knowledge of the rating of the influence of NUT would be a source of satisfaction to its members most of whom are ignorant of what the union stands for thereby increasing their support, morale and productivity.
Definition of Terms
The following terms are defined as they relate to the study.
NUT: The Nigeria Union of Teachers. An organization that oversees the affairs of teachers as a trade union.
Teachers Working Conditions: This is the totality of the remunerations to which a teacher is entitled for the services he renders.
Teachers welfare: Enhancement of the social and economic wellbeing of teachers by meeting their welfare needs which embodies good conditions of service.
Influence: How NUT has affected teachers’ welfare and working condition.
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