- Background to the Study
According to Jackson (1998) he said that recruit is securing a supply of possible candidates for jobs in enterprises. It is the first stage in the process of staffing an organization, which continues with, selection and ends with the placement of an individual in a job. Recruitment begins with information about the job to be filled, and then determining the sources of the different kinds of recruit required to fill the vacancies.
Recruitment is thus a human resource function. It is a task that is performed continuously, sometimes in a highly independent way, but no matter the situation, in collaboration with the personnel department. The most important resource which an organization or even a nation can have are its human resources. He see its purpose as to achieve optimal use of human resources through rational human resources system and programmes. It has being continuous because enterprises needs a constant supply of capable employees moving through the system from recruitment to retirement. Staffing and other recruitment practices are thus not performed once at a go but are continuous exercise. The people that are recruited are the vital force of organization, more valuable to it, in many ways, than efficient operational methods or money in the bank. Yet, an effective recruitment programme is not simple especially if the labour requirements of the organisation are diverse, for it is necessary not only to discover appropriate sources but also the compare their value, that is to determine which of them that may be most satisfactory. That is why most authors see the staffing exercise as embracing recruitment, selection and placement.
Blunt and Popoola (1995), they said that most African managers are weighed by their communities, who were able to share in his good fortune by way of being offered paid employment. The societal requirement is quite great because paid jobs are scarce in many African societies, thus one finds that managers of all caliber put pressure on whoever is given the authority to do, to employ not just qualified, but persons recommended to them by friends, relations and towns folks. This is true of Nigeria whose economy is characterized with unemployment. Further more. He asserted that in many organizations, selections are often made on ethnic bases, through “old boy or girl” connections or to correct certain structural imbalances. These anomalies create adverse effects on employees adjustment to work, commitment, discipline and moral in some cases. It is thus strange to find that in most organizations in Africa, to be selected for a particular post demands something more that having the proper qualifications and experience with this contexts, there is another dimension to it which may be unique to Nigeria. This is the amorphous criterion of “Federal character”.
This phenomenon is quite felt in parastatals where the recruitment of staff is done on a “quota” basis whereby every state in the federation cannot have more than an allocated percentage of individual context, recruitment in certain organization is not based purely on merit but also on the state of origin. Persons recruited in manners different from the norms are likely to perform at lower levels, and some have been known to take undue advantage of their relationship with person’s authority in their organization to do whatever they like. This according to many scholars’ is one of the main reasons why things do not work in Nigeria. We have the wrong person in various positions. The search for a grater and vibrant Nigeria demands a stop to this practice, to give way to organizational efficiency and effectiveness.
Any organization worth its salt should have sound personnel policy and recruitment should be part such a policy. Recruitment should start from manpower planning, where future manpower needs forecast in advance. Recruitment of the right caliber of personnel is thus undertaken after careful analysis and in it the manager must seek to discover how qualified workers may be and also to serve as basis for selection. This research study seeks to examine the recruitment policy and procedures of company or organization with the view to ascertaining whether an established policies and procedure is being followed, if there is a pattern, how will this pattern conform in what is expected to be the norm.There historical background the civil service date back to the end of colonial masters and post independence period. After the second world war there were about 14 British administration in the recitation to Nigerians supported staff and one European stenotherm.. The headquarter of the most technical departments was in Ebutemeta that of the veterinary service was in vow while that agriculture and forestry was in Ibadan field administration was co-ordination from two centers Kaduna for the north and Lagos later Enugu for the south. In 1939 southern Nigeria was split into two regions eastern and western region respectively. The Richard constitution in 1946 further divided the country into the regions namely. The northern and eastern regions. The McPherson constitution of 1951 introduced the apartments of ministers for the regions and at the center, there were also the suggest the independence of the civil service between the politicians in office and the authorities of the central government.
During the Lord Lugard era the duties of all administrative offices were just that of maintaining law and order in the district placed under their immediate administrative control. It was only at the end of world war 11 (two) that effort were made to achieve some social and economic benefit for Nigerians. It was at that time that such office like the department of marketing and export were established. In he western Nigeria civil servant were told that policy making was the exclusive function of the legislature. So, the civil savants were to do whatever the legislature wanted them to do. in the eastern state civil servant were to give sound advice to the political leaders control the traditional aspects of the government activities and were also to be efficient executives who could manage and treat all the complex operations of modern state.
In the northern Nigeria the duties of administration office includes to give out himself to service and to train people to build up an efficient institution of local government and finally to facilitate the emergence of an intelligent and responsible public opinion. The system of administration that emerged on independence was British in character. It was also English language that was used as a medium of communication in the conduct of government. The country ought civil war six years after independence and this was quickly followed by another six years of oil boom which brought about extreme materialism. This gave use to great indiscipline corruption and a total contemplation of order within the whole society including the civil service. Having discussed the historical background of the civil service and its roles before and after independence, it is necessary at this stage to define the “productivity which is the main objective of this research.
- Statement of Problem
Recruitment of personnel is a positive function of which the complement is selection. It finds workers and makes them available. However, things go wrong in Nigeria because of the following reason pertaining to recruitment.
- One of the problems is that personnel put “square pegs in round holes”. By this it means that personnel is not properly organized as what it should be.
- ii) Another problem facing recruitment policies and procedures is that personnel manager’s altimes lack the competent skills required for effective recruitment.
- Also, there is the problem of inefficiency and ineffectiveness of the organization due to partiality and discrimination including the employment of mediocre.
- Research Questions:
- To what extent are the laid down principles of recruitment, selection and placement of staff in the organization being followed?
- To what degree do managers follow the prescribed process involved in recruitment in the civil service?
- To what level dose the their recruitment practices adhere to workplace equality and diversity policies?
- Purpose of Study
The broad objective of this study is to examine the Recruitment Policies and Procedures and Workers Productivity in Enugu State Civil Service, while Specific objectives are as follows:
- To examine the extent to which the laid down principles of recruitment, selection and placement of staff in the organization are being followed.
- To find out the prescribed process involved in recruitment in the civil service.
- To examine the level to which recruitment practices adhere to workplace equality and diversity policies.
1.5 Research Hypotheses
For the purpose of analysing the data generated for the study, the following hypotheses were tested;
H01: The laid down principles of recruitment, selection and placement of staff in the organization are not being followed
H02: Prescribed process involved in recruitment in the civil servants are followed
H03: Recruitment practices do not adhere to workplace equality and diversity policies.
- Significance of Study
This research work is of great relevance to the society at large. This is applicable to the government institution, the readers of this research work and to the researcher.
Theoretically: The benefit of this research work to the government and society at large is that by the end of the research, the weak-points and short – comings of all the sectors of the nation would be pinpointed and displayed based on findings, thereby proffering solution to the problem.
Empirically: To the reader, they will be upgraded intellectually and also will be highly informed of the up and doings of the current Enugu State Civil Service Commission. Again, the study may be of some help to students, personnel, managers and their staff for enlightenment in its recruitment policy pronouncements on selection and placement of staff in organizations. It will also give the reader’s insight on how the Enugu State Civil Service Commission, also partake in the public affairs of the country geared towards the achievement of recruitment policies and procedures and workers productivity and other government institutions at large.
- Scope of Study
The scope of the study of this research work was limited to the Enugu State Civil Service. In carrying out this research, questions were asked by the researcher to the staff and employees of ESCS.
1.8 Limitations of the Study
- This study was also subjected to some limitations which could make it not to be exhaustive. Such limitations include inability of the researcher to interview some principle staff in the organization whose contributions should have been of great help.
- The good intention of this study was limited by non-corporative attitudes of some workers. Most of the workers were afraid of releasing information since they don’t want to be punished by the higher authorities. They saw some of the questions been thrown to them as “secret” to the organization and therefore little to nothing to such question.
I overcame the limitation of study secondary sources of data which include: Internet, Newspaper and Library e.t.c
1.9 Operationalization/Definition of Terms
- Recruitment: This is the art and science of bringing in new members into the organization. It is the first part of the process of filling a vacancy, the consideration of sources of suitable candidates, making contact with those candidates and attracting applications from them.
- Personnel: These are staff employed in an organization to carryout the organizations day to day activities. They are responsible for recruiting new members into the organization.
- Job Description: It specifies the job to be done and the terms by each officer.
- Policy: A policy is a statement of a company’s intent or goal as a guide to individual action.
- Recruitment Procedure: It compasses the translations of recruitment plans into a series of integrated activities for the achievement of objectives.
- Appraisal: This refers to the method of finding out the worth of an employee in his job, simply put is “Valuation”.
- Recruitment Policy: This spells out the objectives of the recruitment process, and is the point from which the manpower procurement programme begins.
- Job Analysis: This is the specification of job involved in a position so as to aid directly in the successful adaptation of new employees in their jobs.
- Workers Productivity: Is the amount of output produced per work hour
1.10 Organization of the Study
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows. Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (background of the study), statement of the problem, purpose of the study, research questions, significance of the study, scope of the study etc. Chapter two being the review of the related literature presents the theoretical framework, conceptual framework and other areas concerning the subject matter. Chapter three is a research methodology covers deals on the research design, area of the study, population of the study, sample and sampling techniques, methods of data collection, instruments for data collection, reliability of the instruments, validity of the instruments, distribution and retrieval of instruments and methods of data analysis. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study
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