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This study investigated resources availability and utilization in the teaching of Biology in secondary schools in Ibiono Ibom Local Government Area. The population for the study comprised all Biology teachers, principals and vice principal in the study area. The sample consisted of thirty two (32) respondents selected through purposive sampling method. The instrument used for data collection was Resources Availability and Utilization in the Teaching of Biology Questionnaire (RAUBTQ). Simple percentage statistical technique was used to analyze data and answer the research questions. The findings revealed that many schools lack standard science laboratory, teaching aids and qualified Biology teachers. The study however observed that resources availability and utilization enhance effective teaching. Hence, it was recommended that adequate laboratory resources, teaching aids and competent teachers should be made available in schools where such are lacking or inadequate, in-service training programme should also be organized for teachers to improve their professional knowledge and skills.


Title Page  –       –       –               –       –       –       –       i

Certification        –       –       –       –       –               –       ii

Dedication –       –       –       –               –       –       –       iii

Acknowledgements             –       –       –       –       –       iv

Abstract     –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       vi

Table of Contents       –       –       –       –       –       –       vii


1.1    Background of the Study     –       –       –       –       1

1.2    Statement of the Problem    –       –       –       –       5

1.3    Purpose of the study   –       –       –       –       –       7

1.4    Significance of the Study     –       –       –       –       8

1.5    Research Questions    –       –       –       –       –       8

1.6    Limitation of the Study –       –       –               –       9

1.7    Delimitation of the Study     –       –       –       –       9

1.8    Definition of Terms     –       –       –       –       –       10



2.1    Concept of Educational Resources Availability and Utilization in Teaching of Science (Biology)        –       12

2.2    Laboratory Resources Availability and Utilization in Teaching Biology –       –        –       –       –       –       16

2.3    Availability of Teaching aids and Utilization in Teaching of Biology     –       –        –       –       –       –       –       18

2.4    Teachers Quality and the Teaching of Biology –       22

2.5    Library Materials Availability and Utilization in Teaching Biology –       –       –        –       –       –       –       25

2.6    Summary of Literature Review      –       –       –       28


3.1    Area of the Study       –       –       –       –       –       30

3.2    Research Design –       –       –       –       –       –       31

3.3    Population of the Study       –       –       –       –       31

3.4    Sample and Sampling Techniques –       –       –       31

3.5    Instrumentation  –       –       –       –       –       –       32

3.6    Validation of Instrument      –       –       –       –       32

3.7    Reliability of the Instrument         –       –       –       –       33

3.8    Administration of Instrument –      –       –       –       33

3.9    Scoring of the instrument    –       –       –       –       34

3.10  Method of Data Analysis      –       –       –       –       34


4.1    Data Analysis     –       –       –       –       –       –       35

4.2    Discussion of Findings –       –       –       –       –       41


5.1    Summary           –       –       –       –       –       –       44

5.2    Recommendations –    –       –       –       –       –       45

5.3    Conclusions                –       –       –       –       –       46





1.1   Background to the Study

Educational resources which are educational inputs are vital to the teaching of any subjects in the school curriculum. Resources in the school system include both human and non human (materials) resources which contribute in part to effective teaching and learning. According to Daluba (2012), resources for teaching science include human (e.g teaching and non teaching staff), laboratory, library, classroom and aids. Offormate (2007) suggested the need to use modern and standard resources for teaching science because this enhances effective teaching and learning. Danjuma and Adeleye (2015) in a study on the availability of instructional resources observed that most secondary schools in Nigeria lack adequate resources for teaching arid learning science.

The availability of resources determine the method adopted in teaching and learning of science which also influence learning achievement. Most of the scienceteachers often adopt teaching styles which leads to rotelearning and memorization of facts and knowledge as opposed to the more effective practical, hand on approach.Thus ineffective approach has always been associated withlack of instructional material or resources. Thenegative effect hinders our National Development as science is said to be the bedrock of scientific and technological development of any nation. Moreover, Biology as one of the science subject is very wide in contents arid seems difficult to learn by many students (Ajilah, 2009).

Effective teaching and learning as well as students’ academic performance in science (Biology) have become a concern to stakeholders in the educational enterprise one way of solving the problem of poor performance of students, according to Danjuma and Adeyele (2015), is to improve on the method of teaching, that is; to change from a teacher- centered approach to student centered approach.

Ojediran, et al (2014) suggested that the most effective approach to science teaching is to support theoretical explanations with actual practical in the laboratory. Unfortunately, this method is resourced-based and cannot be implemented without science instructional material and equipments.

The teaching and learning of science could be influenced by many factors such as school type, location, learning styles, teaching strategies etc. Danjuma and Adeleye (2015) noted that teacher’s teaching strategies is a very important factor in students’ academic success in science. Method employed by teacher to teach Biology are to a large extent influenced by resources and facilities available in the school. The teaching method in turn, influences the level and quality of participation and performance of students’.

In general, where resources and facilities such as teachers, textbooks, laboratories, chemical, specimen, tools and equipment, aids etc, are inadequate, the teaching approach tends to be teacher centered. This approach is highly dominated by the teacher as he or she lectures on practical aspects of the lesson. The students remain passive participant expected to listen and observed only, while the teacher is a sole source of knowledge for the learners. This is not an effective method of teaching science. A teaching approach that centers on the teacher is bad for science teaching and learning and can soon kill interest of students on the subject. But were facilities and resources areavailable, a qualified and motivated science teacher will deploy methods that center on the learners. Such an approach emphasizes practical activities and has the students experimenting, solving problems, discussing with each and involved in a practical hands on activities (Edyson, 2o1 1). This approach stimulates curiosity, imagination and critical thinking. It keeps the lesson exciting and captivating to the learners.

The above assertion shows the availability and utilization of resources play critical role in effective teaching and learning of science. Hence, this study seeks to investigate on resources availability and utilization in the teaching of Biology in Secondary Schools in Ibiono Ibom Local Government Area.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The role of Biology in the development of science and technology in the modern economy cannot be over emphasized. It is seen as the most widely offered science subject in Nigeria Secondary Schools. The importance ofBiology has been realized by government, parents, students and the society at large.

Despite the importance placed on Biology, Secondary school students in Ibiono Ibom Local Government Area have been performing poorly in the subject for the past years. Researchers including Atanbi (2003) Omosewo (2000) and Ajilah (2009) reported negative interest and attitude and poor performance of students in the subject. Inyang (2006) observed that Biology is poorly taught and hardly understood in most secondary schools in the country.

The West African Examination Council (WAEC) Examiner (2007, 2008, 2009 and 2010) consistently reported candidates lack of skills in answering practical questions in Biology. Okarafor (2008) conducted a research study on the effect of Biology laboratory facilities and teaching aids in the achievement of students in secondary schools in Onitsha. It is not certain how many of these schools have a well equipped laboratory and adequate instructional aids. There is therefore a need to make use of modern resources to enhance effective teaching and learning of Biology.

However, evidence of poor performance in Biology and other science subjects by secondary school students over the years point to the fact that the most desired technological and scientific advancement of the nation cannot be attained and or designed to find out the availability of resources and utilization in teaching of Biology in secondary schools in Ibiono Ibom Local Government Area.





1.3 Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of this study is to ascertain resources availability and utilization in the teaching of Biology in secondary schools in Ibiono Ibom Government Area. Specifically, the study aims atthe following:

  1. To investigate laboratory resources availability andutilization in teaching of Biology in Ibiono Ibom Local Government Area.
  2. To examine the availability and utilization of teaching aids in teaching of Biology.
  • To examine the availability of qualified teachers and the teaching of Biology



  • Significance of the Study

This study will be significant to stakeholders in education including educational planners, teachers, government and students in promoting qualitative education.

  1. The result of findings of this study will assist educational planners in policy making towards the achievement of educational goals and objectives.
  2. The study attempt to assess resources availability and utilization in the teaching of Biology in secondary schools and will suggest ways for improvement so as to enhance effective teaching and learning of the subject.
    • Research Questions

The following research questions are raised to guide the study:

  1. To what extent are laboratory resources available and utilized for teaching of Biology in secondary schools in Ibiono Ibom Local Government Area.
  2. To what extent are teaching aids available and used for teaching Biology in secondary schools in Ibiono Ibom Local Government Area.
  • How does the availability of qualified teachers influence the teaching of biology


1.6   Limitation of the Study

This study encountered some limitations posed by factors which the researcher could not control such as:

  1. Time Constraint: Time allowed for the conduct and completion of the study could not be long enough for the research.
  2. Financial Problem: Insufficient funds also hindered the efficient and effective conduct of the study

1.7    Delimitation of the Study

The scope of the study is limited to resources availability and utilization in the teaching of Biology. Although there are many resources used for teaching science (Biology), the study focuses mainly on laboratory resources and teaching aids. This study is delimited to secondary schools in Ibiono Ibom Local Government Area.



1.8 Definition of Terms

Resources: This can be defined as things that can be use to help achieve an aim. In the context of this study, resources involve such things like books, models, laboratoryequipment, facilities etc, which can be utilized in order to achieve educational objectives.

Availability: this refers to the extent to which something, instrument, tools, equipment materials, aids etc are provided and in good state for use.

Teaching: this is an activity carried out by the teacher. It involves the act of imparting knowledge on the learners or helping them to learn.

Biology: This is a science subject which study plants and animals and their characteristics.







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