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This project work was carried out to determine the role of
management in motivating workers in banking sector, using first Bank
Nig. Plc, Okpara Avenue, Enugu State as a case study. The purpose of
this study is to find out how workers in the banking sector derive
motivation, taking into consideration the impact of management
influence and the effect of this on productivity. Also research questions
and hypothesis were stated to be used in generalization towards the
end of this with the appropriates tools. The research design used in
this study is descriptive survey method, were simple random sampling
was used to obtain information as to the population of the firm, getting
a sample size of 44 persons. The data collection was based on primary
data like questionnaire, personal interviews and data like bank‟s
annual reports were also used. Statistical tools like chi-square, simple
percentage were used to analyze the data.The research findings
showed that worker‟s productivity does not necessarily depend on
motivation since every employee have a target to meet and also has
obligations to carryout. It was also established that motivation has
relationship with personnel officers‟ productivity but the basic fact
underlying the issue is that what appear to create motivation on one
personnel in a particular bank might not act similarly in other bank,
most especially in commercial banks. This can be deduced in the sense
that motivation does not work in all situations as panaceas to increase
productivity in all corporate organizations. Every indication shows that
environment and fringe benefits play significant role in personnel
manager‟s job satisfaction. Based on the findings above, the
researcher made this recommendation on how motivation in the
banking sector can be enhanced to have an impact in productivity. The
management should be able to identify what can actually make the
workers in their own banks have adequate motivation and whether
such motivation packages are capable of boosting high productivity.
Lastly, the management should also endeavor to include some
packages like compensation that will ensure adequate job security and
if possible work towards developing a policy for pensionable service.
Title page – – – – – – – – – i
Approval page – – – – – – – ii
Dedication – – – – – – – – – iii
Acknowledgment – – – – – – – – iv
Abstract – – – – – – – – – iv
Table of Contents – – – – – – – – vii
1.0 Introduction – – – – – – 1
1.1 Background of the Study – – – – – 2
1.2 Statement of Problem – – – – – 6
1.3 Objectives of the Study – – – – – 7
1.4 Significance of Study – – – – – 8
1.5 Research Question – – – – – 9
1.6 Research Hypothesis – – – – – 10
1.7 Scope of the Study – – – – – 11
1.8 Limitation of the Study – – – – – – 11
1.9 Definition of Terms – – – – – 13
1.10 Theoretical Framework – – – – – – 15
1.11 History of the Area of Study – – – – 18
2.0 Introduction – – – – – – 21
2.1 Theoretical Review – – – – – 21
2.2 Empirical Review (Definitions) – – – – 23
2.3 Intrinsic Motivation and Satisfaction – – 25
2.4 Implication and Application of Related Theories – 27
2.4.1 Process Theories – – – – – – – 29
2.5 Motivation and Job Satisfaction – – – – 32
2.6 Fredrick Herzberg‟s Theory of Motivation and Job
Satisfaction – – – – – – – 35
2.7 Job Enlargement and Job Enrichment – – – 38
2.7.1 Characteristic of Jobs – – – – – 39
2.8 The Hierarchy of Needs Theory – – – – 41
2.9 Role of Management on Motivating Personnel workers – 48
2.10 Importance of Motivation – – – – – 52
3.0 Introduction – – – – – – 57
3.1 Design of the Study – – – – – 57
3.2 Area of the Study – – – – – – 58
3.3 Population of the Study – – – – – – 58
3.4 Sample and Sampling Technique – – – – 58
3.5 Instrument for Data Collection – – – – 60
3.6 Validity of Instrument – – – – – – 61
3.7 Reliability of the Instrument – – – – 62
3.8 Method of Data Collection – – – – – 62
3.9 Method of Data Analysis – – – – – 63
4.0 Introduction – – – – – – 64
4.1 Interpretation of Data – – – – – 65
4.2 Test of Hypothesis – – – – – – 76
4.3 Discussion of Result – – – – – 84
5.1 Summary of Findings – – – – – 86
5.2 Conclusion – – – – – – – 88
5.3 Recommendation – – – – – – 90
Bibliography – – – – – – 93
Appendix – – – – – – – – 96
One of the most significant developments in the field of the
organization in recent times is the increasing importance given to
human resources. More and more attention is being paid into
motivational aspects of human personality, particularly the need of
self-esteem group belonging and self actualization. This new
awakening of humanism and humanization all over the world has infact
enlarged the scope of applying principle of personnel management in
organizations. The development of people, their competencies and the
process developing the total organization are the main concerns of
personnel managers.
Extension of organizations in banking sectors face the major
problems of professional incompetence and lack of motivation among
their employees. Further more, many banking sectors in Nigeria do not
have a well defined system of personnel management. Proper planning
and management of workers within extensions of organization is
essential to increase the capabilities, motivation and over all
effectiveness of personnel. Keeping this in view, this research
discusses the various dimensions of workers as applicable to extension
One of the major role of a personnel manager is to recruit, select
and place workers at their area of specialty; in other to boost these
personnel functions and enable them work effectively, they must be
adequately compensated. Comensation being a source of motivation
increases the performance of personnel in workplace. Management
must first consider what they can reasonably afford to pay their
personnel workers and the ramification of their decision; will they
affect workers‟ turnover and productivity. In addition, management
play vital role in motivating workers and they solely believe that pay
can influence their work ethic and behavior towards their job.
Moreover, social, economic, legal and political factor also exert
influence on the rate at which personnel managers operate.
It is hereby articulated that the increase of management
creating incentives as a source of motivation tends to boost and
increase the rate of response of employees in an organization thereby
increasing productivity.
The task facing management in various banking sector in recent
times is that of determining what should constitute adequate
motivation for the workers. To achieve these objectives,
the environment for the performance of the individuals working in
group towards accomplishing common objective must be maintained.
Personnel managers as well as employees are the single most
important source in any firm. They are the keys to higher productivity
and efficiency. Most managers have discovered that productive work
cannot be achieved through command, order or executive fiat. The
primary aim of personnel managers is to recruit, select and place were
they rightly suit, in order words, improved personnel managers
productivity and efficiency depends on individuals motivation that
gives them job satisfaction. The themes of motivation suggests that
personnels who have a clear sense of their own contribution to their
firm and who receive effective feedback from their manager are more
likely to experience job satisfaction than those who do not. Achieving
goals and being recognized for doing so is intrinsically motivational.
The satisfaction a personnel derived from their work varies, some
derive satisfaction from their environment, good salary they receive
other benefits and oversees training courses made available to them
by the management.
Those in banking sector derive their own satisfaction from the
nature of their job, car loan, rewards, interaction, training exercise and
other benefits they receive from the organization. Motivation has a lot
to do on workers emotion, when an individual is not motivated he
cannot put in his best. Motivation they say activates human energy. It
is a force which leads people to satisfy their important needs. All
human behaviour is directed towards a goal. Individual values and
goals differ from organizational goals and values. These values help
personnel make judgment and decisions on matters affecting them.
Personnel in organization have a number of responsibilities. They are
responsible to the organization for doing what they are paid to do
which is hiring new workers and administering basic resources like pay
and benefits and also responsible for meeting their own needs and
protecting their own values.
According to Eli Ginzberg (1982) in his human Economy, workers
want to earn enough from their work to meet the needs of their
families and to enjoy a rising standard of living. Secondly, they want
reasonable assurance that if their performance is satisfactory they can
look forward to holding their jobs and to the special benefit which will
accrue to them by virtue of their long term with the organizations.
They want their job to provide the satisfaction that comes from the
meaningful activities of the management. Finally, workers expect that
those who supervise and direct them will not infringe on their rights as
human beings and as citizens.
Furthermore, Koontz et al (1982) define motivation in a general
term applying to the entire class of desired needs, wishes and similar
force. We can look at motivation as involving a chain reaction on wants
or goals sought which gives rise to tension, then causing action
towards achieving goals, and finally satisfying wants. We can easily
note that many physiological needs are stimulated by environmental
factor. The smell of food may make one hungry, a high thermometer
reading may make us suddenly feeling hot or the sight of a cold drink
may cause an overwhelming thirst, who for example, has not had
certain physiological needs accentuated by an attractive
Udoh E.U. (1999) says that management has a major influence
on our perception and needs. The promotion of a colleague may kindle
one‟s desire for a higher position. A challenging problem may want our
desire to accomplish something by solving it. Personnel manager like
other categories of workers every where are basically the same. They
want more money, training exercise, more motivation accordingly.
Even in the banking sector, benefits that management can use in
motivating personnel managers include, medical facilities, pension,
gratuity plans, vacation leave with pay, and sick benefit with pay,
housing subsidy, and transport allowance. If these are the needs and
wants of personnel managers everywhere in the banking sector, what
type of benefit do managers in the sector provide to satisfy the
yearning of their manpower. From the situation of things in the
country, we can see that these fringe benefits are being denied to
personnel mangers in most banks in Nigeria. We don‟t need anyone to
convince us that productivity of personnel managers in such banks is
one of the lowest in the sector.
However, the basic focus of this study centers on the role of
management in motivating personnel managers in the banking sector.
Also the study has to look into things that makes recruiting officers in
the banking sector feel satisfied in their work as well as the things
management in the banking sector have to do to make sure that their
personnel derive satisfaction from their work to boost their
productivity, using First Bank, Plc, Okpara Avenue, Enugu State as a
case study.
Motivation of personnel managers in every bank poses some
serious problems to both management and employees themselves and
the two have been on entangled midway but research and analysis of
the motivation of personnel appears to emphasize the importance of
making job challenging and meaningful.
Employees attitude to work depends on the degree of motivation
they derive from the job. Satisfaction an individual derives from job
varies with age, sex, occupational level, social group and individual
increase in productivity depends on workers input and workers cannot
put in much when they are dissatisfied with their work.
In other words, the efforts of managers in motivating personnel
manager or human resource managers in most of the banking
institutions does not seem to yield expected result, but managers in
these banks often consider their immediate corporate financial position
to the detriment of effective motivation of the personnel workers and
the role played by personnels, forces managers always to take
consolation on aggregate return rather than individual rate of returns
thereby, getting the wrong evaluation and faulty picture of the impact
of the role of personnel managers in motivation. This degree of laxity
and limitation constitute the problem of this study which necessitates
this research.
The objectives of this study are:
1. To determine how managers contributes to the motivation of
personnel managers and their satisfaction in the banking
2. To determine the effectiveness of personnel workers in the
banking sector
3. To look into some motivation mix, that is, the set of
controllable variables that managers in the banks can use to
influence their personnel workers and recommend appropriate
motivation mix that will make the staff experience job
satisfaction that will enhance performance and quality of
service rendered to customers.
4. To determine the effectiveness and impact of motivation on
employee‟s productivity in the bank.
This research work will be relevant to the managers and
personnel managers of First Bank Nig. Plc. It will also be beneficial to
other public sector organization in Nigeria; it will also be of importance
to the government, potential and future researchers on the issue of
management‟s means to motivate personnel workers or related studies
on motivation.
This empirical study is also important to the researcher, since it
is a partial requirement for the award of Bachelor of Science (B.Sc) in
industrial Relations and Personnel Management. It is hoped that the
result of this study would be used by all corporate financial and
recruiting organizations involved in banking and personnel services, by
way of providing the necessary information and machinery that will be
useful for appropriate decision making and recruitment process in the
area of study. It would also guide management of related
organizations on policy formulation and even on implementation
This study will also identify how the academic environment
would stand to benefit in the direction of having a guide for research
work, lectures, seminars and even class work for the study. The
professionals would have enough ground for professional advice for
client and other related publics. Government will use the result of their
study as guiding information for policy formulation and other decisionmaking.
Finally, the general public and even the personnel managers
would benefit from this work by actually knowing what motivation as
well as the impact on performance is all about.
1. Are their any room for personnel management in your bank?
2. Are workers in your bank motivated on their work?
3. Does your bank management have concern on workers‟ job
4. What are the things management use to motivate personnel
managers in your bank?
5. Are there problems arising in your bank concerning workers‟
6. Did you think that motivation have an impact on worker‟s
productivity in your bank?
7. Does the management respond to the workers problems
8. In what ways do you think that motivation packages for workers
in your bank could be improved?
The researcher formulated the following hypothesis based on the
objectives and problem identified for the purpose of this research
work, stating them in both Null and Alternate forms.
1. Ho: Motivation does not have significant impact on workers
Hi: Motivation has significant impact on workers productivity
2. Ho: Employee productivity does not depend on motivation
Hi: Employee productivity depends on motivation
3. Ho: The role of management in motivating worker in the
banking sector is not significant.
Hi: The role of management in motivating workers in the
banking sector is significant.
4. Ho: Provision for advancement would not improve workers
Hi: Provision for advancement would improve workers
This research work focuses particularly on the role of
management in motivating workers in the banking sector. For this
reason therefore, the research has consulted with several views on the
issues of motivation and workers to include text books on
management, Human Resource Management; industrial relations,
Newspaper, edits, journals banks etc. The work could be voluminous if
all the arguments of different authors are presented, but they have
been carefully selected so that only issues particularly concentrating
on management‟s motivation of workers in banking sector are
In the process of conducting this research work on the role of
management in motivating workers in the Banking sector,
a lot of factors militated against the study. First was the attitude of the
respondents to the researcher, some of the respondents took the
researcher to be an agent from external bodies and deliberately
refused to answer the questions. This is mostly the case with the
senior staff/managers.
Closely associated with this problem is the fact that some of the
respondents did not return the questionnaire to the researcher. This is
a big limitation to this study since it further reduced the sample of
workers in the company used for the study.
Another problem that was encountered was due to shortage of
time and financial constraints. The research was faced with financial
problem due to transportation involved, printing questions, consulting
newspapers etc. also the scarcity of current materials or books
imposed serious limitations on the study.
The effect of the national strike which also affected the banks was also
a constraint. Finally, the problem of retrieving questionnaire from the
respondents, some of whom did not care to complete the
questionnaire and so it became necessary to retrieve and redistribute
The research would have even cost more if it were to cover all
banking sector in the country, thus, the research areas is limited to
first Bank Nig. Plc, Okpara Avenue, Enugu State.
1. Motivation – It is a feeling of enthusiasm, interest or
commitment that makes a worker wants to work and accomplish such
2. Personnel manager – It is a person who administers
nationwide merit system for federal employment, including
recruitment, examination and training programs.
3. Management – A person or a body controlling and directing the
affairs of business, institution firms etc.
4. Organization – A group of people brought together for the
purpose of achieving certain objectives while these members may
change, the role of the organization which is this basic unit is
5. Work – This implies any kind of purposive activity whether paid
or unpaid, fulltime or part time, formal or informal. With reference to
an organization. It used to imply the operations involved in a particular
6. Human resources – It is a field of business concerned with
recruiting and managing employees or workers in any working sector.
7. Productivity – It is referred to the measured relationship
between the quantity (and quality) of result produced and the quantity
of resources required for production. In essence, it is a measure of the
work efficiency of an individual, work unit, or entire organization.
8. Promotion – It is advancement to a more senior job or a higher
rank, grade or position and also it could be a source of encouragement
of the growth or development of something.
9. Job Satisfaction – It is when a worker carries out a work and
feels fulfilled that such work is carried out.
10. Job Security – It is an area of safety in job that helps deals
with the protection of workers health and safety, through the control
of the work environment to reduce or eliminate hazard.
11. Job Evaluation – It is the process of comparing, ranking and
appraising jobs by the use of specific qualitative or quantitative
factors, such as mental and physical skills, degrees of responsibility
and working condition.
12. Fringe benefits – It is an alternative and offered by a firm to
this workers to make them feel satisfied with their jobs, such as
pensions, vacation and sick days, insurance, health, bonuses etc.
13. Employee productivity – Is the amount of time an individual is
physically present at a job and also the degree to which he or she is
“mentally present” or efficiently functional while present at a job.
The theory of Abraham Maslow‟s (the hierarchy of needs) is used
to explain the relationship between management‟s motivation and
personnel manager. It is the most widely mentioned theories of
motivation and that best suit this research work. Maslow saw human
needs from the lowest to the highest needs ie in hierarchy and he
concluded that when one set of needs are satisfied, this kind of need
ceases to be a motivator. Maslow said; “If we are interested in what
actually motivates us and not what has or will, or might motivate us,
then a satisfied need is not a motivator”. According to Maslow, these
needs are classified into five and all of them go towards giving an
individual (personnel manager) motivation and job satisfaction. These
needs are:
a. Physiological need:
Undoubtedly, these basic needs are the most proponents of all
needs. What this means specifically is that, human beings who has not
achieved anything in life in an extreme fashion, it is most likely that
the major motivation would be the physiological needs rather than any
other. A person who is lacking food, safety and esteem would probably
hunger for food more strongly than anything else. At every stage in
the organization, management is to recognize that every kobo means
much to the employee. He would trade some comfort for money.
b. Safety need:
Once the first need are largely satisfied, safety needs emerges.
An individual becomes concerned with the need for safety and
security, protection from physical harm, disaster, illness and security
of income, life style and loss of employment. An employee likes to
know that his employment is permanent. The loss of his job could
induce him to seek ways of satisfying his physiological needs. In other
to motivate such employee and encourage productivity, management
would try as much as possible to provide security for workers.
c. Social need:
The need is often referred to as acceptance need. The individual
has satisfied his two basic needs and wants acceptance, to love and to
be loved. The value of friendship, affection and the sense of belonging
are much needed and are seldom satisfied by money. Management on
their part could motivate personnel manager by paying them adequate
salary and rewarding them for the services rendered.
d. Esteem needs:
At this stage the individual has need for recognition,
accomplishment, and achievement for the need for self respect. He
loves to take responsibilities and prove himself. The esteem need is
the ego need. A personnel manager would feel motivated when
management gives room for his contribution to be recognized and
appreciated. The feeling of independence, professionalism and
confidence is highest at this stage. It is important for management to
e. Self Actualization:
This need is often called fulfillment need. This is the need for an
employee to reach his highest potential at work place in conquering his
environment. A personnel manager is motivated by a desire to selfactualize, to achieve whatever he defines as his maximum potential, to
do his work to the best of his ability. As he succinctly put it, “what a
man can be, he must be”.
Maslow believe that an average citizen satisfies perhaps 85% of
his physiological needs 70% of his esteem needs and 10% of his self
actualization needs. According to him, human motive at work are
governed by these needs and their satisfaction will lead to motivation
and high productivity. It must be recognized that there is a great deal
of over lap in the concept of hierarchy of needs and a great deal of
inter-dependence among the various levels there is no clear cut
distinction between one level and the other, when all the individual
needs tends to be partially satisfied, the safety need disappears as
social needs and esteem needs emerged, they only become less
Certainly, there is evidence that Maslow‟s theory is able to
account for findings on occupational level and motivation. Those in
lower level of occupation are likely to be motivated by lower order
needs as pay and security. Where as those in high levels of occupation
that have those basic needs fulfilled are more interested in fulfilling
higher order needs. Again this depends in the time and circumstances
since a person on esteem need can fall back to physiological needs
during severe economic depression.
Maslow did not infact intend that needs hierarchy should be
directly applied to job satisfaction but despite this lack of interest on
his part, a number of theorists like McGregor (1960) “The „X‟ and the
„Y‟ Theory” has popularized Maslows theory in management literature.
The needs Hierarchy has a tremendous impact on the modern
management and job satisfaction studies by Beer (1960) and Clack
(1960) seem to support Maslow theory.
First Bank was founded precisely in March 31st 1894. at
inception, the bank was incorporated as a limited liability company
under the name Bank of British West Africa (BBWA), with the head
office originally in Liverpool.
First Bank of Nigeria Plc is the premier bank in West Africa and
the leading financial service provider in Nigeria. The Bank has involved
itself in national development especially its contribution to the
economic growth and development of Nigeria over the last 116 years
and has been driven by commitment to the provision of excellent
banking services.
In response to a rapidly changing economic and business
environment, First Bank has at various times restructed her
operations. This Bank had in 1975 changed her name from Bank of
British West Africa (BBWA) to Bank of West Africa (BWA). In 1966, the
Bank merged with standard bank, UK and adopted the standard Bank
of West Africa limited and in 1969 was incorporated locally as the
standard Bank of Nigeria Limited in line with the companies Decree of
1968 changes in their name also occurred in 1979 and 1991 to First
Bank of Nigeria Limited and First Bank of Nigeria Plc, respectively.
First Bank opened it‟s second branch in Nigeria in Calabar in1900
and 12 years after, extended it‟s service to Northern Nigeria by
opening Zaria, Banch. The Kano Branch was opened in 1928. Currently
with over 570 branches, the First Bank group has one of the largest
branch networks in Nigeria. In 2002, First Bank established a wholly
owned banking subsidiary in United Kingdom First Bank of Nigeria (UK)
limited, regulated by the financial service Authority (FSA). First Bank
thus became the First Nigerian Bank to own a fully fledged bank in the
UK. In 2007, First Bank of Nigeria (UK) set up it‟s Paris office to serve
as a marketing base to service francophone West Africa. First Bank
also has a representative office in South Africa and has obtained a
license to open a representative office in China.
As a full spectrum, financial service provides the
product/services mix has been designed to cater for the needs of their
diverse client base. Increasing strongly on services delivered via
various electronic platforms, the primary concern is to improve
customer transaction convience and in a case of access to their service
as well as strengthen transaction security


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