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This research work is an attempt made to enforce the role played by planning and control to management efficiency and productivity. The incessant business and reluctant growth of some companies or enterprise can be linked to deficiency in planning and control. In view of these, this topic is designed to guide managers in companies re-focus their policies towards the utilization of firm’s fund and to administer work. This work introduces the issue of stating the problems, definition of some operational items and significance of study etc. finally, the researcher discussed the procedures adopted in carrying out this research, the summary of finding about company and recommendation for the company was made for further research. In the summary of the findings, the researcher tried to look at the planning and control of PZ Industries Plc by investigating the various guidelines used by the enterprise. Here it was emphasized that effective planning and control leads to continuous existence, increase in market share and profit maximization of the organization. It was recommended that adequate and qualified managers should be employed to handle firm effectively in planning and controlling of resources of the enterprise.




Title page                                                                 i

Approval page                                                          ii

Dedication                                                               iii

Acknowledgement                                                    iv

Abstract                                                                   v

Table of contents                                                     vi



1.0   Introduction                                                     1

1.1   Background of the study                                  1

1.2   Statement of the problem                        4

1.3  Purpose of the study                                        5

1.4  Significance of the study                                  6

1.5   Research question                                           8

1.6  Scope of the study                                           8

1.7   Limitations of the study                                   9

1.7   Definitions of terms                                 11




2.0   Introduction                                                     13

2.1   Nature of planning and control                        16

2.2   History of universal basic education board      26

2.3  Steps in planning                                            19

2.4  The process of planning                                   24

2.5  Control process                                                26

2.6   Types of plan                                                  29

2.7   Control steps                                                   32

2.8  Solution to the problems                                35

2.9   Principles of planning                                      35




3.0   Research Design and Methodology                  39

3.1  Design of the study                                          39

3.2  Area of the study                                              40

3.3   Population of the study                                    40

3.4   Sample size and sampling technique               41

3.5   Instrument for data collection                          42

3.6  Validity and reliability of the instrument         45

3.7   Distribution and retrieval of the instrument    46

3.8  Method of data collection                                 46



4.0   Data presentation and analysis                       47

4.1   Data Presentation                                            48

4.2   Data analysis                                                   55

4.2   Discussion/Analysis of finding                        56




5.0   Summary of findings, Conclusion and Recommendations                                               58

5.1   Summary of the findings                                 59

5.2   Conclusion                                                      60

5.3   Recommendations                                           61

References                                                       63

Appendix                                                         65

Questionnaire                                                  66





The project topic role of planning and control to management efficiency and productivity. in an economy like Nigeria administrators has been faced with credible problems. Planning as a key to management efficiency and productivity involves selecting mission objectives and action to achieve them, it also bridges the gab from where we are and where we want to go. if can equally be analyzing a situation determining the goals that will be pursued in future deciding in advance the actions that will be taken to achieves these goal.

Controlling in the other hand, emphasizes function involves monitoring the progress of the organization or the work unit towards goal. If necessary, taking corrective action, strategic planning, setting, objectives, managing resources. The small medium and large scale administrators experience frustrations when they make their forecast because they do not move as proposed. The crucial thing in the management is how far internal prediction are right or wrong in what planners wants to achieve. Usually large business organization differ in their planning and controlling processes but more significantly in the way these are woven into business planning and equally controlling system. It every stage, in order to ensure the manages effectiveness always depends solely in his convincing the management on the management of the soundness of his findings on planning and controlling process.

In management planning and controlling roles exist to managers and business more efficient by recognizing it to reduce or eliminate waste. They should plan towards their survival although there could be many scenarios the manages should always find ways to avoid those events that would result inefficiency of services as wall winding up of these business with this background. The efficiency and effectiveness of the management can be quite profitable and can aid expansion into planning as they to management efficiency would ask questions? where we what to start? Where do we go from the starting point? What do we go there to do? Who goes with us, these question are necessary because without plan administrator cannot lead or expect the follower to obey them. They will have little or no chance to accomplish the goals or know when or where they stayed from their paths. Dalton McFarland defined planning as the activity by which administrators analyze present condition to determine ways of reaching a desired future state.



Some business organizations maintain poor performance due to poor planning and control which effects the management efficiency and productivities of the organization. Poor planning and control are the factors that limit the productivities rate and growth of an organization also management inefficiency. Poor planning and control as a problem usually affects the smooth running and profit of the organization some business unit have no proper projects analysis and coordination greater attention in being paid on non productive projects than productive projects. In some occasion a business organization making much profit on its subsequent year but on present stage now  are

running into a big loss. And some others that were before making big loss are now pulling the lions share. There have been situations where organizations offer many years of its formation will collapse even though they many be well planned financed and managed while some other will stand a test of time. Based on this administrative lacuna which planning is the key problems the researcher now deemed imperative to write on this topic.


In view of these PZ industry (Nig.) Plc is been checked to determined the level of planning and control that goes on in the organization. This researcher work is being designed to accomplish these objectives stated on his to determine the extent to which planning and control have positively affected Paterson Zochonis Industries (Nig.) Plc. Secondly to investigate the principle procedures and steps on which planning and control should be based in order to arrives at a course of action that will lead to specific goal. Thirdly to identify the major tools for planning and control, and how best fools will be effectively use to achieve effective planning and control in PZ industries. And also to determine the extent to which proper planning and control can reduce business failure or distress in PZ industries.



Planning and control are very pertinent tool for ensuring the efficiency and productivity of the management. Survival of a business especially where there are lots of unforeseen and uncontrollable variable always pull the organization down. Therefore, a constant and comprehensive step in formulating strategies plans and putting in place certain appraisal and evaluation system as a measure to control become necessary. Therefore this research work intends to enforce and help administrators to appreciate the essence of planning and control of their limited resources to meet the objective of the organization through efficiency productivity and profitability. Moreso, it will educate administrators on how cost of production, price stability increase in turnover and adequate profit shall remain the overall measure of management efficiency. In addition to that the importance of this study will be in the development of using planning and control to help management in making relevant policy decisions which of well circulated will result to increase efficiency and effectiveness of the firm. This will in turn help to create avenues for the firms to achieve their optimum profitability which will be beneficial to the shareholder, employees, creditors and government including other that many have one dealing with organization or other. Furthermore, the outcome of this study will bring life to adying business organization caused by incessant sustenance of operational breakdown and failure.



Answers to the question below would lead to the solution of the problem.

  1. What extent has planning and controls have positively affected the organization?
  2. What are the principles procedures and steps on which planning and control should be based in order to arrive at a course of action that will lead to a specific goal?
  3. What are the major tools for planning and control?


        The efficiency and effectives of productivities in Paterson 20 Chonis industries (Nig.) Plc is being positively affected because of high rate of planning and control of the management. Planning and control in management efficiency allows a the manage to estimate costs and the time required to finish the projects of the organization. However, planning and control act as device that enable management of PZ Industries (Nig.) Plc to anticipate changes and adopt them. No business can exist well without planning and control and the skill with which it’s affair are being managed by the management.



        During the course of undertaking this research project the researcher encountered some extraneous variable which hindered the free flow of work. The information were generated from staff of PZ Industries (Nig.) Plc books and journals some of the factor include:-

  1. Time Constraint: Due to the nature of this study the time allocated to it was not sufficient which could not accord the researcher the opportunity to carry some organization that are concerned to this research.
  2. Finance: Inadequate finance was a major handicapped to faster this research project. This was as a result of the huge transport cost involved in the collection of information.
  3. Accessibility: During the course of this research project, the researcher found it difficult to have access to the population of interest and as a result, not all the desired information was collected since extensive visit was nor also made.
  4. Fear of information dissemination by not giving accurate information by respondents.


Management: It is defined as social and technical process that utilizes resources and change human behavior in the desired in order to elicit contribution that will objectives.

Planning: This is the defined as the process by which managers analyze present condition to determine ways of reaching a desired future state.

Control: This is defined as a process by which manager endeavour to achieve planned result by matching performance with intended objectives.

Forecasting: This is defined as statement that predicts something with the help of information.

Efficiency: It is the achievement of ends with the least amount of resources.

Organization: This is the aggregate of people whose objectives are towards accomplishment of a given goal or objectives.

Goal: An end towards which one is working for.

Effectiveness: It is the ability of bring about the intended result having an effect, it is also the achievement.



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