1.1 Background to the Study
The public service is an organization of government that execute the polices and decision at government. Public service also presuppose service in the organization of government .truly speaking the bulk of decisions and action taken by the government are influenced and implemented by public service. The public service exists for the smooth running of the state in terms of helping in translating government proposals and objectives into action. Although in theory, it is the prerogative of the legislature (elected political office holder) to make and formulate policies and the public servant(Bureaucrats)are responsible for the successful and effective implementation of these policies and programmes even though, the mandate the dries have a case in the favour of this assertion.
The public servant who are made up of competently technically and professionally trained men and woman in the nest field of government make and formulate these policies which when presented to their political which when presented to their police boss are merely structure and rubber stumped. Ogunna (1999) its main goal however, and the developing countries is how to see to the formulate and execution of people oriented policies and programmes of government that will enhance the general economic welfare of citizen. However within the emergence of modern state and democracies the public service has evolved as the bed- rock of the executive arm of the government that ensure the implementation of the policies of the legislature while ensuring the continuity of government which is tailored toward the actualization of government objectives which is sine-qua-non to nation development. Ajekomo and Aroh (2003) put differently, productivity is a crucial factor in economic and social development of a nation or an organization. Productivity is goal of every organization, any organization that cannot operate to a degree of significant productivity is an important entity Ogunna (1999) a productive worker or employee is a productive technical and skill manpower will be an economically and socially buoyant and viable society organization and nation spend million years to improve staff or individual who will bring about productivity improvement to their service be it private or public organization Akanwa and Ohiri (2003) efficiency and effectiveness are inter related concept associated with organization endeavour while efficiency simple describe input/out put relation, effectiveness refers to the degree to which an organization can is able to achieve high output with minimum in put (Ikelegbe 1974) in public agencies and parastatals. Efficiency is often time regard of competence by which desired result are achieved it requires the goal should be achieved with minimum waste of resource in government bureaucracy. The emphasis is on attainment of goods; service and promotion of public welfare rather than profit maximization (hale 1997). It might interest you to know that public agency can be measured based on the level of the attainment or realization at policy programme and organizational goals and objectives. Generally productivity in the public service can be effective depending on whether stated intention planned and projected output (productivity) and objective are realized or not. Above all, it is note worthy to state that there are number of bed exiling institution, structural, motivational, social economic factors affecting productivity in the public service at all levels of government both federal state and local level and also in government agencies parastatals and ministries. Consequently this research work is designed to emphasize on only the social political factor affecting the municipal council Imo state and proffer possible solution to the affecting social political factors so as to ensure effective, efficient and improved productivity in the public service.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
In the sphere of public service certain socio-political factors have been identified as factors responsible for low productivity in public service. Therefore, it is indeed important to state emphatically the factor responsible for poor productivity in the service. Among the factor identified as being responsible for the poor productivity in public service are
- Political instability
- Negative attitude to work
- Ethnicity and federal character principle
- God fatherism
- Sexual harassment
- Religions beliefs and crisis
In view of the various identified problem responsible for poor performance and low productivity of public servant in Nigeria, each successive government have tried general reforms measure to improve efficiency and providing public agencies but these effort have always yield little result. This research is therefore aimed at examine the various socio-political problem facing Owerri municipal council traces their cause and suggest possible solution that when put to test will prove on their present state.
1.3 Research Questions
This are question that will help investigate this research work in relation to the approved topic include the following
- What are the factors responsible for low productivity in public service in Owerri municipal?
Lack of Incentive: does lack of incentive responsible for low productivity in public service in Owerri municipal
- How have these factor affect productivity in public service in Owerri municipal council?
Lack of Incentive affect productivity in public service in Owerri municipal council
- What is the measure to overcome this problem that is affecting productivity in public service in Owerri municipal council?
Incentive: incentive is one of the measure to overcome this problem that is affecting productivity in public service in Owerri municipal council
1.4 Purpose of the Study
Based on the above the study is designed to achieve the following
- To determined the factors responsible for low productivity in public service in Owerri municipal.
Lack of Incentive: does lack of incentive responsible for low productivity in public service in Owerri municipal
- To ascertain if the factor affect productivity in public service in Owerri municipal council.
- To examine the measure to overcome this problem that is affecting productivity in public service in Owerri municipal council.
To examine incentive as a measure to overcome this problem that is affecting productivity in public service in Owerri municipal council.
1.5 Significance of the Study
This research work will be useful to the public service especially that of the Owerri municipal council. It will benefit the staff management committee of the council and the staff of other organizations especially in the public sector, because staff productivity is the main focus of every organization that have workers.
The study will also be beneficial to the civil service commission, senior staff management committee and the department of personnel and administration in relation to improving the staff productivity and efficiency. This work will also enable us to unravel the causes of law productivity in the public service, thereby guiding the government on the steps to take in solving them, the Local government examined will also benefit from the work if it adopts the findings and recommendations provided in this work when making policies and decisions concerning its staff and their level of productivity.
Above all, the research work will contribute to the stock of knowledge and stimulate further research in the subject matter, and further serve as a reference material for the researchers.
1.6 Scope of the Study
The scope of the study is to know socio-political factors affecting productivity in the public service so as to proffer possible solution to poor performance and low government occasioned by those factors. The work covers Owerri municipal council and the research ensures that the work is in depth and adequate coverage of the aforementioned local government and for effectiveness the work is limited to the public service.
1.7 Limitation of the Study
A study like this is bounded to encounter one problem or the other, other which the research has to grapple with from time to time which may affect the finding and consequently its generation conversely the generalization of this work should not be a matter of doubt to the information user.
The effort of the researcher was limited by the following;
Time constraint, Inadequate find, security of information by some staff of the local government council and Non- chalet attitude of some public service in the local government. Also the limit in which the research were was carried out, was not enough for the research to explore all avenue that would have added more light to this researcher work.
The limitations was overcome through the use of secondary source of data collection, they are as follows:
1.8 Definition of Terms
Good research ethics demand that term should be defined in right sense where they are used in remove any ambequnes meaning in pursuant of his belief the following term are defined as they used in the study.
PUBLIC SERVICES: This refers to all personnel all public institution financed and maintain by taxpayer and the emolument of personnel are regularly authorized by the legislature acting in concert with executive.
PRODUCTIVITY: This is defined as the measure of how well resources are brought together or services delivered in organisation and utility for accomplishing a set of result.
SOCIAL- POLITICAL FACTORS: This is a combination of those societal and political variables that affect or shape the performance or productivity of staff in the organisation.
STAFF: This is defined as a member of workers in an organisation.
HUNCH: This is a strong feeling that something is true even though you do not have any evidence to prove it.
EFFECTIVENESS AND EFFICIENCY: Effectiveness refers in the degree in which an organisation can or is able to achieve high output with minimum input, while efficiency is the extent in which the resources of an organisation is judiciously utilized and managed to maximize cost effectiveness.
MOTIVATION: Beach  defined motivation as willingness in expand energy in order to achieve a goal or reward. Kaitner  assert that motivation is a process that arouses channel, purpose and direction.
BUREAUCRACY: The rules and regulation that things are suppose to be done. The process by which things is suppose to be done, the way of doing things in an organisation.
BUREAUCRATS: Workers’ who are responsible for the successful and effective implementation of policies and programmes of government.
FRINGE BENEFIT : These are other entitlement extra benefit paid by the basic salary and in addition to basic salary
ECOLOGY OF PUBLIC ADMINSTRATION OKPO (2005) opined that the ecology of public administration refers to the totality of natural, historical socio-cultural and political factors which as it were influenced the growth of public administration system
SYSTEM: system according to okenwa and ugbo(2001) is an assembly of set of related element Njoku (2008) posit that a system is simple term element working together for a common purpose.
LOCAL GOVERNMENT : According to Nwoji (2005) local government is define in the Nigeria context as that ungues third-tier in a federal system of government saddled with responsibility of peddling development activities in the rural area with the aim of making the impact of government (civilian or military ) benefit of the local area.
MINISTRY :A ministry refer to an office in the public service which is under the control of a permanent secretary and headed by a ministry and whose official are civil servant that has a particular area of responsibities e.g. ministry of finance ministry of education ministry of justice etc
EXTEAL –MINITERIAL DEPARTMENT : These according to Ayioda panel (1997) refers to any office in public service which is under the control of a head of the department which official are civil servant. Such offices are usually established in the constitution they include such office as a auditor, general federal judicial service commission federal civil service commission etc.
1.9 Organization of the Study
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows. Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (background of the study), statement of the problem, purpose of the study, research questions, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope of the study etc. Chapter two being the review of the related literature presents the theoretical framework, conceptual framework and other areas concerning the subject matter. Chapter three is a research methodology covers deals on the research design and methods adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study
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