Poor productivity is a global problem that besets organizations.
As a result, the research was set out to ascertain the effects of
strategic planning through the effective use of manpower in the
strategic planning development and the right choice of
technology for strategic planning implementation on
organizational productivity. To solve the problem of the study,
three hypotheses were formulated. The statistical tools applied
for testing the hypotheses are mean, standard deviation and Ttest. The major findings are the need for adopting a systematic
strategic planning process, choosing the appropriate technologies
for strategic planning implementation and engaging professionals
/ experts in the strategic planning development. The major
recommendations employed the organizational management to
scan the environment and evolve a systematic strategic plan that
would checkmate the effects of the business environment, equip
the organization with appropriate technologies for strategic
planning implementation and assign professionals / experts in
their respective area of specialization during strategic planning
development. This would increase productivity and effectiveness
in the organization.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Title page – – – – – – – – – i
Approval page – – – – – – – – ii
Certification – – – – – – – – iii
Dedication – – – – – – – – iv
Acknowledgement – – – – – – – v
Abstract – – – – – – – – – vii
Table of Content – – – – – – – viii
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study – – – – – 1
1.2 Theoretical Framework – – – – – 2
1.3 Statement of the Problem – – – – – 4
1.4 Objectives of the Study – – – – – 5
1.5 Research Questions – – – – – – 6
1.6 Research Hypotheses – – – – – 6
1.7 Significance of the Study – – – – – 7
1.8 Scope of the Study – – – – – – 7
1.9 Limitation of the Study – – – – – 8
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction – – – – – – – – 9
2.2 Strategic Management Conceptualized – – 9
2.3 The Concept of Planning and Strategic Planning – 11
2.4 Levels of Strategy – – – – – – 15
2.5 Models of Business Level Strategy – – – 18
2.6 Strategy Planning Process – – – – – 22
2.7 Modes of Strategy Formulation – – – – 27
2.8 Strategic Implementation Impediments – – 29
2.9 Historical Background of the Nigerian Bottling
Company Plc – – – – – – – 32
CHAPTER THREE – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction – – – – – – – 37
3.2 Instruments for Data Collection – – – 37
3.3 Population and Sampling Procedure – – – 38
3.4 Method of Data Analysis – – – – – 39
CHAPTER FOUR – DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND
4.1 Introduction – – – – – – – 41
4.2 Preliminary Presentation of Data – – – 41
4.3 Mean Responses to Questions – – – – 51
4.4 Tests of Hypotheses – – – – – – 56
CHAPTER FIVE – SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION
5.1 Introduction – – – – – – – 60
5.2 Summary of Findings – – – – – 60
5.3 Conclusion – – – – – – – 62
5.4 Recommendation – – – – – – 63
References – – – – – – – – 65
Appendix A – Letter of Appeal to NBC – – 68
Appendix B – Research questionnaires – – 69
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Strategies and Strategic planning in the context of business
organization refer to major programmes used by organizations to
achieve their missions and goals.
Strategic planning is a systematic process which influences
the choice of the long term goals that define the corporate
strategy of every firms. The corporate strategy, if adequately
implemented, through projects, policies and budgets, helps to
determine whether an enterprise achieves its objectives even if it
survives (Onwuchekwa, 2000: 66).
Since strategic planning is perceived as a mediating force
between the organization and its environment, it has become
highly imperative for business organizations to adopt it so as to
enhance their productivity.
For any business organization to operate in the present
turbulent environment as well as survive the swift competition
therein, adequate strategic planning is necessary. This will define
fundamental goals and objectives in specific terms and determine
the means to achieve them. Strategic planning can therefore be
said to have a strong influence on the survival and growth of an
organization, most especially in a volatile environment.
Since strategic planning aims at finding how a company or
organization competes successfully within its turbulent
environment, strategic planning is based on effective use of
manpower in the strategic planning development and choosing
appropriate technologies for effective implementation of the
strategic plans. This is necessary for the survival and growth of
organizations under competitive condition.
Considering the numerous challenges faced by business
organizations, strategic planning is designed to increase
productivity as well as ensure survival and growth.
It is against this background that this study is being carried
1.2 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
The purpose of strategic or long range planning is to assist
the organization in establishing priorities and to better serve the
needs of the organization and the customers.
Strategic planning, if implemented properly, increases
organization’s effectiveness and productivity (Robison, 2003:204).
A strategic plan must be flexible, practical and serve as a guide
to implementing and evaluating programs and making
adjustments when necessary.
Strategic planning must follow a systematic process and its
implementation should depend on appropriate technology (Yip,
2002:200). Technology has come a long way in the life of every
organization. The rapid pace of technological change and
innovation has created a significant barrier to improving the
implementation of strategic plan. With the rapid pace of
innovation and technology, the identification and acquisition of
technology is highly necessary to achieve increased productivity
in the organization (Lee, 2001:750).
Human resource commitment towards strategic planning
makes strategic plans to be highly successful (Foster, 2001:151).
The staff recruited to the strategic planning team should come
from both the business and information technology division and
require a strong working knowledge of the business activities.
A significantly related issue, according to Gibson (2004:29),
is that while staffs are working on the development of strategic
plan, they are unable to conduct other organization work. For
this reason, it is often difficult to secure top management
commitment for the protracted use of resources under their
Strategic plans, which ensure the effective use of manpower
and appropriate technology for its implementation, must be
closely aligned to achieve organization’s productivity (Yip,
2002:100). It is vital that strategic planning process moves with
the times and employs new and innovative techniques.
1.3 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Poor productivity in most industries, after the euphoria of
the Nation’s Independence, could be seen from the indices of
denial of strategic planning, technology and effective use of
manpower most basic to an organization’s performance.
The non-systematic strategic planning process, the inability
to acquire the necessary technology due to inadequate fund and
the non-effective use of manpower in the strategic planning
development can be seen to have serious militating hurdles to
contend with. The formulation of the strategy of an organization
involves elaborate analysis of technological, environmental and
organizational human resources in particular.
Therefore, output per unit of a factor of production should
be planned in such a way that it follows the systematic process,
identifies the opportunities and threats in the environment,
evaluates the strengths and weaknesses of the organization,
acquires the necessary technologies, hires appropriate people
and develops appropriate incentives that will motivate the
employees to higher performance.
1.4 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
In an attempt to proffer solution to the problem of this
study, the following objectives were set:
1. To find out the effect of strategic planning on the level of
2. To ascertain the effect of choosing appropriate technology in
the implementation of strategic planning.
3. To examine the impact of effective use of manpower on the
strategic planning of the organization.
4. To make adequate recommendation based on the findings of the
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTION
The research questions are as follows:
1. To what extent does strategic planning lead to the increase of
2. How does appropriate technology guarantees the implementation
of strategic planning?
3. How can the effective use of manpower affects the strategic
planning process of the organization?
1.6 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
The hypotheses of this study are:
Hi1: There is significant relationship between strategic planning
and the enhancement of the level of productivity.
HO1: There is no significant relationship between strategic
planning and the enhancement of the level of productivity.
Hi2: Appropriate technology does significantly guarantee the
implementation of strategic plans.
HO2: Appropriate technology does not significantly guarantee
the implementation of strategic plans.
Hi3 Sound strategic planning does significantly depend on
effective use of manpower.
HO3 Sound strategic planning does not significantly depend on
effective use of manpower.
1.7 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The significance of this study hinge around its contribution
to the world of knowledge.
The study will help managers to achieve a quick and
positive result in the organizations productive efforts by adopting
the systematic process of strategic planning. It will assist the
management of every organization in reviving their various
policies and introducing appropriate technologies which will
ensure effectiveness within the organizations.
The students will equally benefit by using the information
gathered from the research for class work assignments,
seminars, lectures as well as for further research work.
On the part of the government, the study can provide the
basis for legislative policy decision mostly in this era of
This study will also expose the ordinary man to the
meaning, importance and effects of strategic planning on
1.8 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of the study is limited to Nigerian Bottling
Company Plc Enugu.
1.9 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
It is always difficult to complete a research without going
through a number of factors which constitute impediments. The
most prominent factors are:
a. Lack of material.
b. Lack of cooperation.
c. Financial constraints.
Most of the libraries visited could not provide current and
up-to-date information as most of the textbooks on strategic
planning were inadequate. Custodians of the available materials
prove grossly uncooperative. Most of the journals from internets
are also inaccessible.
Lack of cooperation on the side of the workers towards
filling the questionnaires was nothing to write home about. Most
of the workers approached for interviews and questionnaires
usually claimed to be occupied.
Finance was another constraint. The researcher had to
make frantic efforts by traveling and visiting many libraries and
other data banks to gather reasonable materials
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