Page Length: 35

Size: 69 KB

Format: PDF & Word



The project constructed was sand filter; equipment for portable water filtration.  This was constructed using a mild steel material.  This was because of the excellent high qualities of mild steel such as; durability tensile strength, high corrosion resistance and also relative in cost compare to other special alloyed materials, like stainless steel.

The send filter was chosen to be in cylindrical shap, to ensure a maximum pressure for proper filtration to occur and avoid edges that could attract dirt.


The tap, which was filled in the bottom section of the equipment, was used to run out the filtrate.


Finally the construction of sand filter was successful having an overall dimension in millimeters (mm) with a filtering capacity of 25 liters per day and may be conveniently used by small scale industry.


TITLE PAGE                                                                I

DEDICATION     –        –        –        –        –        –        II

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT       –        –        –        –        III

ABSTRACT        –        –        –        –        –        –        IV

TABLE OF CONTENT –        –        –        –        –        V



INTRODUCTION                                                          1

Aim and objective                                                        4



Literature review                                                          5

Theory of filtration                                                        6

Types of filtration                                                          11

Classification of filter medium                                      13

Study of send filter equipment                                     17

Description of equipment

Material for construction                                              18


Method of construction                                                21



Discussion                                                                    25

Problems encountered during construction                26

Conclusion                                                                   27

Recommendation                                                         28

Appendices                                                                   28

References                                                                   31








Filtration is the removal of solid particles from a fluid by passing the fluid through a filtering medium or septum, on which the solids are deposited, example of such filtering medium is known as sand filter.

The fluid may be a liquid or gas; the valuable stream from the filter may be fluid, the solid on both.  Sometimes it is neither as when waste solid, must be separated from waste prior to disposal, in chemical laboratory.

In chemical laboratory, filtration is often carried out in a form of buchnor funnel and liquid is sucked through a thin layer of particles using a source of vacuum or even sampler cases, the suspension is pored into a conical funnel filtered unit a filter perper.


Generally, a thick layer of particles or solid particles as to be formed and in order to achieve a high rate of passage of fluid through the solids, high pressure will be required and it will be necessary to provide a far greater area.

Fluid flows through a filter medium by virtue of pressure differences across the medium.  The volume of the suspension to be handled will very from the extremely large quantities involved in water purification and are handling in the miming industry to relative small quantity in the fine chemical industry where the variety of solids would be considered.

For large scale filtration, cloth or canvas is frequently used as the medium, and the liquid is forced by pressure through the bed of the solid that collects impurities in the liquid.  A common method of large scale and domestic filtration is the purification of water by collecting some suspended penticle on a bed composed of coarse gravel covers with fine layers of sand.  The water sinks down through gravel and is run off by gravity.  The equipment used is the sand filter.

However, filters are divided into three major groups such as cake fitters, clarifying filters, and gross flow filters; there are different types of filters such as pressure filters, rotary filters, cake filters, string discharge filters, centrifugal filters, granular filters and send filter.


The constructional project involves the project of slow sand filter for portable water filtration.   Only two different sand layers of varying sizes were used as filter medium due to size required and cost implications.


Among other materials of construction, mild steel sheet were used due to its low resistance to corrosion, compare to stainless steel sheet, but among other considerations, availability cost were the major constraints.  Therefore it has high quality properties like hardness, resistance to corrosion, resistance to chemicals, and resistance to heat.





The aim of constructing sand filter equipment for portable water filtration is to learn a craft work. Construction of sand filter enable students to be conversent with the use of industrial equipment such as fabrication machine, flooding machine, bending machine and drilling machine etc.


The construction of sand slitter gives a basic knowledge, which will equip student in designing of other industrial equipment.   Therefore, sand filter is an equipment designed for the separation of solid material from liquid or gas.  Sand filter are constructed for water purification and removal of suspended matter particles from a liquid in the industries, laboratories and domestic home etc.


Also, the equipment determine the amount of that would passes through a particular amount of sand and the amount of water that was displaced in the particle.



DISCLAIMER: All project works, files and documents posted on this website, are the property/copyright of their respective owners. They are for research reference/guidance purposes only and some of the works may be crowd-sourced. Please don’t submit someone’s work as your own to avoid plagiarism and its consequences. Use it as a reference/citation/guidance purpose only and not copy the work word for word (verbatim). The paper should be used as a guide or framework for your own paper. The contents of this paper should be able to help you in generating new ideas and thoughts for your own study. is a repository of research works where works are uploaded for research guidance. Our aim of providing this work is to help you eradicate the stress of going from one school library to another in search of research materials. This is a legal service because all tertiary institutions permit their students to read previous works, projects, books, articles, journals or papers while developing their own works. This is where the need for literature review comes in. “What a good artist understands is that nothing comes from nowhere. The paid subscription on is a means by which the website is maintained to support Open Education. If you see your work posted here by any means, and you want it to be removed/credited, please contact us with the web address link to the work. We will reply to and honour every request. Please notice it may take up to 24 – 48 hours to process your request.

WeCreativez WhatsApp Support
Administrator (Online)
Hello and welcome. I am online and ready to help you via WhatsApp chat. Let me know if you need my assistance.