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Food is inevitable in ones life and fish is a main source of vitamins and protein in ones life. Fish pond is a place for growing fish for commercial or private needs or gestetic purpose. The design of fish pond is very important because of its aqueous retaining nature which if there is leakage will not only cause loss of water but also loss of lives of fish and plants in it. A adequacy and accuracy is relevant in the design of fish pond. The engineer is bordered with the functions of designing, construction, maintenance, administration and/or operations of a fish pond. Fish pending creates sobs, provides foods, and can also serve some a estetic works. This project can serve as a reference material for those carrying out the same or related project works or to a practicing members of the community who is faced with the problem of fishpond design. BS8110 and Bs8007 are the reference codes for this project work while project procedures are sourced from many other reliable sources named at the appendix.


Acr   =      Distance from point considered to surface of

nearest longitudinal bar.

As    =      Area of tension reinforcement

b      =      breadth or width of section

d      =      effective depth of tension reinforcement

Ec    =      modulus of elasticity of concrete

Es    =      modulus of elasticity of reinforcement

Fb    =      average bond strength between immature

concrete and reinforcement

Fc    =      Stress in concrete

Fct   =      Tensile strength of immature concrete, taken at

age of 3days.

Fcu  =      Characteristics strength of concrete (a) 28 days

Fs    =      Stress in tension reinforcement

Fy    =      Characteristic strength of reinforcement

M     =      Bending moment per unit width

H      =      Dept of liquid

L      =      Span length

Mu   =      Ultimate design moment of resistance

n      =      Ultimate design load

S      =      Bar spacing

W     =      Design surface crack width

T1     =      Is the fall in temperature between the

hydration peak and ambient

Y2       =      The temperature fall due to seasonal variation

Vc    =      Design concrete share stress

V      =      Maximum shear force due to ultimate load

r       =      Design shear stress (a) a cross section

r       =      Unit weight

Wmax      Is the estimated maximum crack width

X      =      neutral axis depth

Z      =      Lear arm

ae     =      Modular ratio

a      =      Thermal expansion coefficient

Σm   =      Average strain (a) the level where the cracking

is being considered.

Σ1     =      Starin @ the level considered ignoring the

stiffening effect of the concrete in tension zone.

Σ2     =      Strain due to the stiffening effect of concrete

between cracks.


Title page                                                                 i

Certification                                                             ii

Dedication                                                               iii

Acknowledgement                                                    iv

Abstract                                                                   v

Notations                                                                 vi

Table of contents                                                     vii



INTRODUCTION                                                      1

Types of fishpond                                                    1



LITERATURE REVIEW                                           3

Impermeability and water tightness                         4

Influence of construction method                            6

Foundation                                                              6

Calculation of crack width due to flexure                7

Quality of fish pond water                                        9


Pressure on a fish pond                                           10

Basic soil checks                                                     11

Factor of safety                                                        11



Design information’s                                                12

Design of outer walls for cracks                               13

Design of outer walls                                               18

Design of central or internal walls                           20

Checks for stability                                                  22

Footing reinforcement                                              26

Floor slab of fishpond                                              30

Deflection of walls                                                    31



Conclusion                                                              33

Recommendation                                                     34



Design of fishpond need accuracy which must be from the onset (location of the site) till the end of construction including proper management.

Volume of area of fishpond required is determined using the number and type of fish to be grown inside. It is also advisable to allow for more space than calculated.

Situation of a fishpond should be done in such a way that is receives light or not in a perpetual shade. It is not recommended to be under a tree because of the fallen leaves.



Fish ponds can be done in many ways or classified in many ways:-

  1. It may be buried to the brine allowing only the freeboard to be above the ground or;
  2. It may be built above the ground level except for the buried base.

The latter is more advisable to allow for exchange of water periodically.

Others can be cast with concrete; the depth of every fish pond is dependent on the type and area of fish pond.

In cold regions the depth of fishponds is advised to be above 900mm while a minimum of 600mm is taking in hot regions.



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