In medicine, an abortion is the premature exit of the products of conception (the fetus, fetal membranes, and placenta) from the uterus. It is the loss of a pregnancy and does not refer to why that pregnancy was lost. It is the expulsion from the uterus of the products of conception before the fetus is viable. An estimated 44 million abortions are performed globally each year, with slightly under half of those performed unsafely (Sedgh et al., 2012). For most women, the decision to end a pregnancy (a very early pregnancy) is a complex and deliberative one. The reasons women give for ending a pregnancy underscore their understanding of the serious consequences of unplanned childbearing for themselves and their families. A pregnancy can be intentionally aborted in several ways. The manner selected often depends upon the gestational age of the embryo or fetus, which increases in size as the pregnancy progresses (Stubblefield, 2002; Bartlett et al., 2004).
Effects of abortion could be either Physical or Psychological. The physical effects could be Elevated Risk of Death, Cervical, Ovarian, and Liver Cancer, Uterine Perforation, Cervical Lacerations, Placenta Previa, Subsequent Pre-Term Deliveries and Other Complications of Labor, Handicapped Newborns in Later Pregnancies, Ectopic Pregnancy, Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID), Endometritis and some complications which include infection, bleeding, fever, second degree burns, chronic abdominal pain, vomiting, gastro-intestinal disturbances, and Rh sensitization.
Researchers have identified a large number of statistically significant risk factors that identify which women are at greatest risk of experiencing psychological effect or reactions to abortion. Women who have had abortions are significantly more likely than others to subsequently require admission to a psychiatric hospital. The psychological effects could be Suicidal Ideation and Suicide Attempts, Alcohol and Drug Abuse, Eating Disorders, Sexual Dysfunction, Child Neglect or Abuse, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Increased Smoking with Correspondent Negative Health Effects, Divorce and Chronic Relationship Problems, Repeat Abortions
Research has indicated that age factors may be significantly related to psychological outcomes of abortion. For example, younger and unmarried women without children were more likely to experience negative outcomes than those who were older and who had already given birth (Adler et al., 1992). There is a general consensus that abortion generally does not lead to negative psychological outcomes for women. However, in a minority of cases (some studies suggest about 20%), it does. Therefore both pre- and post- abortion counseling are recommended. In cases of spontaneous or habitual abortion, patient care is directed toward emotional support of the patient and acceptance of her feelings of bitterness, grief, guilt, relief, and other emotions associated with the loss of the fetus. The patient should be able to express her feelings in an open, nonjudgmental, and nonthreatening environment.
|TABLE OF CONTENTS|
|Abstract||ii – iii|
|Table of Contents||iv|
|1.1||Justification of the Study||7|
|1.2||Main Objective of the Study||7|
|2.1||History of Abortion||4|
|2.2||Reasons for Abortion||10|
|2.3||Types of Abortion||11|
2.3.2 Spontaneous 11
|2.3.3||Forms of abortion||13|
|2.4||Effects of Abortion||14|
|2.4.1||Physical Dangers Associated With Abortion||14|
|2.4.2||Psychological Risks Associated With Abortion||22|
|3.0||DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS||32|
Abortion is the ending of pregnancy by the removal or forcing out from the womb of a fetus or embryo before it is able to survive on its own. An abortion can occur spontaneously, in which case it is often called a miscarriage. It can also be purposely caused in which case it is known as an induced abortion. The term abortion most commonly refers to the induced abortion of a human pregnancy. The similar procedure after the fetus may be able to survive on its own is medically known as a “late termination of pregnancy” (Grimes and Stuart, 2010). In medicine, an abortion is the premature exit of the products of conception (the fetus, fetal membranes, and placenta) from the uterus. It is the loss of a pregnancy and does not refer to why that pregnancy was lost. It is the expulsion from the uterus of the products of conception before the fetus is viable. Abortion can either be spontaneous or induced. Spontaneous abortion occurs naturally while induced abortion is artificial in the sense that several procedures are employed in the deliberate interruption of pregnancy and prematurely removing the fetus.
Modern medicine uses medications or surgical methods for induced abortion. The two medications mifepristone and prostaglandin are as effective as a surgical method in the first trimester (Kulieret al., 2011; Kappet al., 2013). While the use of medications may be effective
in the second trimester, surgical methods appear to have a lower risk of side effects (Wildschutet al., 2011). Birth control, including the pill and intrauterine devices can be startedimmediately after an abortion. Abortion in the developed world has a long history of being among the safest procedures in medicine when allowed by local law. Uncomplicated abortions do not cause either long term mental health or physical problems (Lohret al., 2014). The World Health Organization recommends that this same level of safe and legal abortions be available to all women globally (WHO, 2012). Unsafe abortions, however, result in approximately 47,000 maternal deaths and 5 million hospital admissions per year globally (Shah and Ahman, 2009).
1.1 JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY
An estimated 44 million abortions are performed globally each year, with slightly under half of those performed unsafely (Sedghet al., 2012). Rates of abortions have changed little between 2003 and 2008, after having previously spent decades declining as access to education regarding family planning and birth control improved. As of 2008, forty percent of the world’s women had access to legal induced abortions “without restriction as to reason”. There are; however, limits regarding how far along in pregnant they can be performed (Culwellet al.,
- MAIN OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The main objective of the study was to determine the effect of abortion on females.
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