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The study adopted a survey design aimed at investigating the extent to which Audio-Visual materials were used in teaching and learning of Social Studies and their effects in some selected Junior Secondary Schools within Abuja Municipal Area Council (AMAC) of Federal Capital Territory (FCT). Two research questions were stated and subsumed in a hypothesis. The review of related literature hinged on the meaning and classification of the study of audio-visual materials, while empirical studies on the area were also reviewed. The instrument for data collection was questionnaire. Data collected were analyzed using simple percentage and frequencies while the hypothesis was tested using F-test statistics technique. The result reveals that there is significant difference between the use of audio-visual material and students’ performance; the findings also revealed that audio – visual materials solve educational problems arising from population boom and explosion of human knowledge and they provide sources of information on every kind of learning thereby removing abstraction in teaching and learning. The research therefore recommends that infusion of the use of audio visual resources as a core teaching method in the curricula of secondary schools and impressing upon the ministry of Education to provide explicit strategy for enforcing the use of audio visual materials in teaching and learning is imperative.


1.0     Introduction

1.1     Background

Teaching and learning processes are very crucial at all levels of educational development. If well planned and directed, they are the keys to success and progress of an individual. Therefore, best methods have to be used in order to enhance effective teaching and learning. Consequently, the need to employ the use of teaching aids otherwise referred to as audio visual resources to enhance effective teaching and learning. Audio – visual materials according to Dike(1989) do not only increase the motivation of the teachers and learners; they add clarity to the topic taught and make learning more interesting. Permanent learning according to Njoku (1980) is the goal of education in that the learners should be able to retain what is taught. Audio visual materials make learning more permanent since they appeal to more than one sense.

Research by Ode and Omokaro (2007) revealed that learners retain most of what they hear, see and feel than what they merely hear. This concept bears credence to the old Chinese adage which says “what I hear I forget what I see I remember and what I do, I know”. A visual instruction encourages the use of audio-visual materials to make abstract ideas more concrete to the learners. Therefore, the teacher’s duty is to make learning lively, not just something to remember but part of living experience. This can be done effectively by employing the use of audio visual resources in teaching and learning as a means of imparting knowledge to learners. Educators have come to realize that the most effective teaching and learning take place when an individual has direct experience with the subject under study, in order wise, learners learn best by doing. It is only by the use of audio visual resources that learners can be offered the opportunity to learn by doing. This is because attention, motivation. Concentration and retention of facts are enhanced through the use of audio visual materials.

However, there has been no consensus on the workability or otherwise of the use of audio visual resources in teaching and learning of the numerous work done by researchers and authors of repute. On the contrary, there has been a surge in the number of people who feel worried about the negative aspects in the use of audio visual materials. The use of audio-visual material in teaching and learning of Social Studies in schools has been part of educational practices in Nigeria.

Ogunmilada (1984) remarked that the use of audio-visual material in teaching and learning in Nigeria is not absolutely new. What is new in the technological equipment that have been introduced recently into teaching and learning processes of science an important means of modern educational practice is recognition of the need to provide teachers with up-to-date knowledge of the large varieties of audio-visual materials available and instruction on the intelligent use of them.

Social Studies teachers, therefore should also familiarise themselves with these new method of audio-visual materials. Yabagi (1991), states that at present, there is much emphasis concerning the use of audio-visual materials. As a new teacher starting a career in teaching, you may have strong desire to teach better than how you were taught. Teachers often engage themselves in finding out new methods and techniques of making their lessons more interesting and lively by undergoing conferences, symposia and workshops on how to improve the process of teaching in general.

Moreover, children of today are growing up in a world of mass media and as a result, a good teacher should employ such resources such as pictures. Illustrations, televisions or radio available and many other audio-visual materials in his daily teaching.

One of the qualities of a good teacher is the ability to provide favourable experience that will optimize learning on the part of students. According to Keleso and Aderele (2003), he has to select appropriate visual aids and teach in a novel way using such so as to reduce the learning difficulties of his pupils. This study therefore investigates the effects of Audio-visual in teaching and learning of Social Studies in Junior Secondary Schools in AMAC.

1.2. Statement of problems

According to Kolesoso and Aderele (2003), despite the roles audio-visual materials play in reducing learning difficulties, it has been observed that not all junior secondary schools are not connected with electricity. This creates a problem in the use of certain audio-visual materials such as television, filmstrips and other electrical appliance. Also many teachers are afraid to attempt using audio-visual material during teaching and in most cases are not exposed on the effective use of these materials while some teachers do not even see the need for their use.

Most junior secondary teachers however do make use of simple instrument/materials such as cardboards and drawing on chalkboard, they do fit into modem teaching techniques. The problem of this study is how to make students and teachers of Social Studies to understand the value and the effects of audio-visual material on teaching and learning in their schools.

1.3. Purpose of the study

The study is designed to investigate the effect of use of audio visual materials on the teaching and learning. Specifically, the study intends to:

  1. Find out the types of audio – visual material used for teaching and learning
  2. Determine the impact of audio – visual materials on teaching and learning

1.4. Research Questions

The following research questions are generated to guide the study;

  1. Doteachers use audio – visual materials or aid in teaching?
  2. What is the impact of audio – visual materials on teaching and learning?

1.5. Research Hypothesis

To guide, direct and help the researcher focus attention on the crucial variable of the study the hypothesis proposed are as follows:

  1. There is no significant difference between the use of audio-visual material and students’ performance
  2. There is no significant difference between the achievement of students taught with audio-visual materials and those taught without audio-visual materials.
  3. There is no significant difference between the teachers technical know-how on the use of audio-visual materials and students performance in Social Studies in junior secondary schools.

1.6. Significance of the Study

This study which is concerned with the effect of audio – visual material on teaching and learning of Social Studies in some selected secondary schools in Abuja Municipal Area Council (AMAC)  of Abuja is bound to be of immense benefits to students, teachers, school authorities, educational stakeholders, especially the Federal and State Ministries of Education. Specifically, the study will be of immense benefit because it will:

Enhance the learning processes of the students and thereby improve on their overall academic performance, since it will increase the motivation of the students, add clarity to the topics taught and make learning more interesting. Findings from the study will help to sensitize teachers and staff of secondary schools of their important roles in promoting the use of audiovisual materials in teaching and learning. This is because it will provide a basis for them to understand the need for their complimentary roles in encouraging and supporting the use of audiovisual materials. The findings from this study may require taking a decision by the junior secondary school authorities whether to infuse audiovisual materials in learning curriculum or to modify, expunge or discontinue with the existing teaching methods. It will create awareness for state and federal ministry of education as policymakers in junior secondary schools of the need to infuse the use of audio visual materials as a core teaching prerequisite in the curricula of secondary schools and impress upon them to provide explicit strategy for enforcing the use of audio visual materials in teaching and learning.

1.7     The Scope of Study

This research is based on the study of the use of audio visual materials in teaching and learning of Social Studies. For this purpose, some selected junior secondary schools in Abuja Municipal Area Council (AMAC)of federal territory (FCT) Abuja were selected for analysis. The schools in FCT operate under the same conditions hence the study may be generalized to the whole FCT.

1.8     Limitations of Study

Some of the problems encounter in the course of this study includes time and financial constraints as well as uncooperative attitudes of respondents.

The time to carry out the study was limited as the study has to be carried out side with classroom lectures, field project and academic comments including examinations. Another problem encountered is the difficulty in assembling enough reading materials on the use of audio visual materials, scarcity of journals and text books relevant to deal with Nigeria have hinder the researcher the ability to deal exhaustively with the topic .

1.9. Definition of Terms

  1. INTRODUCTION: this is the process through which the teacher gives the learner detailed information on how to do or use something. King and Robinson (1979).
  2. LEARNING: King and Robinson (1979), defined learning as a relatively permanent change in behaviour pattern of human organism, which occurs as a result of (provisions) practice training or experience.
  3. SCIENCE: Franklin and Smith (1991), defined science as a body ofknowledge obtained through a peculiar process of investigation by scientist which human culture and body of knowledge include.
  4. SOCIAL STUDIES: By the virtue of its name involves bringing together different branched of science to form a unified whole using the concepts and methods which pervade the nature science, Ogbonna (1982). This subject draws its content from biology, chemistry, physics and earth science and even the social science.
  5. TEACHING: This involves supporting learners in ways that aid the construction of knowledge Balogun, (1979).
  6. AUDIO VISUAL MATERIALS: these are teaching and learning devices that mostly appeal to the senses of hearing and sight at the same time.



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