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Cover page                                                                                                                i

Title Page                                                                                                                   ii

Declaration                                                                                                               iii

Certification                                                                                                  iv

Approval Page                                                                                                          v

Dedication                                                                                                                 vi

Acknowledgements                                                                                                 vii

Abstract                                                                                                                     viii

Table of Contents                                                                                                       x




INTRODUCTION                                                                                                        1

  • Background to the Study 1
  • Statement of the Problem 5
  • Research Questions 7
  • Purpose of the Study 7
  • Significance of the Study                                                 9
  • Scope of the Study 10
  • Limitations of the Study 11
  • Definition of Terms 12
  • Organization of the Study 15




2.1     Literature review                                                                                            16

2.1.2   Revenue generation in the local government                                          18

2.1.3   Revenue collection in the local government                                            30

2.1.4   Budgeting and local government revenue                                                            32

2.1.5   Accounting framework and auditing in local government                     35

2.1.6   Roles and responsibilities of chairman and members                            40

2.1.7   Control of revenue and fund                                                                      43

2.1.8   Effective and problems of fund management                                          47

2.1.9   Deterrent of good management                                                                48

2.2     Theoretical Framework                                                                                 49




3.1 Research design                                                                                                 51

3.2 Area of the Study                                                                                               52

3.3 Population of the Study                                                                                                52

3.4 Sample and Sampling Techniques                                                                   52

3.5 Methods of Data Collection                                                                              53

3.6 Instruments for Data Collection                                                                       54

3.7 Reliability of the Instrument                                                                            55

3.8 Validity of the Instrument                                                                                55

3.9 Distribution and Retrieval of Instrument                                                       55

3.10 Methods of Data Analysis                                                                               56




4.1 Data Presentation                                                                                              57

4.2 Analysis of Research Questions                                                                       61

4.3 Interpretation of Results                                                                                   68




5.1 Summary of findings                                                                                         70

5.2 Conclusion                                                                                                           71

5.3 Recommendations                                                                                             72

References                                                                                                    75

Appendix  A                                                                                                  76

Appendix B                                                                                                   53















The effect of inadequate human resources towards the performance of government establishment: (a study of ministry of Education in Awka, Anambra state). The purpose of this study is to determine and to conduct a survey on the effects of inadequate human resources towards the performance of government establishment in ministry of education, Awka, Anambra state. A total of two hundred and fifteen (215) working staff at the ministry were chosen for the study. The sample for the study was one hundred and forty (140) staff. Three (3) research questions were formulated to guide the study. The major findings of the study were: there is shortage of adequate manpower in government to implement its daily activities, top management in public establishment are the cause of human resource shortage, lack of finance affects adequate human resources in government establishment to carry out its daily activities administratively, it was seen that top management contribute to the cause of shortage of adequate human resources, as they fail to carry out staff audit as at when due , to know when the organization is in need of manpower. Despite the problems, it was recommended that the policy of staff audit should be strictly adhered to and government should employ more employees. Government should ensure an effective management of her human resource. There should be a law that will mandate government to improve the working conditions of their employees.





1.0             INTRODUCTION


The effect of inadequate human resources has been the bone of most establishments. Human resources capacity – a measure to ensure that organization has a sufficient number of qualified people in the right place at the right time to achieve its objectives. A shortage of human resources in government has a direct impact on an organization’s ability to deliver programmes and services and perform certain tasks.

Majority of people with particular references to the elite will be wondering why we have shortage in human resource supply. A research in the area of this shortage of human resource supply will sound like asking an obvious question. Therefore, responding to the answer towards the above question, I will start by describing the essence of human resource in every economy. Human resource as a combination of all individual engaged in any organization activities regardless of their levels (Wental French, 2007). Human resource definitions imply that, human resource is a combination of men and women working for an organization, irrespective of the post they are occupying.

Moreover, the description went further to mean that there is no division between men and women working for an organization, that is if they are part or do not belong to the human resource of the government establishment, for instance, from levels of commissioners to the messengers.

However, any organization activities from commencing to the end point relied on resources. Furthermore, an organization prospect at accomplishing or achieving its objectives or goals ought to know that it is only maintaining a reliable and effective supply of human resource but also making sure that they are effectively and efficiently mobilized or motivated.

As we all know, we obviously comprehend that the objectives of an organization cannot be accomplished only by providing and making effective supply of human resource. This is due to the human resource of an organization without potentials and skills.

For these reasons, Blank (1995) commented that “the effective use of people is still the key to productivity and your assignment is to motivate the people to get the best out of their skills and abilities”. Blank was also commenting that the possible was for an organization to accomplish a high productivity like never before that is, by mobilizing or motivating its workers.

Meanwhile, other scholars- Strause and Sayles (1970) further said that although the task of motivating workers rest on the management team as a whole, but the manager have more roles to play. They went further to comment that the supervisor who works with the subordinates on the intimate basis has much to influence his company’s total programmes for the future forecast and help it to reach its objectives. Strause also commented that by the time managers begin to put their potentials together with the work that will solve and tackle their problems for better results.

Furthermore, some personal interviews (face to face questionnaires) with government officials showed that government started refusing to accumulate human resources from the notable year of 1986 due to the fact that there was insufficient fund or money to finance other projects. This predicament was in existence till 1986 by the time the Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP) was inaugurated. However, all joined to contribute to the human resource shortage in government establishments and other reasons are retirements and withdrawal without replacement and employment.

In addition, the activity of creating new states in 1991(Anambra State) has contributed immensely to the human resource shortage and reduction. In the overall emphasis, government establishment began to acknowledge more human resource shortage when there are withdrawals without replacements.

From a strategic study of human resource management (HRM) in Anambra state, it is viewed that there is lack of substantial human capital and mismanagement with minimized competitive advantage.

It is against these backdrops that the basis for this discussion was formed, “the shortage of human resources in government establishments, problems and solutions”, using ministry of Finance and Economic planning, Anambra state as area of study.



A research does not need to be done before getting to the end-point or conclusion that there is unemployment in Nigeria and also in most third world countries.

This immense shortage of inadequate manpower to implement the daily activities of government establishments themselves are perhaps the cause of the shortage of human resources in them. Human resource shortage is not only stimulated by environmental factors but the cause is also inherent in the activities of the afore-mentioned establishments.

Another issue represented in this situation is the fact that “the macro-economic problem of unemployment is due to or as a result of lack of finance or insufficient fund to hire adequate manpower or suitable staff to occupy the vacuum in these government establishments.



The following researches questions have been constructed as a guide to the success of this research work in order to obtain a useful result:

  1. Why is there shortage of adequate manpower in government to implement its daily activities?
  2. How are public and private establishments the cause of human resource shortage?
  3. To what extent has lack or shortage of finance affect adequate staffing in government establishments?



The general purpose of this study is to conduct a survey on the shortage of human resources in government establishments; problems and possible solutions in ministry of finance and Economic planning, Anambra state. However, in specific terms, the study is based at the following points;

  1. To explore the reason for the shortage of adequate manpower to implement the daily activities or functions of government establishments;
  2. To identify the various ways in which public and private establishments can be the cause of human resource shortage;

iii. To examine the role and adequacy of finance in the sufficient and adequate staffing in government establishments.




H0: There is no shortage of adequate manpower in government establishments to implement its daily activities.

H1: There is shortage of adequate manpower in government establishments to implement its daily activities.

H0: Public establishments are not the cause of human resource shortage.

H1: Public establishments are the cause of human resource shortage.

H0: Lack of finance does not affect adequate staffing in government establishments.

H1: Lack of finance affect adequate staffing in government establishments.



This study will be of benefit in many ways. It will facilitate the knowledge and understanding of various problems associated with fluent personnel practices in government establishment. As a result of this, decision regarding personnel problems.  This will also help to reduce the level or rate of unemployment in the country as efforts will be equally directed to address such unemployment problems by reason of decision makers.

This study will also aid the proper and judicious management of public fund especially in personnel matters. It will as well help students in public administration, sociology and other fields who will be carrying out research on human resources and it is like, suffice it to state here that the importance of this study is in exhaustible.



            The scope of this study is limited to the ministry of finance and Economic planning, Anambra state. It comprises of several departments like computer and library department, Accounts, statistic and personnel departments. The scope of this study or research will be focused only to the statistic and personnel department.


In a bid to present a worthy and comprehensive project, the greatest limitations I encountered includes finance, time constraint and lack of information and will be stated as follows:

  1. i. Finance: Covering the five (5) departments of NEFP in Anambra state would have given more understanding to the topic but due to lack of finance, it will be limited to only personnel and statistics department.
  2. Time constraint: Time also was a major factor. Lack of time was a great hindrance to this research but the researcher adjusted programmes that do not add value to the success of this work.

iii. Lack of materials: Since there are no sufficient materials for the research work, the researcher joined a study group where most of the problems confronting the work was discussed and settled. The researcher equally made out time to visit the cybercafé for more information so as to supplement the information gotten from the study group.

These are the problems encountered by the researcher and how the researcher equally overcame them so as to make this work successful.



The following terms are used in this study which has unique meaning from different persons; are defined as follows:

S.A.P: Structural Adjustment Programme

Bureaucracy: The system of official rules and ways of doing things in the government or an organization especially when these seem to be too complicated (oxford dictionary).

Establishment: A place of business or residence with its furnishing and staff (merricon-weber).

Manpower: Number of workers needed or available to do or perform a particular job at any period of time.

Motivation: The inner drive that causes one to act or person inner state that energies, sustains and directs behavior to satisfy a person’s needs (Milkovich and Glueck 1995).

Productivity: The amount of production in relation to the labour employed.

Training: To give teaching and practice in order to bring to a desired stand and behavior efficiency or physical condition (oxford dictionary).


The research project was written in chapters (1-5). The preliminary pages are in Roman figures from (i) to(x).

Chapter one is the introductory part of which contains background to the study, statement of the problem, research questions, purpose of the study, significance of the study, scope of the study, limitations of the study, definitions

of terms, organization of the study.

Chapter two is on the literature review and theoretical framework 2.1 and 2.2.

Chapter three presents the methodology and procedures used for data collection and analysis.

Chapter four deals with presentation in tabular form with analysis and interpretation of results.

Chapter five offers a summary and discussion of the research findings, implications for practice and recommendation for future research.


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