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ABSTRACT
The effect of concentration of hydrochloric acid on hydrolysis of cellulose (sawdust) to glucose was studied on this research project and the steps obtained to
achieve this project involved treatment of saw-dust (cellulose) with different
concentrations of the acid at constant temperature of 80°𝐶 (350k) for 30mins. This
was followed by glucose analysis, some analysis or experiments were done on acid
hydrolysis in order to study the effect of (HCL) acid on the hydrolysis of cellulose
to glucose. The process used in this hydrolysis was acid hydrolysis in which HCL
acid was used at constant temperature of 80oC and the saw-dust used [was obtained
by grinding wood with saw] was weighed and mixed with water . Secondly, during
this analysis/experiment, it was observed that hydrochloric acid hydrolyzed well
from the readings gotten from each result that was carried out during the analysis.
Then lastly, glucose analysis was carried out to determine the absorbance and
glucose concentration. It was noticed that the best concentration of HCL acid
during hydrolysis yields glucose concentration of 0.127g or 1.270%.
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TABLE OF CONTENT
CHAPTER ONE
1.1 Introduction …………………………………………………….. 1
1.2 Definition of Terms …………………………………………….. 3
1.3 Statement of the Problem ……………………………………… 4
1.4 Scope and of Study Limitations ……………………………… 5
1.5 Objectives ………………………………………………………….. 6
CHAPTER TWO
2.1 Literature Review ………………………………………….. 8
2.2 History ……………………………………………….. 9
2.3 Products ………………………………………………….. 10
2.4 Cellulose Source and Energy Store of Crops. ………….. 12
2.5 Structure and Properties ……………………………………. 14
2.6 Biosynthesis …………………………………………………… 18
2.7 Breakdown (Cellucolysis). …………………………………….. 22
2.8 Hemicellulose ………………………………….. 24
2.9 Derivatives ………………………………………………………… 24
2.10 Functionality ………………………………. 29
2.11 Occurrences …………………………………………………….. 30
2.12 Classification of Cellulose …………………………………… 31
2.12.1 Cellulose Acetate. ……………………………………………… 32
2.12.2 Cellulose Acetate Butyrate. …………………………………. 32
2.12.3 Cellulose Nitrate. ……………………………………………… 33
2 12 .4 Methyl Cellulose.- …………………………………………….. 34
2.12.5 Ethyl Cellulose. ………………………………………………… 34
2.12.6 Carboxy Methyl Cellulose. …………………………………. 35
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2.13 Regenerated Cellulose. ………………………………………… 36
2.14 Uses of Sugar. ………………………………………………….. 38
2.15 Sugar in Foods …………………………………………………. 40
2.16 Functions of Sugar……………………………………………… 40
2.17 Natural Polymers of Sugar. …………………………………. 41
2.18 Types of Sugar. …………………………………………………. 42
CHAPTER THREE
3.1 Materials and Equipment …………………………………… 46
3.1.1 Materials: ………………………………………………………….. 46
3.1.2 Apparatus: ………………………………………………………. 46
3.1.3 Reagent ………………………………………………………. 47
3.2 Acid Hydrolysis (Hcl) ………………………………………….. 48
3.2.1 Procedure: ……………………………………………………….. 48
3.2.2 Glucose Analysis Colorimetric (Using Benedict’s) Method. 49
3.2.3 Procedure: ……………………………………………………….. 50
The Glucose Concentration (Hcl) Was Determined Using
Beer Lambat Law. ……………………………………………… 50
CHAPTER FOUR
Results and Discussion
4.1 Results …………………………………………………………. 52
4.2 Discussion ……………………………………………………….. 53
CHAPTER FIVE
5.0 Conclusion and Recommendation …………………………. 55
5.1 Conclusion ………………………………………………………. 55
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5.2 Recommendation …………………………………………………… 56
References…………………………………………………………………….. 58
Appendix A……………………………………………………………………. 60
Appendix B……………………………………………………………………. 61
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LIST OF TABLES
Table 4.1: variation of absorbance with the standard glucose concentration
Table 4.1.2: variation of absorbance with hydrochloric acid
LIST OF FIGURE
Figure 4.1: graph of absorbance of the acid against the glucose concentration.
Figure 4.2: Cellulose
Figure 4.3: Strand of Cellulose
Figure 4.4: Triple strand of Cellulose.
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CHAPTER ONE
1.1 Introduction
Cellulose is the name given to a long chain of atoms consisting of
carbon, hydrogen and oxygen arranged in a particular manner it is
a naturally occurring polymeric material containing thousands of
glucose-like rings each of which contain three alcoholic OH groups.
Its general each of which contain three alcoholic OH groups. Its
general formula is represented as (C6H1005)n. the oh-groups present
in cellulose can be esterifies or etherified, the most important
cellulose derivatives are the esters.
Cellulose is found in nature in almost all forms of plant life’s, and
especially in cotton and wood. A cellulose molecule is made up of
large number of glucose units linked together by oxygen atom. Each
glucose unit contains three(3) hydroxyl groups, the hydroxyl groups
present at carbon-6 is primary, while two other hydroxyl are
secondary. Cellulose is the most abundant organic chemical on
earth more than 50% of the carbon is plants occurs in the cellulose
of stems and leave wood is largely cellulose, and cotton is more
than 90% cellulose. It is a major constituent of plant cell walls that
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provides strength and rigidity and presents the swelling of the cell
and rupture of the palms membrane that might result when
osmotic conditions favor water entry into the cell. Cellulose is a
fibrous, ought, water-insoluble substances, it can be seen in cell
walls of plants, particularly in stalks, stems, trunks and all woody
portions of the plant.
Cellulose is polymorphic, i.e there are number of different
crystalline forms that reflect the history of the molecule. It is almost
impossible to describe cellulose chemistry and biochemistry without
referring to those different forms. Cellulose are gotten from
cellulose, cellulose is also found in protozoa in the gut of insects
such as termites. Very strong acids can also degrade cellulose, the
human digestive system has little effect on cellulose. The world
cellulose means β-1, 4- D glucan, regardless of source because of
the importance of cellulose and difficulty in unraveling its secrets
regarding structure, biosynthesis, chemistry, and other aspects,
several societies are dedicated to cellulose, lignin, and related
molecues.
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1.2 Definition of Terms
Hydrolysis: means hydro (water) lysis (splitting) or breaking down of
a chemical bond by the addition of water (H2O), it is by the
introduction of the elements that make up water hydrogen and
oxygen. The reactions are more complicated than just adding water
to a compound, but by the end of a hydrolysis reaction, there will
be two more hydrogen’s and one more oxygen shared between the
products, than there were before the reaction occurred.
Hydrolysis of cellulose therefore is the process of breaking
down the glucosidic bonds that holds the glucose basic units
together to term a large cellulose molecule, it is a term used to
describe the overall process where cellulsose is converted into
various sweeteners.
Sugar: is the generalized name for a class of chemically related
sweet – flavored substances, most of which are used as food. They
are carbohydrates, composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.
There are various sugar derived from different sources. Simple
sugars are called monosaccharide’s and include glucose cellos
known as dextrose, fructose and galactose. The table or granulated
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sugar most customarily used as food is sucrose, a disaccharide
other disacclarides include maltose and lacoose. Chemicallydifferent substances may also have a sweet taste, but are not
classified as sugar but as artificial sweeteners.
1.3 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The new government policies and economy through low quality
products has imposed motivated researchers to explore the
numerous domestic, industrial and economic importance of the
Nigeria’s major waste product which is “cellulose” which forms the
bedrock of this project.
Sugar is a high demand for both domestic and industrial
applications on daily basis in homes, small and medium scale
industries etc this is why Nigeria government spends huge sums of
money on importation of sugar and sugar products to meet the
demand of citizens. Among the many processes of sugar production,
is acid hydrolysis of (cellulose) has proved to be a process which
encourages the production of high quality with minimum skill and
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materials. This work is therefore an effort to encourage
industrialist, researchers, and students to carry out more intensive
studies on production of sugar from cellulose for production of
sugar and enhanced economic resources for the nation.
1.4 SCOPE AND OF STUDY LIMITATIONS
This study is aimed at estimating the impact of some areas
hindering the subject/project matter (disadvantages) the cellulose.
It is obvious that cellulose materials have been used, including
newspaper, carboard, cotton, straw, sawdust, hemp and corncob.
Monticell was insulated with a form of cellulose. Modern cellulose
insulation, made with recycled newspaper using grinding and dust
removing machines and adding a fire retardant, began in the 1950s
and came into general use in the U.S during the 1970s.
The R value Rule” placed clear limitations on the claims that
manufacturing and marketing firms can make about their product,
then also the effect of regulations by the CPSC put most of the
small producers of cellulose insulation out of business. The costs
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incurred by increasing fire testing made cellulose more expensive
and the bad publicity helped decrease demand.
Cellulose also has a few disadvantages. As compared to other
insulation options, the R-value of 3.6 to 3.8 per inch is good but not
the best. Many spray foams utilizes an environmentally harmful
blowing agent, such as enovate HFC, cellulose does not.
Dust: Cellulose contains some small particles which can be blown
into the house through inadequate seals around fixtures or minute
holes.
Wet-spray drying time: We-spray provides the moisture requires a
longer drying time before the drywall/sheet-rock is applied to a
newly insulation.
1.5 OBJECTIVES
The principal aim of undertaking this project is to determine the
effect of concentration of acid on the yield of glucose production by
acid hydrolysis of cellulose.
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Hydrolysis of cellulose into glucose using different concentration of
hydrochloric acid.
Calculating and quantifying the yield of glucose from hydrolysis of
cellulose using HCL acid.
In the experiment, cellulose from variety of sources will be
subjected to depolymerization conditions

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