This study is on “the Effect of Youth Unemployment on Socio-Economic Development in Nigeria using Anambra State as the study”. It is a common fact that youth unemployment is becoming a threat to the economic development in Nigeria. The study examines the effects of youth unemployment in Nigeria on the economic development and its resultant consequences. The study aimed to identify whether high rate of poverty and crime are recorded as a result of unemployment. The project work adopted a survey type of research method. The study made use of primary data sourced from 224 respondents in Anambra state. The result from the study reveals that youths are involved in drugs abuse, criminal activities and increased rate of poverty among other things. Thus, unemployment had adverse effects on the nation’s socio-economic development and therefore reduces the standard of living. Based on the finding, it was proffered that the employment scheme and other manpower skills development programmes should be designed to reduce the unemployment rate in the country. Government should establish more industries in order to create more jobs for the teeming youths. Sensitizations on the dangers of drug abuse need to be intensified by the relevant government agencies.
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Youth unemployment in Nigeria has become one of the most serious socio-economic problems confronting the country. Unemployed youths are therefore readily available for so many anti-social criminal activities that undermine the stability of our society and Nigeria in general. Similarly, the devastating impact of this problem of unemployment is the massive increase in rural-urban migration, leading to an increased congestion and criminal activities in the urban areas.
Therefore, the need for strategies that will lead to job creation for the teeming youths and social development is needed. Hence, in order to address the youth unemployment in Nigeria, there is need for a holistic approach; as short-cuts will not work any longer (Echebiri, R.N. (2005).
According to Gbosi (2006), unemployment is situations in which people are willing to work at the prevailing wage rate are unable to find jobs. The implication is that, there are available skilled individuals in art economy seeking to be hired and work but remain unhired. Unemployment has affected youth in Nigeria from a broad spectrum of socio-economic groups.
Both the well and less well educated are affected but more especially those from low income backgrounds and limited education. This has led to low level of income, shortage of food, over population, which causes congestion and crime rate in the society. Also, it has cause youths to become drug abuse champions.
Nigeria is economically underproductive, relative to its potential for significant development (Omotosho, 2009). Again Nigeria’s capacity to employ its own population seems to diminish progressively despite the country’s quantifiable fiscal ability resulting from the production sales of oil. The level of unemployment in Nigeria appears to grow geometrically every year, in contrast to its regional neighbors most of who have far less resources. Adebayo and Ogunriola (2006), stated that Nigeria will have no prospect of measurable development of improving the welfare of its people; unless it enhances the chances of employment for its graduates. Statistics of Nigeria unemployment seems to consist, not of uneducated, rural populations, who have been uprooted by failing agricultural production resulting from the absence of mechanization and decreasing income but also of some highly educated population as well, who normally would from the core of the productive vanguard in a developing country. Nigeria’s underemployment and low productively especially among youth constitute a vicious cycle that explains the endemic poverty, youth restiveness, insecurity and other associated social problems facing the country (Alabi and Alanana, 2012). This paper therefore examines the social economic consequence of unemployment among youth in Nigeria.
1.2 Statement of the problem
Unemployment has been categorized as one of the serious impediments of social progress from representing a colossal waste of a country’s manpower resources; it generates welfare loss in terms of lower output thereby leading to lower income and well-being.
The need to avert the negative effect of unemployment has made the tackling of unemployment problems to feature very prominently in the development objectives of many countries. Therefore, the major problem facing the growth of unemployment among the youth in Nigeria today could be identified among the following problems; political thuggery, militancy, restiveness, and other social vices which include; drugs abuse, prostitution, overpopulation, corruption, crime rate and poverty which are evident among the numerous problems that resulted from increase in unemployment.
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The main objective of this study is to assess the Effect of Youth Unemployment on Socio-Economic Development in Nigeria using Anambra State as the study.
. The specific objectives are as follows:
- Is there high rate of poverty as a result of youth unemployment in Anambra state?
- To what extent does youth unemployment occur as a result of overpopulation in Anambra state?
iii. Is there a significant relationship between youth unemployment and socio-economic development in Nigeria?
1.4 Purpose of the study
The main objective of this study is to assess the Effect of Youth Unemployment on Socio-Economic Development in Nigeria: usiny Anambra State as the study
. The specific objectives are as follows:
- To identify the high rate of poverty as a result of youth unemployment in Anambra state.
- To examine whether youth unemployment occur as a result of overpopulation in Anambra state.
- To identify the significant relationship between youth unemployment and socio-economic development in Nigeria.
1.5 Significance of the Study
This study will contribute substantially in proffering solutions (alternatives) to the youth unemployment in Anambra state.
This research work is of great relevance to the society at large. This is applicable to the government, the readers of this research work and to the researcher.
The benefit of this research work to the government is that by the end of the research, the weak-points and short – comings of all the sectors of the nation would be pinpointed and displayed based on findings, thereby proffering solution to the problem.
To the reader, they will be upgraded intellectually and also will be highly informed of the up and doings of the current administration. It will also give the reader’s insight on how the women participate in politics and policy making of the nation, also partake in the political affairs of the country geared towards the achievement of national development.
At least, it will be very informative and even provide a basis on which other studies with bearing on youth unemployment in Anambra can be achieved.
1.6 Scope of the Study
This research work is limited to the Effect of Youth Unemployment on Socio-Economic Development in Nigeria: (A Study of Anambra State)
1.7 Limitations of the Study
In the course of writing and carrying out this project work, the research encountered many difficulties; some errors in the results of the research and from external sources of data collection. These are factors standing as constraints thereby limiting the effect of the research result.
Among these are, time finance , scope and use of wrong statistics in data analysis, due to time limit, the research work is a time consuming one. A lot of time is taken to observe the subjects.
Most times the behaviour of the staff changes even when they are aware that they are being observed by the researcher, this is by taking their behavior. The researcher also observed that these senior staff some time give true and false information in order to cover their branches.
How I overcome the limitations. The limitations was overcome through the use of secondary source of data collection, they are as follows: Internet, Newspaper, Textbooks and Library.
At sometime the research work lasted over two months due to large scope of area of the study.
1.8 Operationalization/Definition of Terms
Economic Growth: this can be defined as the process whereby the real per capital income of a country increase over a long period of time economic growth is measured by the increased.
Youth Unemployment: This is activities that intentionally seek to impact positively on young people. It is equally a process of engage in the in a meaning activity whereby they can earn a living.
Youth: It is the age between 18 – 25 years.
Industrialization: It is the development of industries in a country on a wide scale. This is the process of converting raw materials to finished products.
Third World Countries: These are countries that have the potential to develop eg availability of natural resources and man power etc. Anambra is one of them.
Skilled Labour: Is the specialized part of the labor force with advanced education e.g. Physician’s plumbers, attorneys, engineers, scientists, builder’s e.t.c.
Unskilled Labor: Is a segment of the workforce associated with a limited skill set or minimal economic value for the performed e.g. secondary school certificate hold WAEC.
SAP: Structural Adjustment Programme.
Wealth Creation: Through real estate investing is still on of the best ways to become financially independent. Using other people money is a great wealth creation strategy, something that many successful investors are known for.
Social Economic Development: This is a combination of social and economic development. It embraces improvement in not only standard of living and per-capital income, but also high level of employment, reducing inflation, adequate food, high infrastructures, stressing values rather than achievement.
1.9 Organization of the Study
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows. Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (background of the study), statement of the problem, purpose of the study, research questions, significance of the study, scope of the study etc. Chapter two being the review of the related literature presents the theoretical framework, conceptual framework and other areas concerning the subject matter. Chapter three is a research methodology covers deals on the research design, area of the study, population of the study, sample and sampling techniques, methods of data collection, instruments for data collection, reliability of the instruments, validity of the instruments, distribution and retrieval of instruments and methods of data analysis. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.
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