Tom and Jerry, a type of cartoon children enjoy watching, was chosen as the case study, with sample drawn from pupils of Uwani Primary School and University of Nigeria Enugu campus primary schools. The study investigated three hypotheses namely; Children learn something from the cartoons they watch, Children d o understand some of the message of cartoons, Children should be encourage to watch some cartoons Will be used to answer the research question on the effect of cartoon advert on children. The survey research was used in order to generate data from the respondents. The review of related literature and limited direct interview will be carried out to strengthen the findings of the study. Structured questionnaire will also be administered to 120 pupils of both primary schools mentioned. Data analysis will be carried out using frequency distribution table and simple percentages. Based on the analysis of data and testing of hypothesis conclusion will be drawn. The results of the finding will be unfolded. Above all parents and guardian will find the research useful, as they will be better opportune to be selective on the kinds of cartoons their children watch. This will enable them to generate the desired influence of cartoons on the life of these children.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1 Background of the study
- Statement of the problem
- Objectives of the study
- Research Questions
- Research Hypothesis
- Significance of the Study
- Scope of the study
- Limitation of the Study
- Definitions of the Terms
- Review of Relevant Literature
2.1 Sources of Literature Review
2.2 Meaning of Cartoons
2.3 History and Current Trends of Cartoons
2.4 Cartoon Concerns
2.5 History an Evolution of Tom and Jerry
2.6 Theoretical Framework
3.0 Research Methodology
- Research method
- Research Design
- Population of the Study
- Determination of Sample Size
- Sample Technique
- Measuring Instrument
- Reliability and Validity of Instrument `
- Method of Data Analysis
- Expected Results
- Presentation Analysis of Data
4.2 Testing of Hypothesis
4.3 Discussion of Findings
- Summary and Recommendations and Conclusion
5.1 Summary of Findings
1.1 Background of the Study
Children have become MUCH more interested in cartoons, over many years and it has become a primary action to some lives. Typically, Children begin watching cartoons on the television at an early age of six months, and by the age two or three children enthusiastic viewers.
This is one of the reasons why Steve Hostler in his edited write up-mental and psychological effects of children’s cartoons opined that to many children are watching too much television and the shows that they are watching (even if they are cartoons) have become violent and addictive.
The marketing of cartoons has become overpowering in the United State and so has the subliminal messaging. The marketing according to Steve Hostler in his edited write-up from the Internets is targeted toward, the children to cause them to want to view the cartoons on a regular basis, but the subliminal messaging the “cartoon” This is unfortunate because children watch cartoon on the television and they see material that is not appropriate for their age group. Steve Hostler also alludes that children who watch too much cartoons on television are more likely to have mental and emotional problems, along with brain and eye injuries and unexpectedly the risk of a physical problem increase.
According to Oxford learner’s dictionary, cartoon is defined as an amusing drawing in a newspaper or magazine especially one about politics current events picture. It is (animated cartoon) a film made of by photographing a series of gradually changing drawings so that they look as if they are moving.
The word “cartoon” from the world encyclopedia of comics, derives from the Italian word “cartone” which is a drawing used in the preparation of a fresco. However following the invention of the printing press, it expanded to include both a technical and contextual meaning for printed line drawing were often caricatures are included in political and pamphlet and broadsides.
Twentieth century serial comics, and to a greater extent, animation has tied the word’s contemporary meaning to children’s humour, cartoon has long existed on the periphery of broadcast televisions, consigned to the
Shadowy region of week day afternoon and Saturday morning. The networks evening programming has been remarkably empty of cartoon series that have lasted more than two seasons. Many of the cartoon character according to Jeremy G. Butter in him write up cartoon’s with which people are most familiar were not actually designed for television, but rather were exhibited initially for in cinema theatres.
Cartoons initially evolved in the teens, but their development was slowed down by their prohibitive cost.
Animation became more economically feasible in 1914 when Earth Hurd patented the animation Cell. The Cell is a sheet of transparent celluloid that is placed on top of a background drawing. Legal wrangling, however, slowed the acceptance of the cel and comparatively few silent cartoons were made.
Steamboat Willis (2000) was the first significant cartoon with synchronized sound and flowers and Trees (1932) was the first to use, the three – colour Technicolor process (which became the cinemas principal colour process in the late 1930s). The final key to the success of the cartoon was an effective distribution system. During the silent era, according to Jeremy G Butler in his write up, small studios had created cartoon with limited access to cinema theatres. In the 1930s, Major studios such as Paramount, Warner, Universal and MGM signed distribution deal with the cartoon studios, or created their own cartoon departments. The late 1930s, to 1950s were a “golden era” for the cartoon and it is from this era that the most theatrical cartoons on television are drawn.
- Statement of the Problem
It has been observed that so many children today are being influenced by what they view or see on the television, especially when it comes to cartoons production. There are reported cases of children misbehaving after his/her exposure to a television programme. To a great extent this has not really helped situation that is one of the reasons why writers like Steve Hostler in his writer-up mental and psychological effects of children’s cartoons said that too many children are watching too much television and shows that they are watching have become violent and addictive.
Many of these children today have mental and emotional problem due to what they have watched on the television programme. In order to have stable and verifiable evidence(s) this study is set to work into the impacts and effects of cartoon adverts on the children.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The objectives of this research are
- To determine whether cartoons as a television programme affects children positively or negatively.
- To find out whether children do actually understand the Message of cartoon
- To determine whether children should be encouraged
or discouraged from watching cartoons.
- To make reasonable recommendations on the children and cartoon selection.
1.4 Research Question
For the purpose of this study
The following research questions are formulated
- Do you think cartoons affect children positively or negatively?
- Do children actually understand the message of cartoons?
- Should we encourage or discourage or children form watching cartoons.
- Should we make reasonable recommendations on the children and cartoon selection.
1.5 Research Hypothesis
The following hypothesis were formulated to;
H0: Children do not learn something from the cartoons
Hi: Children learn something from the cartoons they
H0: Children should not be encourage to watch cartoons
H2: Children should be encouraged from watching some
- It is assumed that the questions are enough for easy
understanding by the respondents.
- The sample is assumed to be well selected and is adequately representative of the population for accurate and reliable information for a meaningful study.
- Again there is assumption that the respondents has
access to televisions and Internet where they watch cartoons.
1.7 Significance of the Study
This study cannot be underestimated as it is of very significance not only to children who watch cartoons but also in many respects.
First, parents and significant other will find the research findings very useful, as they will be better opportune to be selective of the kinds of cartoons their wads watch.
Again it will serve as a reference point for other researches on the effect of cartoon advert on children. Finally the findings of this research work will help children be aware of the positive and negative implication of the cartoons they watch.
1.8 Scope of the Study
The scope of this study covers the effect of cartoons advert on children. A case study of Uwani primary school and Unec primary school through the electronic media, which includes Television and Internet, It will also include the effect of the use of this medium on children.
- Limitation of the study:
It can be seen from all indications that a research such as this cannot be carried out in one semester. There are constraints that limit the work of the researcher. Among these are:
– Inadequate Time: The time available is very limited, as a result of this, the researcher is restricted to some places for interviews and questioning during the collection of data.
– Insufficient Fund: The funds available to the researcher is not sufficient to carry out this research work. As a result of high economic hardship as well as high cost of transportation.
– There is also scarcity of current textbooks on tax because tax laws are constantly changed and so many textbooks are obsolete for this topic.
Finally, the academic workload on the campus is one of the limiting factors on this research work. Despite all these constraints, the researcher is able to carry out a fair and effective study on this topic.
- Definition Of Terms
Cartoon: It is a pictorial parody which by the devices of caricature analogy and ludicrous juxtapositive sharpens the public view of a contemporary event, political or social trend.
Editorial opinion: This is the average score of response to items measuring cartoon messages as an indication of editorial opinion.
Advertising, like other promotional techniques informs, persuades and reminds. It can change consumer’s, beliefs, attitudes, images, and behaviour. But for advertising to be effective on a national level, enormous expenditures are required. Advertising is a giant industry.
Adams, Cecil (1992, July 24) will sitting to the TV, reading
with bad light, etc, ruins your eyes? The straight Dope. Retrieved November 3, 2004 from http:// www. Straight dope. Com/Classics/a5.105. Html
Author unknown (2001, February)-Rug rats: television for
pedophiles. Retrieved Oct. 7 2004, from http:// www. Landoverbapfist. Org/news 0201/rugrats. Html
Joseph son, Wendy, PhD (1995, February). Television
violence: A review of the effects on children of different ages. Retrieved from http://www.cfc-efc. Ca/docs/mnt/00001068.htm
Jeremy.G. Butler (2005, sept) Cartoons. A review of
cartoons Animation origin. Retrieved from http.//www.museum. tv/archives/etv/c/htmlC/cartoons/cartoons. Htm
Author unknown (2001 Jan) Tom and Jerry retrieved from
http://en. Wikipedia. Org/wiki/Tom and Jerry. (MGM).
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