TABLE OF CONTENT
Title page – – – – – – – – – i
Table of contents – – – – – – – – ii
Attestation – – – – – – – – – iii
Approval page – – – – – – – – iv
Dedication – – – – – – – – – v
Acknowledgement – – – – – – – vi
Introduction – – – – – – – – 1-6
Aim and objectives of the project – – – – – 7
Significance of the project – – – – – – 8
Scope and limitations of the project – – – – – 9
Operational definitions of key terms – – – – – 10
Target audience – – – – – – – – 11
Literature review – – – – – – – – 12-31
Reference – – – – – – – – – 32-37
Script – – – – – – – – – – 38-42
Land in Nigeria as throughout much of Africa is a primary resource for
survival and a major source of income and livelihood for the rural population.
Land is not only a source of livelihood and valuable economic asset but also
carries spiritual values with it. Therefore, access to landed resources is not
merely a matter of productive use of the ecological environment; it involves
power and symbolic relations (Meur et al….2006). In this way, land resources
have continued to have major historical, cultural and spiritual significance
(Odgaard, 2006, the Encyclopedia of Earth, 2008). Due to increased population
pressure, environmental conditions and diversification of the rural land use
patterns in Nigeria, adequate access to pasture and water for livestock has
diminished thus prompting herdsmen to migrate to the north central, southern as
well as western part of the country. The squeezing out of herdsmen from their
traditional grazing lands has spurred the tension and conflicts with farming
communities in the last decades.
The term conflict suggests differences and disagreements. According to
Ofuoku and Osifo (2009), conflict is the simultaneous occurrence of two or
more mutually antagonistic impulse or motives. This was further described by
Wilson and Hana (1979) as struggle involving opposing ideas and/ or limited
resources. The general consensus among scholars is that, all conflict share
common qualities. The first is that there is kind of contact between the parties
that are involved. Secondly, the parties involved in the conflict share conflicting
views. And finally, one of the parties always seeks redress for the existing
According to Radda (2007); “conflict among people in all societies is
normal and there may never be a conflict-free society”. In every community, the
presence of security is meant to prevent the breakdown of law and order but it is
puzzling that this conflict has been allowed to degenerate into violent crisis that
led to loss of lives, properties, livestock, displacement of people, disruption of
farming and other socio-economic activities. It is obviously clear that a crisis
like this, if left unresolved, it is capable of seriously threatening the food
security and worsening the unemployment situation of the country.
The herdsmen have been in Nigeria for a very long time and there have
been harmony and peaceful co-existence with the farmers for long time. Cases
between the farmers and herdsmen were isolated, localized and harmoniously
resolved. It is however, disturbing and surprising that the conflict that erupted,
specifically in the previous years was spontaneous, widespread and destructive
in nature and could not be resolved by both parties leading to the current food
crisis. Granted that in the olden times, the farmers and herdsmen were known to
be living in peace, what then have triggered the recent conflict leading to loss of
life and property? What are the social and political factors which have led to
such a terrible state of affairs?
FAMERS-HERDSMEN CONFLICT IN NIGERIA
Conflict between farmers and herdsmen has become a common feature of
economic livelihood in West Africa. In the period before the beginning of the
20th century, this menace was confined to the savannah belts of West Africa.
Cattle rearing were common in the Sudan and Sahel savannah belts where crop
production was carried out only during the rainy season on a minimal scale.
This trend gave the Fulani herdsmen access to vast area of grass land in the
savannah belts of West Africa. In Nigeria, as time passed, the commoditization
of land as well as the introduction of irrigation farming in Savannah belt of
Nigeria in order to generate profit as well as enhance food security to support
the growing population in the country, more land was put to farming activities
and other purposes as deemed profitable by those who acquired it. This limited
the access to the vast area which was initially used by Fulani herdsmen for
rearing their herds especially along the river banks of savannah belts in the
Northern part of the country. There arose the need for grazing movement to
access pasture across regions in order to support herds.
According to Schema (1996), land, crops, livestock, water resources and
vegetal resources plays a key role in the development, maintenance as well as
sustainability and, projection of the socio-economic strength of a society.
Hence, resource ownership and its utilization have resulted in to conflicts
involving man since time immemorial. As earlier stated, of all the
aforementioned resources, land has remained an overwhelming source of
conflict among various user groups as well as individuals. In other words,
conflicts between farmers and herdsmen over the control of land is becoming
fierce and increasingly widespread in Nigeria largely due to the intensification
of production activities that are necessitated by the entrenchment of capitalist
relations coupled with an increasing human population.
The vast geographical area of Nigeria has placed farmers in a situation to
live with the Fulani herdsmen particularly during the dry season (November to
April). More so, the Fulani herdsmen still practice the free range system; they
move from one place to another in search of pasture and water. This
development usually forces them to migrate from the North to the South
Vallies, particularly Benue State, where both pasture and water resources can be
found. As a result, this has increased the competition for arable land between
the Fulani herdsmen and sedentary Tiv farmers resulting to the existing
conflicts and social friction among the two groups in the state.
Hagberg (1998) made a distinction between types of conflict in farmers‟
and nomadic relationship. He differentiates between disputes among individual
and group conflict of interest and violence while, dispute refers to disagreement
between two or more persons or groups. A violent conflict involves mayhem,
the destruction of lives, arising from dispute. A conflict of interest on the other
hand is seen as the adoption of opposing views and concern by different actors
which usually take from a non-violent competition for control of resources in a
given area. Furthermore, farmer-herdsmen differences are not only understood
as resource conflict but also construed in some quarters as a manifestation of
ethnic conflict involving two groups. Since farmers and herdsmen groups have
very different values, customs, physical and cultural characteristics, disputes
between them are frequently characterized as ethnic conflict. The feeling of
belongingness that is extant among a group‟s members is focused around their
economic interest and protection of the valves, culture and power of group. The
Fulani nomadic cattle rearers being the minority in their host communities have
a unique culture and strong sense of solidarity; they are often isolated from the
farming population. In such cases, conflict between them and the farming
population is regarded as having ethnic connotations.
Hence, the effect of these conflicts often between farmers and nomadic
herdsmen in Nigeria, usually results in the loss of lives and properties. In
conflict ridden areas, palpable fear and anxiety have enveloped the residents as
a result of the wanton destruction of lives and properties. The farmers and
herdsmen alike have lost their lives, crops, properties and livestock. The conflict
has demonstrated the high potential to exacerbate the insecurity and food crisis
within the area it occurs where it is localized with deep effects on nationwide. In
other words, the persistence of these conflicts has had a negative toll on
agricultural as well as economic development.
The resultant effect of these conflicts between farmers and herdsmen has
attracted the attention of the three strata of authority of the federation, which
have in turn, stimulated the adoption of different strategies and mechanism to
curb the crisis. For instance, several peace initiatives, programs and
consultations as well as negotiations have been initiated by the government but
all have turned out abortive. In the last 5 years, the conflict assumed a genocidal
dimension having severe effect on the agricultural sector which have been
unaccounted for or misinterpreted differently, either intentionally or otherwise.
AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE PROJECT
The aim of this project is to produce a 45 minute Radio Discussion
Programme on the effect of farmers-herdsmen conflict on agricultural
Other objectives of the project include:
1. To find out the remote and immediate causes of farmers and herdsmen
2. To assess the role of security agencies and the government in resolving
3. To recommend any other measure that will forestall the future occurrence of
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PROJECT
This project would widen our horizon of knowledge with regard to
various aspects of the effects of farmers-herdsmen conflict particularly on
In the academic realm, it will add to the already existing literature on the
subject matter and serve as valuable source of knowledge in the field of peace
and conflict resolution. Not only this, it will also serve as valuable information
for other researchers who may undertake similar project.
In the light of the unceasing conflict between farmers and herdsmen, this
project will provide useful details to concerned stakeholders and government at
all levels on how to resolve the conflict, pacify the aggrieved parties and sow
preventive seeds of it future occurrence as contained the recommendations. In
addition, this project will provide valuable details to policy makers and existing
constituted authorities faced with the challenge of conflict resolution and
management in Nigeria.
SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS OF THE PROJECT
This study shall among other things focus and restrict itself primarily
and basically on the effect of farmers-herdsmen conflict on agricultural
On the other hand, to conduct this project, there is need for the
researchers to go out to different places where the scene occur most, so as to
gather reliable information. But due to financial constraints and the time
allocated for the work is minimal, the researchers limit himself within Katsina
and utilizes available information gathered using textbooks, seminars, journals,
projects, interviews, articles, internet, and other relevant publications done
related to the topic under study.
OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS OF KEY TERMS
Farmer: A person engagd in food production and animal rearing in Katsina.
Herdsmen: These are people who rear mostly cattle and other animals.
Conflict: Discontent or dsharmony between farmers and herdsmen in Katsina.
Agricultural Development: improvement or advancement in agricultural
activties in Katsina.
Target audience refers to the public, individual, group of individuals or
society to whom certain issue is aimed at or expected or beneficiaries of certain
information for their necessary consumption and implementation in their day to
Therefore, our target audiences are classified into two;
1. Primary Audience: Farmers, Fulani Herdsmen and the Government and
2. Secondary Audience: The General Public and other relevant
DISCLAIMER: All project works, files and documents posted on this website, eProjectTopics.com are the property/copyright of their respective owners. They are for research reference/guidance purposes only and some of the works may be crowd-sourced. Please don’t submit someone’s work as your own to avoid plagiarism and its consequences. Use it as a reference/citation/guidance purpose only and not copy the work word for word (verbatim). The paper should be used as a guide or framework for your own paper. The contents of this paper should be able to help you in generating new ideas and thoughts for your own study. eProjectTopics.com is a repository of research works where works are uploaded for research guidance. Our aim of providing this work is to help you eradicate the stress of going from one school library to another in search of research materials. This is a legal service because all tertiary institutions permit their students to read previous works, projects, books, articles, journals or papers while developing their own works. This is where the need for literature review comes in. “What a good artist understands is that nothing comes from nowhere. The paid subscription on eProjectTopics.com is a means by which the website is maintained to support Open Education. If you see your work posted here by any means, and you want it to be removed/credited, please contact us with the web address link to the work. We will reply to and honour every request. Please notice it may take up to 24 – 48 hours to process your request.