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Leadership and administration has been widely acknowledged as a potent instrument for the achievement of national development especially in Nigeria.

Leadership is an important aspect of management. The ability to lead effectively is one of the keys of being an effective manager or administrator. The essence of leadership is followership. In other words, it is the willingness of people to follow those whom they perceive as providing means of achieving their own desires, wants and needs, not those who would not provide means of achieving their own desires, wants and needs. That is why any country/organization that desires to achieve her objectives must have an effective and efficient leadership that knows how to apply all the basic principles needed towards achieving a great height of development.

National Development is our utmost desire; this is because of the poise and serenity it will bring to our country Nigeria if achieved. It should be noted that any nation without a good leadership and administration is like one driving a care without a head lamp in the night. For Nigeria to attain the height of National development, a good leadership and administration should be kept in view.

Good luck Ebele Jonathan, a former teacher, inspector of education, lecturer and environmental protection and pollution control officer, became Nigeria’s second university educated Head of Government, was sworn in again on May 29, 2011 for a full four year term, as the President of Nigeria following his victory in the April 2011 Presidential elections. Goodluck Jonathan is the third President of Nigeria’s Fourth Republic and the Fourteenth Head of Government in about 40 years. He had been the President of Nigeria from May 6, 2010 to May 28, 2011 after the death of President Umaru Yar’Adua on May 5, 2010 and is a member of the ruling People’s Democratic Party (PDP).

Nigeria is one of the largest countries in West Africa. Apparently because of its natural endowment with many resources such as mineral, coal, food and the most profound “Crude oil”. It is also rich in population, gifted with talents in all ramification of life i.e. entertainment (music and arts), sports and so on.

To this regard, if Nigeria must join the 20 largest economies by 2020 AD, her leaders and followers must demonstrate certain capabilities. There have been concerted efforts made by the President and all his cabinet members towards the enhancement of a good leadership and administration, but our leaders must develop new visions and new strategies: must summon new forms of determination and political will: and demonstrate higher levels of patriotism, hard work, selflessness and responsiveness to the challenges facing them.

However, there is a great need for “national development” and in respect to this; the leadership must have a collective vision of the future or its goal; and the path to the achievement of these goals. It must always carry the people along. Nigeria is still posed with challenges like “Ethnicism”. This is higher in the multi-national states in which our country is an example. There is need to reconcile the demands of various ethnic groups, build bridges across religions and gender, and establish a legitimate basis for new forms of Nationalism.

1.1     Statement of The Problem

Energy and curiosity directed towards liberation of the country from impoverishment had been abortive because of economic and political crises.

Also the issues in ethnicity, religious bigotry, terrorism and insecurity has been challenging the effort of our leaders towards national development.

Thereby  making national development a difficult task in this country , Nigeria.


1.2 Purpose Of The Study

  1. To examine the effects of ethnic and religious crisis on national development.
  2. To investigate the consequences of bad leadership on national development.
  3. To provide a way forward for national development


1.3     Research Questions

  1. what are the effects of ethnic and religious crisis on national development?
  2. what are the consequences of bad leadership on national development?
  3. How can the problems be resolved?


1.4     Statement of Hypothesis

  1. Ho: There are no effects of ethnic and religious crisis on national development.

H1: There are effects of ethnic and religious crisis on national development.

2.Ho: There are no consequences of bad leadership on national development.

H1: There are consequences of bad leadership on  national development.






Leadership theories and approach as it affects our study, which is about Goodluck Ebele Jonathan’s Administration, should point out leadership in the political system. Early leadership theories focused on what qualities distinguished between leaders and followers, while subsequent theories looked at other variables such as situation factors (situational skill levels) (trait theory), great












man’s theories etc but am going to focus on “Great man’s theory”.

Greatman theories assume that the capacity for leadership is inherent, that great leader is born, not made. These theories often portray great leader are heroic, mythic and destined to rise to leadership when needed. “Great leaders are born, not made”? This quote sums up the basic tenant of the great man theory of leadership which suggests that the capacity of leadership is in born. According to this theory, you are either a natural born leader or you are not.

Moreover, some of the earliest research on leadership looked at people who were already successful leaders. These individuals often included aristocratic rulers who achieved their position through birth right. Because people of lesser social status had fewer opportunities to practice and achieve leadership roles, it contributed to the idea that leadership is an inherent ability. Even today, people often described prominent leaders as having the right qualities or personality for the position implying that inherent characteristics are what make these people effective leaders.

To this regard, the life of president Goodluck reflected “Greatman” theory of leadership, right from his early stage he had been leading. He was a teacher, inspector of education, lecturer, deputy Governor to governor, vice president to president. In fact his life history is full of greatness. As stated by this theory, he is indeed born to be a leader.


          This research work is of great relevance to the society at large. This is applicable to the government, the readers of this research work and to the researcher.

The benefit of this research work to the government is that by the end of the research, the weak-points and short – comings of all the sectors of the nation would be pinpointed and displayed based on findings, thereby proffering solution to the problem.

To the reader, they will be upgraded intellectually and also will be highly informed of the up and doings of the current administration. It will also give the reader’s insight on how to participate and also partake in the political affairs of the country geared towards the achievement of national development.


The scope has been limited to our country Nigeria, using the present administration of President Goodluck Ebele Jonathan as an area of study.


In the process of carrying out this research work, the researcher encountered many problems; such as financial constraint, limited time and refusal of the people in strategic positions to respond to some questions directed to them.


  • Leadership: It is the art of influencing people that they get to strive willingly towards the achievement of a certain set goals.
  • Administration: This is the direction, co-ordination and control of many persons to achieve some objective.
  • National Development: This is the ability of a country to improve the social welfare of the people e.g. providing social amenities like quality education, potable water, transportation, medical care etc.
  • Development: This refers to a change process geared at improving or making better the life and environment of man.


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