The problem of unemployment on national development is at the focal point of
every day discussion in Nigeria, and seemed to be the major cause of social vices
in our societies as it leads to political thuggery and other violent activities. The
main objective of this research is to know the reason why majority of the youths
are unemployed in Hadejia Local Government Area of Jigawa State and at the
same time, to find solutions to the problems of unemployment. The study uses
primary and secondary data as it was only restricted to Hadejia Local
Government Area of Jigawa State. A sample of 100 respondents were selected
using cluster sampling technique and it was found out that negligence of the
agricultural sector, corruption, collapse of the power sector, illiteracy, etc. were
the major reasons for unemployment in Nigeria. The study also uses both
descriptive and analytical methods in analysing the data from the sampled area
and recommended that in order to address the problems of youth unemployment
in Nigeria, particularly in Hadejia Local Government Area, greater emphasis is
needed to be placed on job creation.
Keywords: Unemployment, Youth Unemployment, Development and National
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Abstract – – – – – – – – – – i
Table of contents – – – – – – – – – ii
1.1 General Introduction – – – – – – – – 1
1.2 Statement of Research Problem – – – – – – 3
1.3 Research Objectives – – – – – – – – 4
1.4 Research Questions – – – – – – – – 4
1.5 Significance of the Study – – – – – – – 4
1.6 Research Assumptions – – – – – – – – 5
1.7 Scope and limitations of the Study – – – – – – 5
1.8 Research Methodology – – – – – – – 6
1.9 Definition of key Terms – – – – – – – 6
1.10 Outline of Chapters – – – – – – – – 7
LITERATURE REVIEW AND THEORETICAL FRAME WORK
2.1 Introduction – – – – – – – – – 8
2.2 Conceptual Clarification – – – – – – – 9
2.2.1 Unemployment – – – – – – – 9
2.2.2 Youth Unemployment – – – – – – – 10
2.2.3 Development – – – – – – – – – 13
2.2.4 National Development – – – – – – – 14
2.3 Types of Unemployment – – – – – – – – 14
2.3.1 Frictional Unemployment – – – – – – – – 14
2.3.2 Structural Unemployment – – – – – – – – 15
2.3.3 Cyclical Unemployment – – – – – – – – 15
2.4 Causes of Youth Unemployment – – – – – – – 15
2.4.1 Rural Urban Migration – – – – – – – – 16
2.4.2 Rapid Population Growth – – – – – – – 16
2.4.3 Inappropriate School Curriculum – – – – – – – 17
2.4.4 Rapid Expansion of the Educational System – – – – – 17
2.4.5 Declining Manufacturing Sector – – – – – – – 18
2.4.6 Corruption – – – – – – – – – – 19
2.5 Effects of Unemployment – – – – – – – – 20
2.5.1 Economic Effects – – – – – – – – – 20
2.5.2 Social Effects – – – – – – – – – 20
2.5.3 Political Effects – – – – – – – – – 21
2.6 Theoretical Framework – – – – – – – 21
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY AND RESEARCH
3.1 Unemployment and its effects in Hadejia local government – – – 25
3.2 Methodology of the Study – – – – – – – – 26
3.2.1 Research Design – – – – – – – – – 27
3.2.2 Population Size – – – – – – – – – 27
3.2.3 Sample Size – – – – – – – – – – 27
3.2.4 Sampling Technique – – – – – – – – 27
3.2.5 Sources of data – – – – – – – – – 28
3.2.6 Administration of Questionnaire – – – – – – – 28
3.2.7 Methods of Data Analysis – – – – – – – – 28
3.2.8 Validity and Reliability of the Instruments- – – – – – 28
4.1 Data Presentation and Analysis – – – – – – – 30
4.2 Presentation of Results – – – – – – – – 30
4.3 Test of Research Assumptions – – – – – – – 35
4.4 Research Findings – – – – – – – – – 37
SUMMARY, CONCULUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary – – – – – – – – – – 39
5.2 Conclusion – – – – – – – – – – 41
5.3 Recommendation – – – – – – – – – 42
Bibliography – – – – – – – – 45
Appendix (Research Questionnaire) – – – – – 48
1.1 General Introduction
The issue of unemployment has been a serious global problem for many decades around
1920’s. The problem was linked to the failure of domestic job creation to keep pace
with rapid industrial development; while the recent problem of unemployment grew
rapidly largely due to the global economic crisis.
The United State government announced that employers cut another 651,000 jobs last
month, driving unemployment up to 8.1 percent. Job losses in December and January
were even higher than previously reported. The pain is being felt well beyond the United
State, by the end of 2007 and early of 2008 (Angel, 2002).
According to Musa, A. and Saidu, S. (2007), the social consequences of unemployment
for those who are out of work include higher incidence of poverty. Ill-health and death
demoralized and strained family relationship which has negative effect on national
development. For the society as a whole, they include the failure to realize the social
investment in human capital made through the education system, and a loss of tax
revenue combined with increased out going in unemployment benefits that threaten the
financing of infrastructural and national development projects.
Also, the evil effects of mass unemployment have cracked some families in the country.
It has led to broken marriages of once happily married couples. “Awake magazine”
(July 22, 1984) supported this when it stated that families have broken up and the future
of their children bleak owing to unemployment. George, R. (2001) maintained that
some unemployed people, and their families, experience anxiety and despair, frustration
and desperate unhappiness. He also stated that the psychological pressure of
unemployment cause some people to suffer stress.
Unemployment represents a waste of human labour. An increase in the size of the nonworking population is a simultaneous increase in the burden of “liability” of the
working population. An implication can be drawn from here that some difficulties do
arise as to how to manage the meagre finance of the working force also, it can be implied
that unemployment results in of human satisfaction a grossly lowered standard of
human satisfaction and insecurity. Gerrald, M. (1975) noted that the unemployed
eventually becomes psychologically wrecked. These and many more other
consequences of unemployment such as poor housing, poor clothing, lack of medical
care, poor means of transportation and so on are time bombs ready for explosion in
Nigeria’s national development.
In Asia, in China, the urban unemployment rate officially stands at 4.2 percent.
However Chinese Academy of Social Scientist says it is closer to 9.4 percent in
2003.Also in Asia, in Japan, unemployment hit 4.4 percent, by the end of 2008, rising
at its fastest rate in 42 years (Angel, 2002).
In India unemployment officially stood at 8.2 percent in 2007. However, that number
is thought to largely reflect unemployment in the organized sector of the economy,
which constitutes/accounts for just 10 percent of the country’s work force (Stanley,
In Africa, in South Africa, the unemployment rate fell to 21.9 percent at the end of last
year, down from 23.2 percent. In Europe, in Germany, unemployment stood at 8.5
percent, and in Britain in 2008, it was 6.1 percent the highest in ten years (NBS, 2011).
In Latin America Mexico’s unemployment rate is 4.3 percent. However in Mexico
anyone who is 14 years or older and who has worked one hour a week is considered
“employed” (NBS, 2011).
In Nigeria according 2006 National Population Census, out of 140 million people in the
country 80 million were youth and out them 60 percent are unemployed. Therefore,
these shows that Nigeria as one of the developing country is faced with this great
problem of unemployment which impacts more on its future generation, the youth. The
causes of unemployment in Nigeria can be categorized into economic, social and
political causes which have negative effects on human life; and efforts made by the
government to tackle the problem prove abortive (Daily Trust Newspaper, 2009).
It is in view of these problems that this research attempts to explore the effects of
unemployment among the youth in Hadejia local Government, Jigawa State. It is
commonly believed that unemployment leads to so many social problems such as, high
rate of crime, drug abuse, armed robbery, prostitution, political thuggery, etc.
1.2 Statement of Research Problem
Unemployment constitutes one of the most irritating social problems in Nigeria. Today
the issue of unemployment is at the centre of every discussion in Nigeria and it seems
to be the major cause of so many social vices in our society.
As earlier stated, 60 percent of Nigerian youth were unemployed. This figure must have
increased as the situation worsen day by the day .This has negative impact on the
country’s National Development as the youth are considered to be the backbone of
every society. The Federal Government recently accepted World Bank Projection that
nearly 30% of Nigerians are unemployed and this figure may reflect the Nigerian
average. The problem of unemployment among youth, lead them to engage in political
thuggery and other violent activities that contributed to political instability in the
country. Once a person is unemployed, he becomes idle, aggressive, frustrated and often
leads some to engage in illegal activities. This is because the anger generated from the
unemployment is transferred to the immediate environment. A country that has high
rate of unemployment among the youth will have very unproductive and defendant
population (Daily Trust Newspaper, 2009).
In lieu of the above, this research study will be guided by the following:
1.3 Objectives of the Study
Basically, the main objective of this work is to look at unemployment and its effects on
National development. The goals to be achieved are as follows:
i. To find out the nature and rate of unemployment in Hadejia Local Government area;
ii. To find out the causes and effects of unemployment in Hadejia Local Government
iii. To offer suggestions for the solution to the problems of unemployment.
1.4 Research Questions
In carrying out this research the following questions are raised:
i. What is the rate of unemployment among youth in Hadejia local government?
ii. What are the causes and effects of youth unemployment in Hadejia local government?
iii. What are the steps taken by government and other relevant authorities in tackling the
problem of unemployment?
1.5 Significance of the Study
The study on the effects of unemployment on national development is particularly
important when looking at the rate and nature of unemployment in our country despite
the fact that the country is blessed with abundance natural resources. We are today in a
period of economic crisis and uncertainty in all sphere of human development, political,
economic and social.
Currently, the various governments federal, state and local governments are not
adequately finding infrastructural and development projects. Most of the people
therefore cannot afford basic necessitates of life; food, shelter, and clothing, which
could lead to depression, malnourishment and frustration. Presently most people find it
difficult to have three square meals a day.
The significance of this research is to study the effects of unemployment on national
development, with a view to alleviating the hardship among youths and provide
information that will help and encourage government and individuals to address the
1.6 Research Assumptions
i. The higher the rate of unemployment amongst youth in Hadejia local
government the lower the rate of national development.
ii. Unemployment leads to social vices in Hadejia local government
iii. Unemployment affects youth development in Hadejia.
1.7 Scope and Limitations of the Study
This research work will focus on the negative effects of unemployment among the youth
of Hadejia Local Government, Jigawa State.
In view of the limitations of this study various factors contributed in affecting the
researcher’s comprehensiveness and totality in carrying out the study. Among these
factors are scarcity of relevant materials and the lack lustre desire of people to attempt
the questions objectively, financial constraints and other task of campus engagements.
Despite, the aforementioned short comings and hindrances, the research study no doubt
turned out to be successful.
1.8 Research Methodology
This refers to the technique used by the researcher in gathering information. Research
methodology refers to the technique used by the researcher in gathering information.
Population size of this research is the entire people living in Hadejia local government;
and it is from these people that the sample will be drawn. Sample size of this research
will be drawn from the population size and the intended sample size will be a total
number of 50 people; and only 50 questionnaires will be distributed on them. The
sample technique is the cluster sampling; In this case five wards will be selected that
will represent the population and in each ward, ten questionnaire will be provided to
the respondents. The wards include, Hadejia A, Hadejia B, Hadejia C, Hadejia D1 and
Hadejia D2. In this research two main methods will be used in gathering the data, that
is the primary and secondary means. The primary source of data is going to be a
questionnaire, while the secondary source will be text books, articles and the internet.
In this study, when the data is collected it will be analyzed and presented in a tabular
form for easy understanding; also percentages will be used for further analysis.
1.9 Definition of key Terms
The key terms used in this research study can be seen below:
ii. Youth Unemployment
iii. National Development
Unemployment: According to Cambridge Advanced learner Dictionary define
Unemployment as the number of people in a particular country who do not have a job.
Oxford Dictionary of Sociology define unemployment as the state of being unable to
sale one’s labour-power in the labour market despite being willing to do so. Page 75
Youth: Countries in the world used different parameters and variables in defining their
youth. Nigerian National Youth Development Policy define youth as young persons of
age 18-35 years who are citizen of the Federal Republic of Nigeria.
United Nation Organization defines youth as those falling in the age category of 15-
24 years. Common wealth of nations defines youth as those in the age category of 1629
National Development: Is the ability of a country to improve the social welfare of the
people e.g. by providing social amenities like quality education, portable water,
transportation, infrastructure, medical care etc. (www.slideshare.net).
1.10 Outline of Chapters
The research is divided into five chapters. The first chapter comprised the general
introduction to the study, statement of research problem, objectives of the study,
research questions, and significance of the study, scope and limitations of the study,
research methodology, definition of key terms, organization of chapters. The second
chapter will consist of literature review; exhaustively discuss unemployment, Youth
unemployment, development and national development as well as types of
unemployment, causes of youth unemployment and its effects. It also touched on the
theoretical framework of the study which focus on the background of the theory and its
critique. Chapter three will focus on Research methodology where various means of
collecting data will be discussed as well as the population size of the study.
Instrumentation of the study which comprised the reliability and validity of the study
was also discussed. Chapter four focuses on data presentation and analysis, and chapter
five will focus on the summary, conclusion and recommendations
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