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Extraction of manganese (iv) ion from aqueous media using 1-phenyl-3-methyl pyrazolone-5  has been studied. The 0.0lM      of 1-phenyl-3-methyl pyrazolone-5 was prepared by dissolving 1.74g in 100ml (40ml butanol and 60ml chloroform) 2ml aqueous phase of different acid concentrations 1M to 6M where prepared with HCl, HN03, H2S04, respectively. Extraction process involved the mixture of 2Ml organic phase and aqueous phase respectively, shaken for 40mins and allowed to settle. The raffinate was taken for analysis using spectrophotometer. The result showed that extraction of Mn4+ ion varies from 1.51% to 22.66% at different acid concentration. There was extraction at 1M to 6M of HCl when gave 4.51%, 4.41%, 4.47%, 4.22%, 3.48% and 3.79%. There was extraction at 1m to 6M of H2S04 which gave, 2.83%, 1.47%, 2.32%, 1.87%, 1.51% and 1.12%, and there was also extraction at HN03 which also gave, 4.68%, 4.22%, 4.45%, 3.20%, 22.66% and 2.50%.


Keywords: 1-phenyl-3-methyl pyrazolone butanol, chloroform,                          H2S04, HCl, HN03.





Title page                                                       i

Approval page                                                        ii

Dedication                                                      iii

Acknowledgement                                            iv

Abstract                                                         v

Table of contents                                             vi



1.0 Introduction                                                     1

1.1 Statement Of Problem                                       2

1.2 Objective/Aim                                                   3

1.3 Significance Of Study                                                3

1.4 Scope Of The Work                                           4



2.0 Literature Review                                              5

2.1 Metal ions in Aqueous Solution                                   6

2.2 Manganese (iv) Ion                                           9

2.2.1 General Characteristics                                    9

2.4  1-Phenyl-3-Methyl Pyrazolone-5                         12

2.5 Distribution Ratio (D)                                               13

2.6 The Efficiency Of Extraction                                15


3.0 Materials and Method                                                16

3.1 Sourcing Of Materials And Apparatus                    16

3.2 Materials and Apparatus                                     16

3.3 Preparations of 0.0lm 3-Methyl-1-Phenyl Pyrazolone-5  17

3.4 Preparation of Stock Acid Solutions                            18

3.5 Preparations of 100ppm Of Mn+4                                            18

3.6 Preparation of 2ml Aqueous Phases                            18

3.7 Extraction Procedure                                          19

3.8 Sample Analysis                                                20


4.0 Results and Discussion                                       22

4.1 Results                                                            22

4.2 Discussion                                                             25


5.0 Conclusion And Recommendations                       27

5.1 Conclusion                                                       27

5.2 Recommendations                                             27

References                                                             29

Appendix                                                               36



The term ion extraction refers to the process of extracting one or several ions from a liquid phase, usually an aqueous phase, to another phase that can be either solid or liquid. The general aim is to separate ions from a native solution or to concentrate ions in order to handle smaller volumes. When different types of ions need to be revered from their mixture, ie. Performing a selective extraction of each ion, the term “ion extraction” is used [1].

A metal ion is aqueous solution (aqua ion) is cation, dissolves in water, of chemical formula [M(H2O)n]z+. The solvation number n, determined by variety of experimental method is 4 for Li+ and Be2+ and 6 for elements in periods 3 and 4 of the periodic table. Lanthanide and actinide aqua ions have solvation  number of 8 and 9. The strength of the bonds between the metal ion and water molecules I the primary solvation shell increases with the electrical charge Z, on the metal ion and decreases as its radius, r, increases [2].

Manganese is a chemical element with symbol (Mn) atomic number 25, atomic weight 54.938044, meeting point 1519k (12460C or 2275OF), density 7.3 grams per cubic centimeter, period number 4, group number 7. It is not found in as a free element in nature, it is often found in minerals in combination with iron [3].

Pyrazoline, a five member ring, is a derivative of pyrazole that has an additional keto group, it has a molecular formula of C3H4N2O [4].



–      These ions interfere with each other in some analytical process, which make it very necessary for these ions to be separated in a mixture before analysis [5].

–      Some industrial effluents have high concentration of Mn, which are essential with versatile applications. Thus there is need to recover these metals from the effluent and reduce their concentration to permissible limits before discharge to the environment because manganese is toxic when too high concentration are present in a human body and can cause Parkinson, lung embolism and bronchitis, when men and exposed to manganese for a longer period of time they may become important.



The objective of this present work is to study the extraction characteristic of manganese from aqueous media using phenyl-3-methly pyrazoline-5.

–      To separate ions from a native solution to concentration ions in order to handle smaller volumes.

–      Identification of the hazardous effects of manganese.

–      Identification of the industrial of the industrial uses of manganese.



Study will provide possible condition for the separation of the mixture of the ions during analysis.

–      Result may provide ways of recovery the metals from their effluents.

–      Study result will provide treatment methods for the effluents containing this metal.

–      This study results will provide literature for further studies.



Extracting manganese+4 from aqueous media using 3-methyl-1-phenyl-5-pyrazolone using atomic absorption spectrometer.

To separate ion from a native solution or to concentration ions, in order to handle smaller volume.

Identification of the hazardous effects of manganese.


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