Climate change has been at the heart of desertification in Sub-Saharan Africa. One of such migrant groups affected by the menace are the herdsmen who are often in constant clash with their host communities especially farmers in terms of resource use; paramount amongst which is land. Consequently, in response to the challenge posed by massive desertification in Africa combined with the inherent socio-economic disadvantages the menace carries, the African Union (AU) initiated the Great Green Wall Program (GGWP) in 2007 aimed at creating a green wall across Africa from the West to the East with the view of regenerating the area and ensuring the livelihoods of the locals therein are secured. Nonetheless, nine years after its creation, the program has not seen meaningful impact in some areas, which has furthered the cause of climate induced conflict in Nigeria. Thus, this study was focused on investigating the performance of the Great Green Wall Project in relation to its expected usefulness in curbing farmers/herders conflict in Kwara State, Nigeria.
In order to achieve the research objective, the survey research design was adopted for the study. The primary and secondary sources of data collection was used in this research work. The primary source of data was generated from farmers, herdsmen, members of staff of Ministry of Environment and Forestry, Nigeria Immigration Service and National Agency for the Great Green Wall via interview while the secondary source of data includes relevant text books, journals, publications, seminar papers, newspaper articles and other relevant materials. The primary data was content analysed.
The study revealed that though the National Agency for the Great Green Wall has put in place various programmes to correct the menace of desertification, the agency need to urgently extend its programmes way beyond the 11 frontier states mostly hit by the effects of desertification. The inclusion of all states of the federation in its programs will help ameliorate and reduce constant clashes being witnessed nationwide especially in Kwara state as it will help reduce the migratory tendencies of herders.
The study concluded by pinpointing the need for greater security at Nigeria’s loose borders especially in the North in order to combat the problem of foreign unchecked herders straying into the country; and the need for constant communication and understanding between herders, farmers and local communities. There is also the need to incorporate the tool of conflict prevention in the management of conflict between herders and farmers in order to reduce constant clashes, improve security at Nigeria’s borders, maintain existing grazing reserves and educate farmers and herders on coping techniques to conflict. Thus, the thrust of this study is to investigate the Great Green Wall Programme in light of its expected usefulness in curbing farmer and herder conflicts in Kwara state, Nigeria.
Keywords: Conflict, Climate Change, Desertification, Farmers, Herdsmen, Desert
Encroachment, Global Warming, African Union, Great Green Wall Project.
Word Count: 472
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page i
Table of Contents vi
1.2 Statement of the Problem 4
1.5 Significance of the Study 6
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms 8
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE
2.1 Climate Change and Desertification 11
2.2 Conflict: Definition, types and causes 14
2.4 Farmer/Herder Relations within communities 21
2.6 Climate Change: The Political Approach 25
2.7 Socio-Ecoomic view of Climate Change 28
2.8 Fulani Social Organizations 30
2.10.2 Relative Deprivation Theory 36
CHAPTER THREE: THE GREAT GREEN WALL PROJECT
3.1 The Middle Belt Region of Nigeria as A Socio-Economic and Political Entity 39
3.2 Implications of Herdsmen Movement and Interactions in the Middle Belt Region of Nigeria 43
3.3 Great Green Wall Project 45
3.3.1 Ecological Characteristics of Nigeria 46
3.4 Great Green Wall Initiative in Nigeria 52
3.5 National Agency for the Great Green Wall 53
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS, RESULTS AND
4.1 Classification and Characteristics of Respondents 56
4.2 Analysis of Data according to Research Questions 61
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND
5.1 Summary 70
5.4 Limitations of the Study 73
5.5 Suggestions for Further Studies 73
5.6 Contributions to Knowledge 74
LIST OF TABLES
1 Respondents by gender distribution 31
2 Respondents by age distribution 32
3 Respondents by marital status 33
4 Educational status of farmers and herdsmen in Kwara State 34
5 Annual income of farmers and herdsmen in Kwara State 34
- Background to the Study
Climate change, long-term transmutation in the earth’s climate, especially a transmutation due to an expansion in the normal barometrical temperature, is not an incipient phenomenon. Most of these climate changes are attributed to minutely diminutive variations in Earth’s orbit that transmute the amount of solar energy our planet receives (Peterson et. al, 2009). The present warming pattern is of particular consequence on the grounds that the greater part of it is likely human-incited and continuing at a rate that is phenomenal in the past 1,300 years (Allison et.al, 2009). Most climate scientists accede the main cause of the current warming trend is human expansion of the “greenhouse effect”, warming that result when the atmosphere traps heat radiating from Earth toward space (Naomi, 2004). A more vigorous greenhouse effect will warm the oceans and partially melt glaciers and other frozen di-hydrogen monoxide, thus creating an astonishing increase in sea level (Church et.al, 2006). Gradually, the warming of air temperatures cause drought conditions and avert the sustained development of vegetation. This, combined with human activity of chopping down trees, overgrazing and the clearing of land for agribusiness, leads to continual desertification witnessed in specific regions.
Desertification is a form of land degradation by which land becomes more arid (Arnalds, 2000). It generally refers to “the procedure of fruitful land changing into desert typically as a result of deforestation, drought, or incongruous methods of farming” (Reynolds, 2001). This process more often than not brings about the desertified land losing its vegetation, water bodies (lakes, streams), and wildlife. Desertification causes abstraction of nutrients from the soil, making land infertile and unusable for cultivation. With this process, the world looses about 12 million hectares of productive land yearly. due to desertification and drought alone (Veron et.al, 2006). Desertification is a noteworthy issue over the world, most remarkably in dry land zones (counting vast zones in Africa, for example, the Sahel).
About 40% of Earth’s land is covered by dry lands, and these areas are home to over 2 billion people (Idris et al, 2011). However, while climate change and desertification can frequently go as an inseparable unit, each one able to exacerbate the other, the part these two components play in migration is starting to gain increased global attention. With the current progression of the world’s deserts, there may soon be few places for environmentally displaced persons to go (Neely et.al, 2009). Geometric increase in human population in dry lands has led to reduction in soil quality and thus increased the pressure to migrate due to unpredictable rainfall patterns leading to frequent drought (Bassett et.al, 2003; Coughenour, 2008). Such migrations, often caused by depleted means of livelihood bring the migrants into constant clashes with the local population especially over use of resources, especially land. The movement of dry land inhabitants into the hinterland has led to conflict over scarce resources in terms of land use and management especially between farmers and herdsmen (Amadi et.al, 2011). As is with the case in Nigeria, the effects of desertification, in mostly the northernmost parts, have necessitated the migration of herdsmen southward in search of greener pastures for their cattle. The consequent foray of cattle into local farms in these areas has continually led to clashes between farmers and migrating herders (Olabode & Ajibade, 2011). Strife between farmers and herdsmen for the utilization of agricultural land is becoming fierce and increasingly wide spread in Nigeria largely due to production activities that are necessitated by increasing human population.
In light of this, it is pertinent to note the heterogeneous nature of Nigeria with its multiplicity of ethnicities and possibilities of conflict triggers in form of ethnic clashes emanating from resource use. One feature which has distinguished Kwara State, the case study for this research, is the prevailing peace and harmony despite the multiplicity of tribes and cultures. The state is described as a microcosm of Nigeria. It is a home to the Yoruba, Hausa, Fulani, Nupe, Bariba, among others. All these tribes have, from years immemorial, co-existed peacefully and harmoniously with less friction. The presence of the varied ethnicities is typified in its sobriquet as the State of Harmony to depict the influx of people from all parts of the country settling down to relish the peace in the state.
However, the recent spate of attacks by Fulani herdsmen and farmers casts a dark shadow on the existing harmony in the state. Though the problem of farmers/herders clash has been a recurring decimal in Nigeria, Kwara State has had its fair taste of the crisis. Recently, the clashes have been getting bloodier. In 2015, according to (Abdullateef, 2015), there was a huge confrontation between herdsmen of Fulani descent and native farmers. The conflict started from Asa Local Government in Kwara Central Senatorial District and spread to communities in Kwara South Senatorial District: Oro-Ago in Ifelodun Local Government and Eruku in Irepodun Local Government. Prominent among the causes of the conflict, apart from the straying of cattle into farmlands and reprisal attacks, is the failure of the herdsmen to abide by extant rules which forbad bringing weapons to the market. Conflict emanated during the struggle by the local vigilante to seize the said weapons from the herdsmen. The result of the conflict was the death of eight townsmen according to the traditional ruler of Eruku, HRH Oba Busari Olarewaju, who also stated that the community has been experiencing Fulani/Bororo attack for the past 10 years. This highlights not just the need for grazing options in hitherto reported conflicts but adds a new dimension in terms of the importance of understanding and mutual co-habitation between herders and their host communities.
While the dust over the Eruku and Oro-Ago incidents is yet to settle, there was a similar confrontation in Patigi Local Government, in Kwara North senatorial district in June 2015, where farmers and herdsmen clashed at a community called Motokun. It was learnt that members of the community staged a reprisal attack on the Fulani herdsmen, with casualties recorded on both sides. After the Patigi attack, there was another incident reported at Obbo Aiyegunle in Ekiti Local Government Area, where some indigenes allegedly attacked a Fulani camp, asking them to vacate their lands. The Fulani settlement was set ablaze in the process with unspecified number of cattle killed. These are some of the examples of the recent cases of conflict between farmers and herders in Kwara State.
In light of these attacks, this study seeks to peruse the Great Green Wall Project as an initiative whose success can have spiral effects in curbing the southward movement of herders in search of greener pasture for their cattle. The successful implementation of this program will mean lesser confrontation between migrant farmers and herdsmen in Kwara State. However, putting into consideration the presence of indigenous Fulanis, Kwara State offers another dynamic to approaching the conflict between farmers and herdsmen. In this case, not all herdsmen are migrants. The three classes of Fulanis; the nomadic or bororo, the semi-nomadic and the settled or town Fulani (Frantz, 1981), are present in the state. This means not all confrontations between the farmers and herders are as a result of migration but unavailability of grazing options for the latter. It is within this ambit that the tenets of the Great Green Wall in terms of greening the landscapes and ensuring the protection of the livelihoods will be investigated and perused as to the usefulness of its application in other states of the federation.
- Statement of the Problem
The Great Green Wall Project was initiated in 2007 to help arrest massive desertification, especially in Sahel Africa. It is a project of the African Union targeted at building a wall of green lands across Africa; from the east to the west, hinged on improving the economy of the affected areas and reducing clashes instigated on the basis of land usage and management. While the project is in different phases in different African countries, it beholds on each national government to develop policies that will fast-track the implementation of the project to the relief of its people. However, on the premise of a project in progress and in light of the continual desertification of Northern Nigeria, the country is still witnessing constant struggle for land resources between farmers and herdsmen due to the mass migration of the latter southward. This movement coupled with the unavailability of grazing routes /lands or ranches has been responsible for encroachment of farms by cattle and consequent violent conflict between local farmers and herdsmen.
Desertification has become a security threat to the Nigerian state. The recent Agatu killings, massacres in Enugu, kidnappings in Ondo and attacks in various parts of Kwara state covering the three senatorial zones, carried out by supposed herdsmen pose great danger, not only to the lives and security of the local populace but the unity of Nigeria as a whole. This has put the state governors of affected states in a dilemma of either maintaining the cord of nationalism in the vein of free movement and settlement of Nigerians irrespective of ethnicity or protection of the people who voted them into power at all cost. The security problem is not helped by Nigeria’s loose borders, which makes it easy for foreigners to wreak havoc in the country while hiding under the banner of herdsmen affected by desertification. This is quite pronounced in the recent admission by Senator Heineken Lokpobiri, Minister of State for Agriculture on May 10, 2016 that those arrested in connection with Fulani herdsmen killings cannot speak Fulani or any Nigerian language suggests the influx of foreign elements into the country unchecked. The inability of the government to control the influx of dangerous foreigners terrorizing Nigerian citizens in their homeland might in the long run pose much more daunting challenges than the current fight against the Boko Haram terrorists.
As well noted by Rashid (2012), conflicts between farmers and herdsmen are well spread across Kwara state, most particularly in ten Local Government Areas: Asa, Edu, Ifelodun, Ilorin East, Kaiama, Moro, Patigi, Baruteen, Irepodun and Ekiti. The continuous clashes between farmers and herders in this locations continue to be a cause for concern for locals as well as putting into danger the prospect of attracting investors to Kwara state. This brings to bear the urgency of the state government’s resolve to establish three new grazing reserves across the state in Alapa (Asa Local Government, Kwara central senatorial district), Lata (Patigi Local Government, Kwara North senatorial district), Babanla (Ifelodun Local Government, Kwara south senatorial district) and the rehabilitation of the Gida Magajiya reserve to accommodate more herdsmen. A fast-track of government plans along this line should be a step in the right direction if the constant clashes between farmers and herdsmen are to be reduced.
Also, in light of the constant clashes between local farmers and herdsmen, there is a need to incorporate strategies for managing conflict in the affected areas. This brings to bear the important role of extant traditional, religious, nomadic/agricultural institutions in peace-building and conflict resolution. As reported by Abdullateef (2015), traditional rulers especially in Kwara State are most times the first point of call after clashes between herders and their host communities occur. A case in point was the intervention of the Emir of Ilorin and chairman of the state Council of Traditional Rulers, Alhaji Ibrahim Zulu Gambari, in the conflict between Fulani herdsmen and some Yoruba inhabitants at Alapa in Asa Local Government Area in 2014. Notwithstanding, the intervention came only after lives had been lost and property worth millions of naira destroyed.
The Great Green Wall Project is expected to be a viable initiative that offers practical solutions to the root problem of desertification affecting the country. However, it remains a problem in linking a working document to implementing policies that would see the hitherto recommendations being applied and actualized. Therefore, this study is focused on the Great Green Wall Project as a potential tool to reduce the impact of desertification and its attendant effect on violent clashes between local farmers and herdsmen in Kwara State, Nigeria.
- Objective of the Study
The main objective of this research was to investigate the performance of the Great Green Wall Project in relation to its expected usefulness in curbing farmers/herders conflict in Kwara State, Nigeria. The specific objectives are to:
- examine models of implementing the Great Green Wall Project in light of continual desertification in Nigeria;
- seek ways in which the government can maintain/develop grazing reserves in order to reduce constant clashes between local farmers and herders in Kwara State;
- assess the conflict prevention models put in place to alleviate clashes between farmers and herdsmen in Kwara State;
- source for ways of developing better communication, understanding and cooperation between local farmers and migrating herdsmen in Kwara State and;
- examine ways in which Nigeria’s borders especially in the northeast can be secured to prevent the influx of foreign pastoralists, arms and ammunitions.
- Research Questions
- What are the models of the Great Green Wall Project implementation in light of continuous desertification in Nigeria?
- How can the government maintain/develop grazing reserves in order to reduce constant clashes between local farmers and herders in Kwara State?
- What conflict prevention models can be used to avert farmer/herder clashes in Kwara State?
- In what ways can communication between local farmers and migrating herdsmen in Kwara State be improved upon?
- To what extent could Nigeria secure its borders, especially in the northeast, to prevent the influx of foreign pastoralists, arms and ammunitions?
- Significance of the Study
This study is significant because it investigated the cause of constant clashes between farmers and herdsmen and the effect of desertification in relation to the frequent conflict between both groups in Kwara state. In attending to the issue, this study perused the Great Green Wall Project (GGWP) document as an alternate and pro-active way of responding to the menace of desertification. The study would not only be of benefit to the farmers/herders community who are affected by the brewing conflict, but the government as well as it deals with the fine margins between policy formulation and implementation.
Another dimension to the conflict between herders and farmers in Kwara State is the composition of not only the Fulani population as discussed earlier but that of the herdsmen in general. In Kwara, herdsmen are not only Fulanis as some also belong to the Nupe ethnic group. Thus, the study will significantly not be stereotypical in acceding to the term “Fulani herdsmen” but engage the general population and composition of herdsmen in Kwara State.
The study is a qualitative research, which used the survey research design. This design is a method for collecting information or data as reported by individuals. Since the participants are providing the information, it is referred to as self-report data. Primary and secondary data sources were used. The primary data was generated from focused group discussions and official government documents. The secondary data was sourced from books, journals, articles publications, newspapers, magazines and other materials that are relevant to the topic under study. The interview guide, composed of 42 questions, was content analysed.
The study made use of the multi-stage random and judgmental sampling techniques. Thus in selecting respondents for the study, out of the 16 local government areas (LGAs) in the state, 10 local governments that experience more clashes between farmers and herders were considered (Rashid, 2012). Out of these 10, four were randomly selected. These are: Baruteen, Patigi, Asa, and Ifelodun LGAs. First, three local governments were selected based on the three senatorial districts in Kwara state to make them truly representative of the entire state (Kwara North: Patigi; Kwara Central: Asa; and Kwara South: Ifelodun). The fourth local government, Baruteen, was selected due to the location of the recently re-established Gidan Magajiya grazing reserve there by the state government. The reserve is the largest and most partially functioning grazing reserve in Kwara state (Olomola, 1998).
In each LGA, four farming communities were selected randomly to make a total of 16 villages. Five arable crop farmers were randomly selected from each village, to make a total of 80 farmers. Also, in each LGA, four transit camps of herdsmen were selected randomly to make a total of 16 transit camps. Five herdsmen were randomly selected from each transit camp to make a total of 80. From the Ministry of Environment and Forestry, 40 respondents out of the total population of 198 were selected randomly based on the judgment of the researcher as to their knowledge and purposed contribution to the subject matter. Five respondents were also selected randomly from the upper echelons of the Nigeria Immigration Service while five random respondents were also selected from the senior staff of the National Agency for Great Green Wall. In all, 210 respondents were selected for the data collection.
- Scope of the Study
This study focused on the relevance of the GGWP in curbing farmers/herders conflict in Nigeria vis-à-vis government responsibility to its citizenry in the area of policy implementation. Therefore, only issues pertaining to governmental responsibility in curbing desertification and such effects on the constant conflict between farmers and herdsmen were discussed. Kwara state was used as a case study not only due to its record of constant clashes between farmers and herders in Nigeria but because of the unique composition of its inhabitants. Kwara state is unique for having the presence of indigene Fulanis and other ethnic groups such as Nupe, who are herdsmen. This means the study will not be stereotypically limited to the assumption that all herdsmen are migrants nor based on addressing all herdsmen as Fulanis. Also, the inclusion of settled herdsmen who are part of the townsmen historically will give this study another dimension in which it approaches the subject matter. The time frame of this study was from 2007-2016. This time period was chosen putting into consideration that the Great Green Wall Initiative was adopted and kick-started as a project of the African Union in 2007.
- Operational Definition of Terms
The following terms are defined as they will be recurrent in the course of this study:
- Desert encroachment: The ceaseless desertification of a specific territory activated by changes in climatic patterns brought about basically by human activities.
- Migrant Herders: Pastoralists that move their cattle in search of green pasture. “Migrant” is appended to mean the persistent mass movement of herders southward looking for green terrains because of the impact of desertification.
- Farmer: A man who cultivates a land.
- Great Green Wall Project: A project of the African Union aimed at creating a greenbelt from West to East Africa in order to mitigate the effects of desertification.
- Desert: A dry land with little or no vegetative cover having minimal or no significant rainfall.
- Insurgent: A man who rebels against a set up government.
- Global warming: A steady increment in the general temperature of the world’s climate by and large credited to the greenhouse effect caused by increased levels of carbon dioxide and other pollutants.
- Green-house gasses: Any vaporous compound in the environment that is fit for engrossing infrared radiation, in this way catching and holding heat in the air.
- Greenhouse impact: A regular procedure by which the air traps a portion of the Sun’s energy, warming the Earth enough to bolster life.
- Nomadic/Pastoral Fulani (Bororo): Fulani who moves around with his cattle throughout the year. He does not stay around for long, circa four months per location.
- Semi-Nomadic Fulani: This set of Fulanis either settle down temporarily at particular times of the year or do not wander too far away from their settled home.
- Town Fulani: They live in towns and cities and have given up the nomadic life completely in favour of an urban one.
- Plan of Study
This work will be divided into five chapters. Chapter one, which is the introductory chapter, gives a background to the study, statement of problem, objectives and the scope of study. Chapter two will review relevant literature and introduce the theoretical framework. Chapter three will discuss the tenets, aims and objectives of the Great Green Wall Project. The chapter will also outline the functions and activities of the National Agency for the Great Green Wall, which is the co-ordinating agency of the program in Nigeria. In chapter four, data results will be discussed even as the findings of the study will be discussed. Chapter five will contain the summary, conclusion and recommendations for this study.
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