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Poliomyelitis is a dreaded disease which affects children either disables or kills them. The government has embarked on Immunization to “Kick Polio out of Nigeria”. Advertising have been employed to achieve this goal. This study is aimed at ascertaining the role/roles played by media advertising and the roles played by ministry of health to ascertain whether the successes recorded in this campaign could be attributed to advertising and the roles of ministry of health. The study as well went further to ascertain whether there were other factors that aided advertising in successful polio eradication campaign. The researcher was prompted to take up this study as a result of the observed aggressive advertising embarked upon by the government and the success recorded in the polio Immunization campaign. The review of relevant Interactive demonstrated the fact that advertising is essential in any campaign programme. Survey method was used to carry out this study. Interview was equally adopted to get supporting answers to some of the research hypothesis for proper evaluation. Questionnaire was used as the measuring instrument. The questionnaire was in two sets, one for nursing mothers and the other for the health workers. Out of 399 questionnaires copies administered , 286 for nursing mothers and 113 for health workers, 280 and 110 were returned respectively. The data analysis was based on 390 which were upheld in the course of the text of hypothesis. Positive findings and recommendations were made.












Title page

Approval page




Table of contents

Chapter one

  • Introduction
    • Background of the study
    • Statement of research problem
    • Objectives of the study
    • Significance of the study
    • Research questions
    • Research hypothesis
    • Definition of terms
    • Theoretical framework
    • Assumption
    • Scope of study
    • Limitations of the study

Chapter two

  • Literature review

2.1  sources of literature

2.2  Literature review

2.3  summary of literature review


Chapter three

3.0  Research methodology

3.1  Research method

3.2  Research Design

3.3  Research population

3.4  Sample size

3.5  Sampling techniques

3.6  Method of data collection

3.7  Method of data analysis

3.8  Expected results


Chapter four

Presentation, analysis and interpretation of data

4.1  data presentation and analysis

4.2  analysis of research questions/hypothesis

4.3  Discussion of results

Chapter five

5.1  Summary

5.2  Conclusion

5.3  recommendations

5.4  Further recommendations  for future studies





Department of Mass Communication

Institute of Management and Technology, Enugu

October 16th 2012

Dear Respondent


I am student of Mass Communication, institute of management and technology, carrying out a research on the impact of media advertising in propagating polio Immunization campaign in Enugu state (an indepth study of the ministry of health in Enugu state)


The achievement of the desired goal in this study depends in hour authentic, objective and factual your answers to the question are:


All the information supplied will be treated with strict confidentiality and for the purpose of the study.


Thanks for your anticipated co-operation.


Yours faithfully

Chibuzo kalu



















Advertising as a vital tool in educating and promoting a product, dates back to thousands of years. Caly tablets traced to ancent Babylon have been found with messages that trouted an ointment was an important advertising medium throughout England and other counties in euorpe during he medieval period. In more recent times, the history of advertising is inextricably entowned with changing social conditions and advances in media technology Joseph R.D (2007:324).

The 1920s saw the beginning of radio as an advertising medium,. Network broadcasting media radio an attractive vehicle for national advertisers because of the portability of radio, it has become a veritable means of mass dissemination of information.

Media advertising is a channel through which goods or services are made known to the people.’ Media advertising differs from each other in many ways, some are fast, others slow, some are shallow, soe are deep, some are broad and some are narrow. Some media are primary for information, others are for entertainment, some appeal to the intellect and others to the emotions some are superlative vehicles for advertising whilke somjw are persuasive and others are not. The media to be used depends on preference, like it is held that, ministry of helath, Enugu state while carrying out their campaign on polio immunization prefers radio because of its immediacy in delivering an event.

Consequently, media advertising has remained an effective medium  in polio immunization campaign while immunization remains the most cost effective tool to reuding childhood mutability and mortality occurring form vaccine preventable disease (DPDS) such as Tuberculosis, Poliomyelitis, diphtheria, whooping cough, tetanus, new-natal tetanus measles, yellow fever and all the rest.

In recognition of the above, the national programme on immunsation (NDI) has contributed in its efforts to implement sustaiblable strategies and interventions in collaboration with the states, LGAs and parners with the vision of maing immunization a community owned community deriven and community operated service.

Further, in line with its enabling Act 12 of 1997, NPI has continued to ensure that provision of potent vaccines to states and LGAs with corresponding qualities of needles and stringes NP1 has also supported the states and LGAs with cold chain and logistus equipment, human, technical and financial support required for the programmes implementation.

However, according to Dere Awosika National co-ordinator ad chief Executive of national programme on Immunization (2005) said that immunization which are indeed complementary in the reduction of childhood mortality and mortality occurring from, vaccine preventable disease (VPDS).

Human beings have benefited from vaccines for more than two centures. Yet the pathway to effective vaccines has been neither neat or direct surprisingly, in an epoch before the existence of preventive methods and effective therapis infections disease such as measles, diphtheria smallpox and pertusis topped the list of childhood killers. The history of vaccines and immunization started with Edward Jenner, a country doctor living in Berkely (Gloucestershire) England who in 1796 performed the world’s ffirst vaccination. Taking pus from a cowpox lesion on a mulkmaids’ hand Jenner calculated an eight year old boy, James Phipps six weeks later Jenner variolated two sites on plugs an with smallpox the boy was unaffected by this as well as subsequent exposes. Based on twelve of such experiments and sixteen additional cases histories he had collected since the 1770s.

Jenner published at his own expense a volume that swiftly became a classic text in the annals of medicine. Inquring into the causes and effects of the variolate vaccine. His assertion “that the cowpox protects the human constitution from the infection of smallpox land the foundation for modern vaccinology.

Although Jenner’s milkmaid experiments may now seeml like quaint tables they provided the scientific basis for vaccinology. This is all the more stricking givn that our current conceptions of vaccine development and therapy are now much more encompassing and firmly rooted in the science ofo immunology and the brilliant French chemist Loius Pasteur developed what he called a rabies vaccine in 1885, vaccines referred only to cowpox inoculation for newly produced was a rabies antitoxin that functioned as a post – infection antidote only because of the long inoculation period of the rabies germ, he expanded the term beyond its latin association with cows and cowpox to include all inoculating agents. Thus, we  largely have Pasteur to thank for today’s definitions of vaccines as a suspension of live (usually attenuated) or inactivated microorganisms (e.g bacteria or virus) or fractions thereof administered to induce immunity and prevent infections disease or its sequelae”.

According to a publication by World health organization (WHO) poliomyelitis (Polio) is a highly infectins viral disease which mainly affects young children. The virus is transmitted through contaminated food and water and multiples in the intestine from where it can invade the nervous system. Many infected people have no symptons but do excrete the virous in their faefces, hence transmitting the infection to others. Initial symptoms of polio include fever, fatigue, headache, vomiting, stiffness in the neck and pain in the limbs. In a small proportion of cases the disease causes paralysis, which is often permanent. Polio can only be prevented by immunization. Immunization is the process by which an individuals immune system becomes fortified against an agent (known as the immunogen).

The term poliomyelitis was derived from there Greek words; polios manning “grey” myelo’s referring to the “spinal cord” and its suffix. It is which denote inflammation. The history of polio began with records from antiquity mentioning crippling disease compatible with polio. Michael underwood first described a disability of the  lower extremetics in childfen that was recognizable as poliomyelitis in England in 1789. The first polio outbreaks was firs reported in the united states. Since the late 20th century,; Nigeria has been one of the few countries to suffer fom cases of polio 2003,k the immunization programme was shift down because of safety questions ahout the polio vaccines arose. This arrest led to a new out break of polio.’ The virus reinfected polio free areas within Nigeria, and also spread into eight polio ree countries in the surrounding areas 2004. The minister of helath ion Nigeria publicly committed to boistering immunization initiatives in hopes to eradicate polio. Impressively, that year on july 31, polio campaigns rsumre in northern Nigeria after a 12 monthes hiatus. Nigeria was able to hld the infection rate relatively steady between 2004 and 2006 but since then has allowed it to grow out of control in the northern Nigeria.

Finally, due t the rolels played by ministry of health in immunization campaign through media advertising polio has reduced to its barest minimum in Enugu state.


The statement of research problem is to ascertain the roles of ministry of health, Enugu state in polio immunization campaign.

Also, how media advertising has assisted the ministry of health in yielding a positive result.


This study will give us the roles of ministry of health Enugu state in polio immunization campaign.’ It will also show us how media advertising has helped in the eradication of polio through its effective programmes.


The objective of this study is to ascertain the effects of media advertising in the eradication of poliomyelitis and the roles of ministry of health in polio immunization campaign.


What are the roles of the ministry of health in polio immunization programme?

What are the effects of media advertising in the implementation of polio immunization programme?

What other channels of communication could be used in the implementation of polio immunization programme?

What are the problems likely faced by the ministry of health and media advertising in propagating polio immunization campaign?


These and more continue the burden of this study. The following hypothesis were postulated empirically to ascertain the extent media advertising have gone in determining the effectiveness of polio immunization on Nigeria children and roles of ministry of health Enugu state.


HI:   Ministry of health Enugu state has played vital role in polio immunization programme.  

H0:  Ministry of health Enugu state has not played vital role in polio immunization programme.  


H2:  Media advertising has effect in the implementation of polio immunization programme.

H0:  Media advertising has no effect in the implementation of polio immunization programme.



H3:  Electronic and print media could assist in the achievement of successful immunization programme.

H0:  Electronic and print media could not assist in the achievement of successful immunization programme.


H4:  There were likely problems in the implementation of polio immunization programme through the mass media.

H4:  There were not likely problems in the implementation of polio immunization programme through the mass media.


The theoretical framework of this study is social responsibility theory.

Social responsibility is an ethical ideology or theory that an entity be it an organization or individual has an obligation to act to benefit society at large.

Social responsibility theory allow free press with out any censorship but at the same time the content of the press should be discussed in publis panel and media should accept any obligation from public interference or professional self regulations or both.’ It gives total media freedown in one hand bit the external controls in other hand. It is the responsibility of the press to maintain the ability of the society. The media has the responsibility of propagating the activities of the ministry of health to the people of Enugu state.


This study is specifically limited to the roles of ministry of health Enugu state/


The limitations of the researcher faced while carrying out ths research are lack of finance, unavailability of man power time constraint and negative attitude displayed by some course of information concerning this study.





the powerful effect that something has on somebody or something.


this refers to the printed, written, spoken or printed representation of a person, product service or idea openly sponsored by the advertiser at his expense for the purpose of influencing sales, use or endorsement.


To protect a person or animal from a disease especially by giving them an injection of a vaccine.


immunization is the process by which an individual’s immune system becomes fortified against an agent (known as the immunogen).


it is series of planned activities that are intended to achieve a particular social commercial or political aim.



The power the media have over peoples behaviour.


Media advertising is a form of communication through the media about products, services or ideas paid for by an identified sponsor.


Polio is a crippling diseases that can occur in adults but it is much common in children.


immunization is a symbol of parental care and love for children.


A  series of planned activities that are intended to achieve a particular goal.



In the course of carrying out this study, the research assumed the following.

That ministry of Health Enugu State played a vital role to succeed in polio immunization programme.

That the success of polio immunization campaign was as a result of advertising campaign.

That the polio immunization messages were well packaged.

That the campaign was grass root oriented and as a result the program succeeded.








Basic Guide for Routine immunization service providers (2004 – 2005)

Bittner John R. (2005) Mass communication: An introduction, Ibadan Heinemann educational books.

Dominick Joseph R (2007) The Dynamics of mass communiation new York the McGraw Hill Companies

Nwogbunyama Emeka (2008) students companion publishing company.


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