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Cover Page——————————————————————–i

Title Page  ———————————————————————ii

Approval Page ———————— —————————————iii

Dedication ——————————————————————–iv

Acknowledgement  ———————————————————–v

Table of Contents————————————————————-vi

List of Tables——————————————————————x

Abstract ——————————————————————–xii

CHAPTER ONE                      


1.1   Background of the Study ——————————————   1

1.2    Statement of the Problem —————————————–  5

  • Objectives of the Study ——————————————- 6
  • Research Questions ———————————————– 7
  • Hypothesis formulation——————————————–  8
  • Scope of the study————————————————– 10

1.7    Significance of the study —————————————– 10

  • Definition of Terms ———————————————— 11



2.1    Over view of marketing ———————————————13

2.2    The marketing mix —————————————————14

2.3    What is Packaging—————————————————-17

2.4    Packaging Objectives————————————————-17

2.5    The role of packaging in marketing ——————————-18

2.6    Considerations in packaging design ——————————22



3.1    Design of the study ———————————————— 27

3.2    Area of study ——————————————————-27

3.3    Population of the study ——————————————-28

3.4    Sample and sampling technique ———————————28

3.5    Instrument of Data Collection————————————- 32

3.6    Validation of Instrument—————————————–  33

3.7    Reliability of Instrument—————————————-     33

3.8    Method of Data Collection————————————–     33

3.9    Method of Data Analysis—————————————    35


4.0    Presentation and Analysis of Data  ——————————- 36

4.1    Data analysis and interpretation ———————————  36

4.2    Test of Hypothesis ————————————————50




5.1    Discussion of Findings———————————————–65

5.2    Conclusion of the study——————————————–65

5.3    Recommendations ————————————————67

5.4    Implication of the findings—————————————-68

5.5    Suggestion for further research ——————————–  68

5.6    Limitations of the study——————————————69







Table 4.1:       Rate of questionnaire returned

Table 4.2        Consumer response on whether they understand what packaging is

Table 4.3        Consumers response whether packaging is of

relevance to products

Table 4.5:       Consumers response on whether the modern design products packaging of PZ industries plc attracts customers to purchase the company’s cosmetics products in Enugu metropolis

Table 4.6:       Consumers response on whether the modern design product packaging of PZ leads customers repeat purchase of the company’s cosmetic in Enugu metropolis

Table 4.7:       Consumers response on what induce them to buy one brand of product instead of the other product that has substitute

Table 4.8:       consumers response on whether they are willing to pay more on a product because the packaging looks attractive

Table 4.9:       Distributors response on whether they distributes any other products other than the PZ products

Table 4.10:     Distributors response on whether good

packaging plays promotional functions

Table 4.11:     Distributors response on whether modern design product packaging of PZ plc leads to increase sales volume of the company products in Enugu metropolis

Table 4.12:     Staff response on whether they know what

packaging is

Table 4.13:     Staff product packaging stimulate sales of PZ cosmetic in Enugu Metropolies

Table: 4.14:    Staff response on whether modern design product packaging adopted by PZ industries plc leads to increase profit of the company in Enugu metropolis

Table 4.15      Staff response on whether the modern design product packaging of PZ plc help the company achieve its marketing objectives in Enugu metropolis



This research study was on the impact of modern packaging on product sales in the cosmetics industries a study of PZ Industries PLC Enugu metropolis. To carry out the research work, some of the following objectives were set out: The local manufacturers consider product packaging as an important marketing valuable. To know how modern design product packaging can be used to attract consumers & to achieve the overall marketing objective in PZ industries PLC in Enugu metropolis. Review of related literature was done through population of the study comprises the constraint staff and management, distributors and final consumers of PZ industries PLC in Enugu metropolis. The sample size of distributors and final consumers were determined using top-men’s formular, while census was used for relevant staff and management. The research instrument used in collecting data was questionnaire statistical tables and percentages was used to analyze data collected, where by chi-square was used to test hypotheses formulated Data analyzed and interpreted gave the following findings that modern designed product packaging creates awareness of the products in Enugu metropolis that modern describe product packaging attracts consumers to purchase and repeat purchase. Based on the findings the researcher recommends as follows: That the manufacturers of cosmetic products including PZ industries PLC should appreciate the function of packaging not only as a product development instrument more importantly a promotional tool. PZ PLC should pay adequate attention to packaging and embark on research and development on packaging to ensure that their packaging are develop alongside the trend in packaging are silent salesmen which the cosmetic industries including PZ PLC mistake adequate care of an implement the recommendation of the researcher carefree, for atonement of the overall marketing objective in PZ and in cosmetics industries in general.








We are in a dynamic environment, an environment where consumer taste and preference change with time. An environment that is very difficult to predict, the shift in consumer’s taste and preference of the controllable variables that enter the marketing decision, which only packaging plays a major role in the strategic marketing areas of the marketing mix are related, but only packaging is complexity intentioned with all.

According to Styanto (1981:201) defined packaging “The general group of activities in product. In his own definition, Kotler (1988-471) saw packaging as the activities of designing and producing the container or wrapper for a product; while dictionary of marketing (181) defined packaging as the act of packaging goods in efficient and attractive container. The conventional purpose of packaging is to function as a container or wrapper for a product which will save if from spillage or damage.

Secondly, it serves as a vehicle that enable the product to be conveyed from the manufacturing point to the consumption point and the manufacturers satisfied consumers desire by producing packaging materials that guaranteed product protection. The packaging objective of most manufacturers is that they formed the above functions at minimal cost; the decision they consider is simple enough to be handed not by the management staff but by the manufacturing department alone. As at that time packaging was not recognized as an important instrument, as a result of this apparent neglect on packaging to its efficiency and as an important marketing instrument, marketing researcher were not encourage to work on the area of packaging and this resulted to recent pancity of information on packaging.

However with the development and innovation in modern marketing,, modern packaging on sale in the cosmetics industry also provide the tool for competition on the product natural habitat in the retailer’s shalf.

Consequently, marketers has not only accorded unprecedented recognition to the concept of modern packaging as a marketing instrument but also used it as one of the major variables they can adjust to a gaining a firm stand. The evidence is unbelievably clear that difference in packaging excellence is directly translated into corresponding difference in sale appeal. In the setting environment of a modern supermarket compete with as many as thousands of others for instance, the potential contributions of a superior package design such as more appealing illustration can cut a brand market share to less than half, its standing immediately prior to change.

However, Nigeria manufacturers seems not to imbided new development to packaging of goods, they have not recognized packaging as one of the variable a marketer can manipulate on the advantage of marketing strategies. This is traceable to the level of development in the industrial sector of the economy. The main concern of the manufacturers is to meet the market demand, rather than devising effective competitors strategies government have introduce measure to resolved this situation. The new industrial policy sector is designed to give a boost to the industrial sector and launch the nation into of production various products. This era of mass competitive situation, only the fittest survive’. An effective packaging represents the means by which it can take control of the market. The importance of modern packaging need not to be over emphasized. Cosmetics industry represent one of the industries where packaging marketing instrument play a significant role besides, in recent time the industry has attracted a lot of local manufacturers which each of them comes with their own brand name into the market, this has resolved the competition in the market whether local or foreign production order not to force consumer to buy their own brand. Since, the cosmetics market if facing stiff competition in Nigeria writers have written on packaging, on the traditional background, but still have emphasized the need for an ideal modern packaging design in the cosmetics industry.

Nwokoye (1981:99) studied that some products if not dressed in functional packaging often remain on the shelves of the seller. Moreover, it has been opined and confirmed that bright coloured packaging adoring the display space of the shop which promotes sales at a jet speed. Therefore, many competitive environment or situation like Nigeria to go ahead with the trend activities, your product must be packaged for high impact visual selling which impress the consumer. Nigeria consumer faced with scarcity of goods and limited choice of selection of cosmetics product in the market, this will help them to lay hand on many available products. The producer seeing these competitions trying to enhance future of their product sales by promoting these products through good packaging design with adequate information on them.



A product package is often referred to as the nearest company’s salesmen. Effectively, an ideal package tries to identify the company’s product, the contents of the product and the right usage, cautions, the size and colour, product date, the location of manufacturer and expiration date. All these portray an ideal of effective modern product package design especially in cosmetics product line in which the research centered on modern packages seems to be enjoying a tremendous ostentations design that persuade the various packaging material in the market. The stance of modern packaging in the market arouses the following problems about the role or impact of modern packaging in a contemporary marketing environment.

  • Have the function of a package gone beyond its traditional aims serving as a container or protections?
  • Do Nigeria managers devote reasonable attention to product packaging
  • What are the critical factors in evaluating the effectiveness of packaging? The researcher is therefore poised to highlight problem areas and how to improve on packaging design, so as to induce consumers to buy.



The basic objective of this research work is to ascertain the impact of modern packaging on product sale in the cosmetics industry. It is the intention of the researcher to investigate among others.

  • If the local manufacturers consider product packaging as an important marketing variables.
  • If modern packaging on products sales performs some promotional functions.
  • To determine the innovation opportunities of modern packaging.
  • How the producers can better design for modern packaging on product sales to attract consumer to purchase the product.
  • If the modern product packaging increases the number of users of the product.


  • What is the important of modern packaging in the marketing of cosmetics product in Enugu metropolis?
  • What is the impact of modern product packaging design on the profit of Pz Industries in Enugu metropolis?
  • Does the modern packaging design on product sales of Pz lead customers to repeat purchase of the company’s product in Enugu metropolis?
  • Does the modern design packaging adopted by Pz industries attract customers to purchase their cosmetics product in Enugu metropolis?
  • Does the modern packaging design adopted by Pz industry create awareness of their cosmetic product in Enugu metropolis?


Ho:   The modern product packaging adopted by PZ industries PLC does not create awareness of the company’s cosmetics products in Enugu metropolis.

Hi:    The modern product packaging adopted by PZ industries plc does not create awareness of the company’s cosmetics products in Enugu metropolis.


Ho:   The modern product packaging of PZ industries plc does not attract customer to purchase the company’s cosmetics product in Enugu metropolis.

Hi:    The modern products packaging of PZ industries plc attract customer to purchase the company’s cosmetics product in Enugu metropolis.


Ho:   The modern product packaging of PZ plc does not lead customers to repeat purchase of the company’s cosmetics product in Enugu metropolis.

Hi:    The modern product packaging of PZ plc lead customers to repeat purchase of the company’s cosmetics product in Enugu metropolis.


Ho:   The modern product packaging of PZ does not increase sales value of the company’s in Enugu metropolis.

Ho:   The modern product packaging of PZ plc does not help the company to achieve its marketing objectives in Enugu metropolis.

Hi:    The modern product packaging of PZ plc helps the company to achieve its marketing objectives in Enugu metropolis.


The study centers on one cosmetic company Pz Nigeria Plc Emene deport. However, the study was carried out within Enugu metropolis to enable the researcher act adequate facts and come up with a dependable solution to the problem.



This study is considered to be relevant to PZ industry plc because of the belief that they will use the recommendation offered at the end of this study to improve their packaging activities. They study will also be beneficial to the consumer of cosmetic products being adequately informed and enlightened on the various aspects of PZ cosmetics products. The study will be of benefit to other related companies in the industry. This is because the study is aimed at providing tools that could help to design and maintain effective and efficient packaging that will help to improve the marketing of cosmetic products in the industry.

The readers of this work will find this work of immense benefit a rallying point of knowledge. The study will also be relevance and to the researcher as a means of going adequate understanding and knowledge in the field of investigation but will encourage further investigation in this area.



PACKAGING: is a process of putting a product into a container or pack for protection, preservation, or transportation. It also informs the consumer on the kind of goods he or she wants to purchase.


This is the concept of beauty, art & symbol.


These are appeals designed to stir up some negative or positive emotions that will motivate interest or purchase card tag, patch or other attachment to a product or packaging in order to give it a particular identity.


Established product names wholly of a propertary nature and usually listed within the register of patents.


Basis of selling proposing or advertising massage designed to a “customer” want this is the appeal identified what customers desire and what the product or service concerned can supply.


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