1.0 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Motivation means so many things to different people. The impact it plays on the individual depends also on his/her perception of what he considers to be of value to him and invariably influences his action or non-action. Motivation can be described as a set of incentives monetary of otherwise, reward and punishment systems which determine or influence staff performance and altitude to work. It is a production of human resource management and its impact goes on a long way in determining the quality and quantity of production and the level of industrial and labour harmony or disharmony in the organization.
Motivation can also be defined as the forces acting on or within a person that cause the arousal, direction, and persistence of goal-directed, voluntary effort.
Work Motivation has been defined as “conditions which influences the arousal, direction, and maintenance of our behaviors‟ relevant in work setting”. Gbadamosi and Adebakin (1997, PP33) other scholars have variously defined motivation as “the act of stimulating some or oneself to get a desired course of action, to push the right button, to get a desired reaction. Julius Michael (1975,pp 265). “motivation is the process of creating organizational conditions which will impel employees to strive to attain company goals-Hodgetts,Richard (1977, pp 385) motivation is the influence or drive that causes us to behave in a specific manner and has been described as consisting of energy, direction and sustainability. Motivation is a driving force by which human achieve their goals. Motivation is said to be intrinsic or extrinsic: Intrinsic motivation refers to motivations that is driven by an interest or enjoyment in that task itself, and exist within the individual rather than relying on any external pressure. Extrinsic motivation comes from outside of the individual, common extrinsic motivation are reward like money and grades coercion and threat of punishment, competing is in general extrinsic because it encourage the performer to win and beat others, not to enjoy the intrinsic rewards of the activity. The main purpose of motivation is to attain organization goals according to Koontz et al (1983: 14) “management requires the creation and maintenance of environment in which individuals work together in group toward the accomplishment of the objective” management has been faced with broad predicament since poor approaches were employed toward the attachment of organizational objectives.
These approaches are not without their strengths and weakness. In other worlds, firma are now faced with many complexes managerial predicament because of the phenomenon maintained above. Since the foremost aim of management of organization is the attainment of its objective. Little or no attention is paid to welfare of workers. As an outcome, the firm goals are defeated, since the workers are not motivated and cared for. The motivations range from inadequate to lack of motivation. Often management becomes dogmatic in their method of motivation as a result their expectation are defeated. It is pertinent for management to know what can motivate a single individual at a particular time and place would not motivate another person.
The expectation to drive from anything one is doing is a motivation force that forces the individual to work. According to Ajuogu (1996, pp 47) “motivation is an internal psychological process”. It is the motive power that makes people behaves the way they do.
1.1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS
So many problems have been found or discovered to be a hindrance to the entire business sectors. In the sense, most enterprise has not achieved significant supply of corporative workforce and optimum productivity.
It has been noted that employees often complain about their wages and salary administration, poor working condition, welfare, effective supervision, provision of adequate machinery and materials at work place, provision of proper appliance and their maintenances etc. The above complaints are indications that things are not going smoothly with the employee’s. On the other hand, management always asks why the employee’s are not longer productive or low level of productivity in the organization.
We pay them good salaries, provide good working condition and give excellent fringe benefits. The solution to the above management questions often point to the managers that employee’s are either not properly motivated or not satisfied with their job. Except opportunities are provided at work place to satisfy the workers needs they will continue to have decreased production and performance will always remain law. It was such alarming question that led some human relation experts into finding out what gives on individual job performance. These relationships between motivation and job performance have made many researchers work intensively on this area to find out dependable solutions to the problems.
1.2 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The study will among other things try:
- To find out what constitutes motivation and job performance to employees
- To find out what motivated employees mostly in an organization.
- To diagnose some of the incentives given by Access bank Plc which have strengthened the relationship between motivations on employees and job performance.
- To find out what constitutes an efficient leadership style which will leads to increase in employees’ job performance.
- To find out if employees are trained as at when due in other to increase their job performance etc.
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The researcher raised the following research questions to guide her in constructing her questionnaire which are instruments in the study. The questions are as follows;
- What activities are perceived by Access Bank Plc on impact of motivation on employee’s job performance?
- How efficiently have these activities been implemented in other to attain organizational objectives?
- Are employees of Access Bank Plc motivated in terms of commensurate salaries and allowance?
- Are employees of Access Bank Plc promoted as at when due?
- Are employees of Access Bank Plc involved in decision making?
Ho: The employees are not satisfied with the motivational and performance techniques employed by the Access Bank Plc.
Hi: The employees are satisfied with the motivational and performance techniques employed by the Access Bank Plc.
Ho: Involvement of employees in decision making will not motivate them toward increased job performance.
Hi: Involvement of employees in decision making will motivate them towards increased job performance.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study could be useful to Access Bank Plc, in improving their level of productivity and employees performance in future. It will also aid management in making decision on how employees could be motivated, not only with money but other incentives.
1.6 SCOPE AND DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The study will be carried out on Access Bank Plc, Abeokuta Metropolis, the data collected and other vital information are Limited to the bank and delimitated to the operations staff only.
1.7 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
During the course of this work certain constraints were encountered:
COST: the cost of thorough research is not what can be afforded by a student. The prices of materials needed for this work has gone up and transport fee has also gone up.
TIME: the time was one of the limitations in the process of carrying out this research work.
SCARCITY OF LITERATURE: The research encountered some problems in collection of literature especially on the bank History and operations. This are hindered the smooth running of this work.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
MOTIVATION: it a social process in which some members try to influence others, to work harder, and work more efficiency. It is a person‟s state of mind which energizes channels and sustains behavior to achieve the person‟s needs. Motivation is also the willingness to do something and its conditioned actions and ability to satisfy some needs for the individual. It is also a driving force by which human‟s achieve their goals.
MOTIVE: The desire, wishes, and similar forces that channels human behavior toward goals. According to Collins English Dictionary: Motive is the psychological feature that arouses an organisms to action toward a desired goal, the reasons for an action that which gives purpose and desired goal, the reason for an action, that which gives purpose and direction to behavior.
Motive is divided into two: Rational and irrational motive:
Rational Motive: A motive that can be defended by reasoning or logical argument While Irrational Motive: A motive that is inconsistent with reason or logic.
INCENTIVES: A thing that motivates or encourages one to do something or a payment or concession to stimulate greater output or investment. Payment made to employee over and above their basic pay in order to encourage them to increase production, the payment are made on result achieve.
BONUS: A payment or gift added to what is usual or expected, in particular. Or an amount of money added to wages on a seasonal basic, especially as a reward for good performance. Part of the employee remuneration that is related in some way to value quantity of work done, especially a payment that is made at the description of management rather according to a set formula. 29
EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE: This is contribution employee‟s make to organization goals meaning how effective an employee carries out job responsibilities.
MOTIVATOR: Forces that induce individual to act or perform forces that influence human behavior.
BEHAVIOR: Manner of one‟s conduct, demeanor department.
PRODUCTIVITY: Efficiency to do that which is expected and as expected, the relative efficiency of economic activity.
PERFORMANCE: Achievement and attainment of state goals. The act of carrying out a duty or accomplishing something such as a task or action
FRINGE BENEFIT: Any non wage or salary payment or benefit granted to employees by employers, example include pension plans, profit-sharing programs, vacation pay, and company paid life, health and unemployment insurance.
STAFF TURNOVER: Staff turnover is their leaving work or employment by termination, resignation, dismissal, retirements, death etc.
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