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The research is an investigation into the impact of special examination centers on the falling standard of education in Kaura local government area of Kaduna State. The communist theory and transformative learning theory served as the theoretical frameworks and empirical review was done. A survey research design was adopted for this research work and a total of one hundred (100) respondents participated, who were drawn using a random sampling technique across the various schools. A five-point likert-scale questionnaire based on the biographic data of the respondents, causes and effects of special examination centre on falling standard of education was used for data collection. Frequency distribution table and simple percentage were used to analyze and interpret the data. The result from the study reveals that the inability of the students to take their studies serious has made them to involve themselves in examination malpractice through special centres. Some of the recommendations put forward students should take their studies serious and avoid malpractice, parents, lecturers and examinations bodies (WAEC, NECO) should stop encouraging students to cheat in examination hall and also supervisor should be strict in invigilating any examination and not be carried away with bribery or other reward.










Title Page   –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        i

Declaration –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        ii

Approval   –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        iii

Dedication  –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        iv

Acknowledgment –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        v

Abstract     –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        vi

Table of Contents         –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        vii


1.0     Introduction        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        1

1.1     Background of the study       –        –        –        –        –        –        1

1.2     Statement of the Problem      –        –        –        –        –        –        3

1.3     Purpose of the Study    –        –        –        –        –        –        –        3

1.4     Objective of the Study  –        –        –        –        –        –        –        3

1.5     Research Questions       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        4

1.6     Significance of the Study       –        –        –        –        –        –        4

1.7     Scope of the Study        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        5

1.8     Definition of Terms      –        –        –        –        –        –        –        5


2.0     Introduction        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        7

2.1     Education  –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        10

2.1.1  Concept of Standard of Education –        –        –        –        –        11

2.2     Special Examination Centers –        –        –        –        –        –        13

2.3     Examination Malpractice      –        –        –        –        –        –        14

2.3.1  Forms of Examination Malpractice          –        –        –        –        –        17

2.3.2  Causes of Examination Malpractice in Kaduna State         –        –        17

2.3.3  Impact of Examination Malpractice        –        –        –        –        –        19

2.4     Measures to Curb Examination Malpractice     –        –        –        20

2.5     Theoretical Framework         –        –        –        –        –        –        –        23

2.6     Empirical Framework  –        –        –        –        –        –        –        26

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY                                

3.0     Introduction        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        34

3.1     Research Design  –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        34

3.2     Population of the Study         –        –        –        –        –        –        –        34

3.3     Sample and Sampling Technique   –        –        –        –        –        35

3.4     Instrument for Data Collection       –        –        –        –        –        35

3.5     Validity of the Instrument     –        –        –        –        –        –        35

3.6     Administration of Instrument         –        –        –        –        –        –        35

3.7     Procedure for Data Analysis  –        –        –        –        –        –        36

3.8     Method of Data Analysis       –        –        –        –        –        –        36


4.0     Introduction        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        37

4.1     Data Presentation         –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        37

4.2     Data Analysis      –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        37


5.0     Introduction        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        46

5.1     Summary   –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        46

5.2     Conclusion –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        47

5.3     Recommendations        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        48

          References  –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        50     











The Nigerian system of education has been facing several problems contending against the standard of education in the state. A good example of these is the existence of examination malpractice which often took place in special examination centers, though several other factors militate against the low standard of education like inadequate instructional materials, inadequate building or structure, unqualified teachers among others. Due to the consistency of this problem a number of measures have been put in place to check it. For example, unified tertiary matriculation examination (UTME) 2011 introduced finger thumb printing to check the increasing rate of this evil in our society.

In a world govern by science and technology, education is the most powerful instrument for achieving development and empowering the citizens to contribute meaningfully to technology and to compete for survival. In common terms, what is special examination centres? No dictionary definition has categorically defined these terms specifically, rather special has been defined just as examination and the term centre has also been defined. Special is something that is not meant for everybody that is not for the general public, while examination is a formal written, spoke or practical test, especially at school or college to see how much you know about a subject, or middle point or part of something or a building or place used for a particular purpose or activity (Oxford Advanced Learners dictionary 6th Edition), special examination centres can therefore be deduced as any activity that exists within the four corners of education that gives preferences to some selected individuals or group of people to pass their examination.

However, these centres has used many method to assist their students during the examination in order for them to pass their examination such method include getting examination question paper before examination date and time, impersonation, replacing the answer script written in the examination hall with that written at home texting of objectives through cell-phone to client cell-phone when question must have been solved bribing the supervisor or invigilator to corporate with the examination hall and removing security from the students in the examination hall, are all in the name of making money.

Moreover, special examination centre have affected the standard of education in Nigeria as it becomes possible for person to obtain certificate when he cannot defend. It is the same set of non-performing graduates that manage the industries and government positions. In conclusion, the pertinent question now is; why is our standard of education low in Nigeria, or what is the state of educational system and influencing factors for the falling standard? What strategy can be deployed to?


The standard of education has been affected greatly as a result of special examination centres former president of the federal republic of Nigeria Dr. Olusegun Obasanjo (2005) said that students in Nigeria perceived education as a means of getting meal ticket (certificate) and getting job. As a result of this trend, morality and honesty have been thrown to the dogs to pass examination and obtain certificate so long as emphasis is not on one’s performance but on the paper first. Many holders of certificates cannot practically defend them through their performance.


The purpose of this study is to;

  1. Investigate into the impact of special examination centres on College of Education, Gidan Waya and Kaduna State University (KASU).
  2. Measures to curb examination malpractice in Kaduna State.


This research work is of great importance to the curriculum planners, those who wish to carry further studies on the topic and to the society at large. To the curriculum planners, the findings will help them plan the curriculum to meet up with the lapses created by special education or examination centres in the system of education in Kaduna State. Such lapses could be lack of self-confidence, student inability to take their studies serious, not academically balance etc. what will be of our future education if this trend has to continue? Finally, the study will be of great importance to those who wish to carry out further studies on the topic because it will serve as a resource material for them.


The following research questions has been formulated to guide this study because their means rating on impact of special examination centres on standard of education in tertiary institution in Kaduna State, which theoretically influence of special examination centres on standard of education in tertiary institutions. The study is set to provide answers to the following questions:

  1. What are the Causes of falling standards of education?
  2. Why do students seek for special examination centers?

iii.      What are the various ways to tackle this problem?


Generally the significance of this study lies in its findings, which are going to be useful to many stakeholders on policy formulation and curriculum development as it pertains to the Nigerian educational system. Specifically, it was envisaged that this study will be of value to various stakeholders in the following ways:

  1. It will show reasons why people and students prefer the special centers for examination.
  2. It will help the policy makers and educational curriculum developer to make necessary adjustments into the contents of schooling to help reduce over loading the students.

iii.      Finally, the findings of this study will contribute to knowledge and existing literature on special education centers.


The scope of this study would cover the performance of special examination centres on low standard of education in tertiary institutions in Kaduna State. The choice of this scope is genre towards knowing the impact and influence of special examination centres on low standard of education in Kaduna State College of Education Gidan Waya and the Kaduna State University (KASU).


Education: is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs and habits.

Examination: is an official test that shows your knowledge or ability in a particular subject.

Examination malpractice:      is simply understood as examination misconduct or offence. It ranges from leakages to offering an unorthodox help to a candidate by invigilators or any other person which may give the candidate an undue advantage over his colleagues.

Special:       refers to something pointed out for attention and consideration. It means given unusual treatment because of being uncommon.




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