The purpose of this study was to discover the influence of AIDS, campaigns hundred respondents were randomly selected for the study in institute of management and technology. Questionnaire were distributed to them by hand.
To accomplish the task, the following hypothesis were tested.
H1: Influence of broadcast media campaign message on AIDS help to alert youths on the imminent dangers of AIDS.
H2: The potency of informative efficiency of the broadcast media in reducing the spread of AIDS among Nigerian youths.
H3: The tendency for increase (mortality rate in the future due to non-challant attitudes of Nigerian youths towards AIDS message.
H4: AIDS campaign message are more likely to restructured the sexual attitude of the youths.
The tabularized, percentage and chi-square statistically technique was used to test the above formulated hypothesis.
After a careful conducted analysis, it was discovered that four of the formulated hypothesis received statistical support and significant chi-square value.
Based on the findings, the researcher discovered that AIDS campaigns message have helped to alert youths on the imminent dangers of AIDS.
The second hypothesis which states that informative efficiency of the broadcast media tends to reduce the spread of AIDS among Nigerian youths also gained empirical support.
The researcher recommended among other things that greater emphasis by the broadcast media on the inherent dangers of AIDS to be steadily and consistently portrayed by using local dialects to educate the public adequately and that more studies should be done on the impact of AIDS to the adolescents and married couples within the rural and urban settings.
The researcher also suggest that to reduce the spread of AIDS among the married couples and children, that screening centers in all hospitals in the country should be established to screen blood transfusion and test conducted between two individuals getting married to each others.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page II
Approval page III
Table of contents X
- Background of the study 1
- Objective of the study 8
- Significant of the study 9
- Statement of the study
- Research Question 9
- Research Hypothesis 10
- Conceptual and operational definitions 11
- Assumption 14
- Review of literature 16
2.1 Source of the literature 16
- Nigerian youths in Relation to AIDS 17
- Broadcast media communication on AIDS and sex21
- Influence of broadcast media: media effects 25
- Methodology 37
3.1 Research method 37
- Research design 38
- Research sample 39
- Sample instrument 41
- Data collection 41
- Data Analysis 42
- Data analyses and results 43
4.1 Data analysis 43
- Results: test of hypothesis 49
- Discussion 58
5.0 Summary and Recommendations—
for further study 62
- Summary 62
- Recommendations for further study 67
References or Bibliography 69
In Nigeria as well as other countries of issue of public interest including government programmes or policies could not be regarded as mere fallacy but rather they involves ideas, messages on existing public events that happened to people based on experiences, beliefs and other factors included in the socio-economic and educational backgrounds.
It is on this note that the federal government in collaboration with other countries of the world, through the world Health organization (WHO) decided to embark on the country, hence broadcast media campaign is a guider means diversified population.
The study may not look into the AIDS control programmes or the imminent dangers inherent in AIDS and so on but will xray the information management and the use of information or campaigns to facilitate proper public understanding of the message under which the campaigns is conducted.
This study will examine the degree at which Nigerian youths have reacted to the AIDS issue and to what extent these campaign have helped to alert them on the dangers of AIDS.
Before delving into the study proper, it is reasonable to make recommendations as ways of improvement in dissemination of information about AIDS.
Enhancement of AIDS in Nigeria
As part of its efforts to eradicate this deadly scourge which has defied medication, the federal Government through the ministry of Health in 1986 established the National AIDS control programmes in response to public concerns raised about the presence of Human Immuno Deficiency virus (HIV) infestation in Nigeria.
In response to the increasing evidence and the intense public debate on the existence of AIDS in Nigeria, the then minister of Health, professor Olukoya Ransome Kuti in 1987 instituted the National Expert Advisory committee on AIDS (NEACA) and was charged with the responsibility of establishing whether or not AIDS exists in Nigeria. They were mandated to advise the government as well as drawing up programmes strategies and activities to prevent HIV infection in the country. The committees report made it clear that HIV/AIDS was in Nigeria and warned that unless immediate steps were taken to prevent and control its spread, the country will be faced with a major public health problem. This necessitated the establishment of AIDS co-ordinating units and over 21 HIV testing facilities in the various states of the federation. Training was undertaken for personnel to control these centers as well as public enlightenment production of educational programmes and materials like posters, headbills, bulletin and books on AIDS were embarked upon.
An AIDS project is being conducted by president Obasanjo recently with the National youth service corps (NYSC) called “per Educational training on AIDS” All these efforts were aimed at findings possible solution towards curbing the AIDS menace in Nigeria and to ensure healthier environment for the propulace.
It has been discovered that the greater number of people infected by AIDS fall within the range 20-40 years which is the prime age of life. Despite this, the non-challance of majority of Nigerian youths still prevails in relation to accepting the media campaigns on AIDS as a complete truth. However, one should not forget that if takes a lot of courage and time to effect a change in a society particularly attitudinal changes towards a situation or a phenomenon that has almost developed into a stereotype.
It is even more challenging in a highly populated country such as Nigeria with diverse ethnic affiliations which hinder mobilization efforts in the country.
This study aims at assessing the influence of broadcast media campaigns of the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) towards the Nigerian youths.
A Brief History of Aids: Globally
In 1981, Doctors in United States of America started noticing that previously healthy homosexual American men were suffering from very rare disease that only people whose body’s defense system or immunity were very low suffer from. By 1984, it was found out that their illness was as a result of their being infected with a virus- a very tiny germ that cannot be seen with naked eye or ordinary light microscope. This virus was eventually called the Human Immune deficiency virus (HIV). Over 14000 people are infected with HIV everyday and 40 million people are infected with HIV worldwide.
In Nigeria, 1986, the first case of AIDS was discovered in a thirteen year old sexually active girl.
From this day, AIDS has become a very big public health problem spreading to all the 36 states of Nigeria affecting and killing people in every village of the country. The latest report from the center for the right too Health (2001) says that about 70% of the adults and 80% of the children are living with HIV/AIDS also estimated figure shows that 5.9m Nigerians will be infected with the HIV virus by 2005. research also shows that when immune suppression occurs in infected persons, death often comes quickly, especially in areas wher sophisticated medical care is not available and 20m people worldwide have died of AIDS.
History of the Broadcast media in Nigeria
The advent of Radio Broadcasting in Nigeria was made possible to the colonial policy which demanded sharing of information between colony and the colonial lords. In 1932, the British Broadcast corporation extend its services to Lagos, the Nigerian posts and telegraphs department was given the authority to work out a plan for the distribution of progammes to subscribes in Lagos, Kano, Enugu and Ibadan to operate in conjunction with the empire Broadcasting services.
In 1936, radio finally made its debut when the first radio distribution services (rediffusion) was opened in Lagos as a means of distributing programmes Originating from the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) in London as part of its overseas services.
On the 1st of April, 1951, the Nigerian Broadcasting service (NBS) was formed, so in 1952, all radio distribution services formed the nucleus felt dissatisfied with this dispensation and sought to establish the western Nigeria Broadcasting corportation.
On the 31st October, 1959, WNTV now NTA Ibadan was set up as the first television station not only in Nigeria but also in the entire continent of Africa. In May 1960, the first commercial radio station called the western Nigeria Broadcasting services was finally set up.
In 1962, the Northern Regional Government started his own broadcasting systems at Kaduna.
From then on, many commercial radio stations have been set up in many states of the federation to the extent that today, almost all the states in the federation own at least one radio station. They broadcast on medium wave, frequency modulated and short wave bands.
Objectives of the study
This study intends to discover the influence of AIDS campaigns on the Nigeria youths generally.
It wishes to know how these campaigns nationally or locally helps to restructure people’s attitudes towards sexual behaviours.
The study also aimed at discovering the hindrances that prevent the Nigerian youth in accepting these AIDS information from the broadcast media.
Furthermore, it intends to reveal the general outlook of these message and to know if the broadcast media have lived up to their expectations.
Significance of the study
It is obvious that HIV/AIDS is fast spreading in many parts of the country and live with us in Nigeria. Statistics show that infected persons are increasing rapidly on daily basis so it is very important to scientifically alert the Nigerian youths on the dangers inherent in curing an infected person.
Also it is necessary to reveal the extent of high mortality rate especially among infants (carriers) as well as adults between the age of 20-40 years.
Its remedy for the future generation should be considered also.
The following questions form the cornerstone of the study
- To what extent have the broadcast campaign message on AIDS helped to alert youths on the imminent dangers of AIDS?
- What is the assessment of the informative efficiency of the broadcast media towards these AIDS campaigns?
- What is the remedy for the non-challant attitudes of Nigerian youths towards these AIDS campaigns?
- Do the broadcast media campaigns restructure the attitures of Nigerian youths towards their sexual behaviours
H1: Broadcast media campaign messages on AIDS have helped to alert youths on the imminent dangers of AIDS
H0: Broadcast media campaigns message on AIDS have not helped to alert youths on the imminent dangers of AIDS?
H2: The informative efficiency of the broadcast media towards these AIDS campaign have reduce spread of AIDS among Nigerian youths.
H0: The informative efficiency of the broadcast media towards these AIDS campaign have not reduce spread of AIDS among Nigerian youths.
H3: The non-challant attitudes of Nigerian youths towards these AIDS campaigns will increase mortality rate in the future.
H4: The broadcast media campaign have restructure the attitudes of Nigerian youths towards their sexual behaviours.
H0: The broadcast media campaign have not restructure the attitudes of Nigerian youths towards their sexual behaviours.
Conceptual and Operational
Definition of terms
The concepts or variables that are involved in this study include the following.
- Broadcast media campaign
- AIDS campaign message
- Sexual behaviour
- Informative efficiency
- Casual sex
- Information management
- Mortality rate
- Conceptual definition of broadcast media campaigns – It is the series of planned activities by the broadcasting media to achieve special objectives.
Operational definition– It is a specified campaign on health programmes by the radio Nigerian, Enugu, Nigerian television authority, the Enugu state Broadcasting service.
- AIDS campaign messages: conceptual definition – It is the series of information on AIDS which aimed at driving home the appropriate message to the appropriate public.
Operational definition –Campaigning AIDS message through posters, jingles, londbills, news and public enlightenment programmes by the NTA, ESBS and FRCN Enugu to portray the dangers
- Conceptual definition of sexual behaviour
Act of conducting oneself in a good or bad manner towards sexual relationship.
Operational definition – It is the act of pecking publicly by male and female students in IMT.
- conceptual definition of informative efficiency – It is the act or process of disseminating information or instruction through media in a proper and satisfory manner.
Operational definition –
The ability of radio and television stations to give the desired warnings inherent in AIDS infestation to IMT students.
- Casual sex – Is the act of involving in sexual relationship carelessly and at informed basis.
Operational definition – Stipulated number of youths in IMT having affairs with prostitutes at hotels in Enugu.
- Conceptual definition of information management An act of organisng information dissemination system for the masses.
Operational definition – stated act of information campaigns on AIDS directed at youths in the institute of management and technology.
- conceptual definition of mortality rate –It is the number of death caused by a disaster or disease within a specific period of time.
Operational definition – The number of men, women and children who die from the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome infected.
This study assumes that the youths must have expressed series of opinions on the AIDS campaigns most of these youths tends to argue its actual existence.
It is assumed that information dissemination about the AIDS programmes leaves much to be desired.
The campaigners of this programme have not actually been handful of cases to reckon with, however, the media content of these campaigns should socio-cultural, psychological and psychiatric dispositions are fully internalized.
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