Nigeria today is faced with the problem of checking the uncountable cases of sexually transmitted diseases, unwanted pregnancies, HIV/AIDS and illegal abortions etc. There is also the nation’s population to ensure that it does not exceed the nations natural resources least we battle one another.
With this background, we set to ascertain the influence of Gold circle condom television advertisement on the behavioural pattern of Nigerian men.
To do this, were hypothesized that :
- Males who are exposed to Gold circle Condom television campaign report a higher incidence of use of condom prior sexual relationships than males who were not similarly exposed.
- That males who were exposed to Gold Circle condom television campaign tend to be more favourably disposed towards family planning, sexually transmitted diseases, HIV/AIDS etc message than those who were not similar exposed.
- There is a significant variation in the perception of the relevance of gold circle condom television campaign among males of different educational background.
- Among those exposed to Gold circle condom television campaign, younger adults tend to have a higher utilitarian perception of the message of the campaign than older adults.
Factors such as level of exposure to Condom television advertisements, prior use of condom before sex, relevance of condom advertisements level of Education and perception of usefulness of the campaign were examined using percentages and tables so as to establish their relatives impact on the influence of condom advertisement on Nigerian men under study.
The survey research method was utilized. The measuring instrument was questionnaires and the sample size, 160 (32 private sector employees, 32, Government employment, 32 for people in commerce, 32 for Artisans and 32 for students). It was a convenient sapling method and the 160 questionnaires were returned.
Based on the analysis, hypothesis was accepted showing that men who were exposed to Gold circle condom Television campaign tend to be more favourably disposed towards family planning messages than those who were not similarly exposed. The 3 other hypothesis were accepted as the results showed that age, educational background and exposure to condom Television campaigns do have significant impact on usage of condom prior to behaviour and sexual relationship.
We therefore recommend that the government, manufacturers and concerned Health Organizations should insist on production if high- quality condom at subsidized rates as well as encouraging discussions of sex- oriented issues, introducing sex-education to senior secondary schools and ensuring that the various campaign messages reach the grass-roots, in the language they would understand so as to influence their behaviour. It would be necessary if the government, manufacturers and concerned Organizations set-up research in the use of interpersonal communication as opposed to Mass Communication for health related campaigns.
TABLE OF CONTENT
TITLE PAGE II
APPROVAL PAGE III
TABLES OF CONTENT XI
- BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY 1
- STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM 11
- OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 14
- SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY 15
- RESEARCH QUESTIONS 16
- RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS 17
- DEFINITION OF TERMS 19
- ASSUMPTIONS 22
- LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY 23
REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE
- SOURCE OF LITERATURE 24
- THE REVIEW 25
- SUMMARY OF LITERATURE REVIEW 40
- RESEARCH METHOD 43
- RESEARCH DESIGN 43
- RESEARCH SAMPLE 44
- MEASURING INSTRUMENT 46
- DATA COLLECTION 46
- DATA ANALYSIS 47
- EXPECTED RESULTS 48
ANALYSIS, PRESENTATION AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA50
SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS
- SUMMARY 69
- RECOMMENDATION 71
1.1 BACKGOUND OF STUDY
The population of the world in mid- 1998 was estimated to be 5.128 billion. It is currently growing at a rate of 1.74% per year (Hatcher et al 1989) with Nigeria put at 120 million.
In recent times, there has been a lot of haves and cries about population explosion . It is often argued that rapid growth in population is one of the greatest barriers to economic development and social welfare large families they content, constitute a serious threat to our limited resources and if care is not taken, the resources at our disposal may not be sufficient to sustain the ever growing population.
In many nations, the increased use of contraceptives parallels a decrease in the rate of population growth and in increase in the quality of life. The quality of life is measured here by human suffering index developed by the population crisis committee (Hatcher et al 1989). This index measured essential human needs such as income, inflation, demand for new jobs urban population pressures, infant morality, nutrition, clean water, energy use, adult literacy and personal freedom.
The percentage of married women aged 15- 44 years who use contraceptive method rangers from 5% in Nigeria to 83% in the limited Kingdom (Hatcher et al) as the use of contraceptive decrease, the total fertility rates decrease as does the human suffering index for nation.
Between 40% to 60% of deaths among women aged 15-35 years are not unrelated to reproduction, unwanted pregnancies, illegal abortions child bearing under unfavourable circumstances and HIV/AISS that threaten health (population references Bureau, 1986).
The incidence of adolescent pregnancy varies widely in different populations. In Japan, 3 out of every 1,00 teenage woman give birth, in Chian, 12 per 1,000 USSR 16 and in Singapore 10 . In contrast, in Nigeria, 213 per 1,000 women aged 15 to 19 years give birth. Adolescents in developing countries are far more likely to become pregnant and bear children than adolescents in developing countries. The reasons are obvious. Educational and contraceptive opportunities are available to adolescents in developed countries.
The way out of this problems is through family planning and use of contraceptive like condom. By this, I mean a way that is voluntarily adopted by individuals and couples in order to promote the heath and welfare of the family and society at large. It also refers to methods that help individuals or couples to avoid unwanted births, regulate the intervals between pregnancies and determine the number of children in the family to include avoiding contacting sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS.
Use of condoms influences the survival, health and development of the society. Also, part from using condoms the prevent diseases, there have been traditional practices used to space children which have been rich and varied throughout history. A number of customs and traditions increases the like hood of abstinence in a society. Some of them are virginity prior to marriage, female corruption with sure of vagina, laws prescribing late age at first marriage, postpartum abstinence while breast feeding, polygamous relationship which lead to one or more wives abstaining for a length of time, abstinence for women once they have become grandmothers and religions orders enforcing celibacy.
The term “sexually transmitted diseases” has recently replaced the term “venereal diseases”. Whereas the venereal disease originally encompassed five traditional infections, Gornorhea, syphilis, chancroid, Lymhpogra nuloma venereum and granuloma inguinale. The term sexually transmitted diseases include more than twenty organisms including ALDS chylamydia trachomatis, herpes simplex virus, Hepatitis Band syphilis.
The consequence of sexually Tran milled disease range form the pain, discomfort, or psychological distress caused by primary symptoms to the tertiary manifestations of disease progression which include infertility entopic pregnancy, chronic pain, fetal wastage, congenital malformation, and even death. Serious consequences are more likely to occur when sexually transmitted diseases are undetected, misdiagnosed or inadequately treated.
The federal ministry of Health and other Organizations such as UNICEF, planned parenthood federation of Nigeria and society for family health are no longer upraiding the citizenry for being promiscuous rather, they now educate them on the ways of safe sex which of courtse, reduces the higg incidence of sexually transmitted diseases, problems associated with unwanted pregnancy and AIDS.
The prevention of these sex- oriented problems centre on the avoidance of contract with infected blood, total abstinence from sex, (with infected people) or the use of condoms during sexual inter course. The avoidance of contract with infected blood and the use of condoms may record some success but the total abstinence from sex may not be so successful.
In his theory of motivation, Abraham Maslow appeared to reject the option of abstinence when he outlines a hierarchy of man’s needs and posited that thirst, hunger, sex and sleep occupy a central palce which compel satisfaction before other needs can be satisfied or met. It is perhaps in recognition of this that concerned medical experts still favour the sue of condom and in 1987, research showed that the consistent use of condoms had an 83% success rate in prevention of unwanted preganacy and sexually transmitted diseases. Around the world, an estimated 46 million couples use condoms regularly as a method of family planning. (Gallen et al, 1989 as quoted in Hatcher et al 1989).
Currently, prevention of HIV infections is the only way to control the AIDS epidemic. Among the measures through which AIDS can be controlled in the general population is using late condom. The protection provided by condoms however, is not 100%.
Latex condoms should be recommended even for woman who may have chosen other contraceptive methods especially pills because pills provide no known protection against HIV infection. The female condom was founded because according to the united states director of the family planning Association (FPA ), Doreen massey, “we have to face the fact that often women who want safer sex cannot get their patterns co-operate. She can then insist that, if he won’t use his, she use her” (Ann Bradley, 1992).
Like an article of trade that can be seen and purchased anywhere, a man can run into a girl of his choice anywhere. When you must have known yourself and want make love, it is normal these days introducing condoms. Condoms must be used at every act of sexual intercourse. It must also be used even when a partner is sterilized, menopausal or men striating
A sheet worn over the pen is can be traced back as far as 1350 B.C when Egyptian men wore decorative covers for their penises. In 1564 A.D, (Hatcher et al, 1989, the great Halian anatomist fallopian, described the use of linen sheaths. Protective sheaths from animal intensities soon followed. It was not until the 18th century that penile sheath made from animal intestines were given the name “condom” said to have been invested by one Dr. condom, an 18th century English physician) and popularized as a means of protection from sexually Tran milled diseases and numerous bastard offspring .
With the advent of valianized rubber in the 1840s came the mass production of condoms (or “rubber”) from synthetic materials (Dalsimer et al, 1973) as quoted in Hatcher et al) . Now, it is made of latex from rubber producing company. It is a finger like tube that is imposed a force fold on it to determine a new one. It is also baked with little powder substance and greased with oil in little quantity.
Perhaps, condoms would have been a great deal more popular if some of the non-contraceptive benefits received greater emphasis thereby offsetting the stigma often associated with condom use like promiscuity , immorality, prostitution etc. some of these non- contraceptive benefits, are;
- Condoms are relatively inexpensive and may even be obtained free at many sources.
- Men who have difficulty maintaining an erection may find that the rim of the condom may have a slight tourniquet effect, helping to maintain an erection.
iii. Condoms are accessible their use also does not require an examination, prescribtion or fittling. Women have very occasionally been allergic to their partners sperm and / or semen, multiracial and even anaphylactic reactions have occurred.
- Messy postcoital discharge of semen from the vagina, a very annoying aftermath for some women is avoided easily by using condoms.
Despite the aforementationed, there are few contra indications to condom use. Men who are allergic to the rubber in condom reduces glens sensitivity although no objective data indicates whether it is true or not.
Among the measures being adopted to check population growth and sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS are advertisements through the mass media by producers and distributors of condom, supported sometimes by medial and social workers. An example of such advertisements is the first Gold circle television Advertisement a in Nigeria in 1993 says “who get this raincoat, I say who get is condom” etc. Another example of television advert on condom is the Gold circle condom Television Advertisement which tries to promote the use of condoms particularly the brand Gold Circle.
The television advert messages of Gold circle condom, produced by Alldan corporation, U.S.A but packaged by the society for family Health Nigeria has removed a considerable extent the stigma attached to going to buy condom of the shelf as there used to be in element of secrecy attached to sex. Not surprising, many producers, distributors of condoms and concerned health organizations have stepped up the divertissement of the product.
Currently, the society for family Health are taking full charge of the Gold Circle condom where it is given an assurance test before packaging. They ‘ve also used television adverts on Gold circle to back up and help reduce diseases .
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM
The issue of the menace of various sexually transmitted diseases and the effects of inadequate family planning are problems staring the nation in the face.
According to Y. Kamathi the UNICEF HEALTH OFFICER in Niger, more than 2000 women die daily child labour while move than 85 children die on hourly basis.(Onyekachi 1993), Added to the above, child and material mortality figures is an uncarpeted number of abortion (sometimes resulting in death) and abandoned babies which arise from unraveled promiscuity.
On August 23, 1991 former president Ibrahim Babangida launched the ALDS prevention campaign in the country . according to him, between 1991 and 1995, no fewer than 69, 000 AIDS patients would be occupying about 80% of the nations hospital beds (Onyekachi 1993). Also speaking on the AIDS crisis , former minister of health and Human services then, Professor Ransome- kati (1992) said that seven- out of 1,000 Nigerians were HIV- infected.
This study is primarily to ascertain whether the Gold circle condom television Advertisement has had any impact/ influence of the perception of the relevance of the family planning campaign as well as the acceptance of family planning message among men and on their behavioural pattern on men with different degrees of exposure to the campaign.
It will also seek to determine whether males who have been exposed to the Gold circle condom campaign have developed a stable pre-disposition to use condom before any sexual relationship more than males who have not yet been exposed to the campaign.
This study will also seek to ascertain of there is a high incidence of awareness and use of Gold circle condom over other brands among men with varying degrees of exposure to the campaign.
Also, the study will seek is ascertain the influence of Gold circle condom television advertisement on the behavioural pattern of Nigerian men i.e. how the awareness of Gold circle condom television advertisement has been able to change the behaviour of Nigerian men prior sexual intercourse and fear of contacting diseases.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The objective of this study is to critically examine or analyse the influence of Gold circle condom Television Advertisement on the behavioural pattern of Nigerian men.
The study will seek to determine if Gold circle condom Television Advertisement end does play or have any effects and influence on the behavioural pattern of Nigerian men especially in enhancing public awareness of family planning campaign and sex- safety campaign mounted by concerned organizations.
Series of effort will be made to find out from the selected subjects the extent of attention they pay to the Gold circle condom television advertisement and how it has influenced their behaviours. The things will be accomplished by going to the subjects and ascertaining on how far they watch and imbibe the Gold circle condom television advertisement.
I hope that the findings of this research would be of immense help to future researchers in related areas. The result of this study would go a long way to convincing people that television advert on Gold circle condom can effect an appreciable change on the behaviour of Nigerian men.
It would be of great advantage to the government to assess the effectiveness of the programmes in realizing its objectives .
Moreover, the results of this research would be of enormous value to the broadcast authority especially television to improve on the programme and sustain to it.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study no doubt will reveal whether Gold circle condom television Advertisement is achieving both its particular objectives of promoting the choice of Gold circle brand of condom, its influence on the behavioural pattern of Nigerian men as well as the more general objectives of promoting the acceptance of family planning, venereal diseases and HIV/AIDS habits and messages.
In so doing, the study will offer useful insight to all those embarking on similar campaign on the factors that will condom to the effectiveness of their campaigns. At the theoretical level, the study will definitely contribute to the growing body of literature on development communication in the area of attitudes and behavioural change.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
- Are men who ere exposed to Gold circle condom television Advertisement more favourably disposed towards the use of condom before any sexual relationship than men who were not similarly exposed?
- Are men who were exposed to Gold circle condom television Advertisement more favourably disposed towards acceptance of family planning, verneral diseases and HIV/AIDS messages more than those who were not similarly exposed.
- Does the level of education attainment pre dispose one to adopt the use of condom?
- Does Gold circle condom television Advertisement influence the patronage and / or adoption of Gold circle condom
- Does the Gold circle condom Television Advertisement report a higher incidence of use of condom prior to sexual relationship than men who were not similarly exposed.
1.6 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
H1 Men who were exposed to Gold circle condom television Advertisement report a higher incidence of use of condom prior to sexual relationship than men who were not similarly exposed.
H0 Men who were exposed to Gold circle condom television Advertisement do not report a higher incidence of use of condom prior to sexual relationship than males who were not similarly exposed.
H2 men who were exposed to Gold circle condom television Advertisement tend to be more favourably disposed towards family planning, sexual transmitted diseases messages than those who were not similarly exposed.
H0 Men who were exposed to Gold circle condom television Advertisement do not tend to be more favourably disposed towards family planning, sexual transmitted diseases messages than those who were not similarly exposed.
H3 There is significant variation in the perception of Gold circle condom television Advertisement among men of different educational background.
H0 There is no significant variation in the perception of the relevance of Gold circle condom television Advertisement among men of different educational background.
H4 Among those exposed to Gold circle condom television Advertisement, younger adults tend to have a higher utilitarian perception of the message of the campaign than old adults.
H0 Among those exposed to Gold circle condom television Advertisement, younger adults to not tend to have a higher perception of the message of the campaign than old adults.
CONCEPTUAL AND OPERATIONAL DEFINITION CONCEPTUAL DEFINITION
INFLUENCE: The act of changing one’s behaviour persuasive propaganda like adverts.
CONDOM: AS rubber sheath worn by man before sexual intercrosses.
ADVERTISEMENTS: A process used to make a product known by consumers through the mass media.
PATTERN : A process of how something is arranged to effect change.
BEHAVIOURAL :- The manner one has towards other people and functions in situations.
MEN: Males i.e. boys, man
INFLUENCE:- The power to make one adopt a now approach that results from the advertisement of Gold circle condom television Advertisement of Gold circle condoms in relation to sexual interaction / behaviour. Power to effect one’s behaviour beliefs and actions.
CONDOM: As rubber, thin sheath of latex which a man could use to encapsulate his seminal fluid or sperm from getting into contact with seminal fluid of a woman during sexual intercourse. It can be used a contraceptive device or as a means to prevent the transmission of sex- influenced diseases.
ADVERTISEMENT: A communicative effort guard towards influencing somebody to be favourable disposed towards condoms and to purchase same as a means of preventing sexual problems.
PATTERN :- A way in which something happens, moves, develops or is being arranged.
TELEVISION:- A piece of electrical equipment with a glass screen which shows broadcast programmes with moving pictures and sounds. An electronic media which has the advantage of sight and sound used in airing programmes.
BEHAVIUOURAL :- The way somebody behaves especially towards other people or things. It is one’s attitudes and manners and the way one acts or functions in particular situations.
MEN:- Males who posses physical features and a penis which differentiates them from women used in wearing of condoms before sex.
As usual with a study of this nature, were hereby make the following assumptions:
With the advancement of Technology in the field if mass communication especially in electronic media like television which has sight and sound ability, there tends to be growing awareness of Gold circle condom among societies. Therefore, there is a general belief that people’s perceptions and understanding of media message are considerably high.
It was also an assumption that men attach importance to message and adverts from the media especially television . so the transmission of persuasive adverts through television on a regular basis has chances of changing behavious and making impact on men.
It is also assumed that most men in Nigeria hear and understand English and pidgin English languages in which the advertisement on gold Circle condom is produced.
Sit is also assumed that with the help of advert messages of Gold circle condom on television , people especially Nigerian men will have these fear of contacting sex diseases, unwanted pregnancies and family planning messages by changing behaviours through using condoms before sex.
1.9 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The major limitation of this study was with respect to the population and sample size. The study is restricted to some areas in Nigeria.
Another limitation of the study is the time range of the research which is very short for me to carry out the research work.
Finally, financial problems were encountered in the course of the researcher but was later solved.
DISCLAIMER: All project works, files and documents posted on this website, eProjectTopics.com are the property/copyright of their respective owners. They are for research reference/guidance purposes only and some of the works may be crowd-sourced. Please don’t submit someone’s work as your own to avoid plagiarism and its consequences. Use it as a reference/citation/guidance purpose only and not copy the work word for word (verbatim). The paper should be used as a guide or framework for your own paper. The contents of this paper should be able to help you in generating new ideas and thoughts for your own study. eProjectTopics.com is a repository of research works where works are uploaded for research guidance. Our aim of providing this work is to help you eradicate the stress of going from one school library to another in search of research materials. This is a legal service because all tertiary institutions permit their students to read previous works, projects, books, articles, journals or papers while developing their own works. This is where the need for literature review comes in. “What a good artist understands is that nothing comes from nowhere. The paid subscription on eProjectTopics.com is a means by which the website is maintained to support Open Education. If you see your work posted here by any means, and you want it to be removed/credited, please contact us with the web address link to the work. We will reply to and honour every request. Please notice it may take up to 24 – 48 hours to process your request.