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Nigeria today  is faced with the problem of checking the uncountable cases of sexually transmitted diseases, unwanted pregnancies, HIV/AIDS and illegal abortions etc. There is also  the  nation’s population to ensure that it does not exceed the nations natural resources least we battle one another.

With this background, we set to ascertain the influence of  Gold circle condom television advertisement on the behavioural pattern of Nigerian men.

To  do this, were  hypothesized  that :

  1. Males who are exposed to Gold circle Condom television campaign report a higher incidence of use of condom prior sexual relationships than males who were not similarly exposed.
  2. That males who were exposed to Gold Circle condom television campaign tend to be more favourably disposed towards family planning, sexually transmitted diseases, HIV/AIDS etc message than those who were not similar exposed.
  3. There is a significant variation in the perception of the relevance  of gold circle  condom television  campaign among males  of different educational  background.
  4. Among those exposed to Gold circle condom television campaign, younger adults tend to have a higher utilitarian perception of  the message of  the campaign  than  older adults.

Factors such as level of  exposure to Condom television  advertisements, prior use of condom before sex, relevance  of condom advertisements level of Education and perception  of usefulness of the campaign were examined using  percentages and tables so as  to establish their relatives impact on the influence of  condom advertisement on Nigerian men under study.

The survey research method was utilized. The measuring  instrument was questionnaires  and the sample size, 160 (32 private sector employees, 32, Government employment, 32 for people in commerce, 32 for Artisans  and 32 for students). It was  a convenient sapling  method and the 160 questionnaires  were returned.

Based on the analysis, hypothesis was accepted showing that men who were exposed to Gold circle condom Television campaign tend to be more favourably   disposed towards  family planning  messages than those  who were not similarly exposed. The 3 other  hypothesis  were accepted as the  results  showed  that  age, educational background and exposure to condom Television campaigns do have  significant  impact on usage of condom prior to behaviour and sexual relationship.

We therefore recommend that the  government, manufacturers and concerned Health   Organizations should insist  on production if high- quality condom at subsidized rates as well as  encouraging discussions  of sex- oriented  issues, introducing  sex-education to senior  secondary schools and ensuring  that the  various campaign messages reach the  grass-roots, in the  language  they would understand  so as to influence their  behaviour. It would  be necessary if the  government, manufacturers and concerned  Organizations set-up research in the use of  interpersonal communication  as opposed to Mass Communication  for health related campaigns.



TITLE PAGE                                                                         II

APPROVAL  PAGE                                                               III

DEDICATION                                                                       IV

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT                                                     V

ABSTRACT                                                                           VII

TABLES OF CONTENT                                                        XI



  • BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY                               1
  • SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY                                15
  • RESEARCH QUESTIONS                                            16
  • RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS                                         17
  • DEFINITION OF TERMS                                             19







  • SOURCE OF LITERATURE                                        24




  • RESEARCH DESIGN                                                   43
  • RESEARCH SAMPLE                                                 44
  • DATA ANALYSIS                                                                 47






  • SUMMARY 69
  • RECOMMENDATION                    71

BIBLIOGRAPHY                                                                  73

APPENDIX                                                                             76















          CHAPTER ONE






The population of  the   world in mid- 1998 was estimated to be 5.128 billion. It is  currently growing at a rate of 1.74% per year (Hatcher et al  1989) with Nigeria  put  at 120 million.

          In recent  times, there has  been a   lot of  haves  and  cries  about population explosion . It  is  often  argued  that rapid   growth in population is one of the greatest  barriers  to economic  development and social welfare large  families  they content, constitute a serious threat to our  limited  resources and if care  is not taken, the resources at our disposal may not be sufficient to sustain the ever growing population.

In many  nations, the  increased use of  contraceptives parallels a decrease in the   rate of  population growth and in increase in the quality of life. The quality of life  is measured here by human  suffering index developed by the population crisis committee  (Hatcher et al 1989). This index measured  essential human  needs such as income, inflation, demand for new jobs urban population  pressures, infant morality, nutrition, clean water, energy use, adult literacy and personal  freedom.

The percentage of married women aged 15- 44 years who use contraceptive method  rangers  from 5% in Nigeria to 83% in the limited Kingdom (Hatcher  et al) as the use of  contraceptive decrease, the total  fertility rates decrease as does the human  suffering index for nation.

Between 40% to 60% of deaths among  women aged 15-35 years  are not  unrelated  to reproduction, unwanted pregnancies, illegal abortions  child bearing  under unfavourable  circumstances and  HIV/AISS that  threaten health (population references Bureau, 1986).

The incidence  of adolescent pregnancy varies widely in different populations. In Japan, 3 out of every 1,00 teenage woman give birth, in Chian, 12 per 1,000 USSR 16  and in Singapore 10 . In contrast, in Nigeria, 213 per 1,000 women aged  15 to 19 years give birth. Adolescents in developing countries are far more likely to become pregnant and bear children than adolescents in developing countries. The  reasons  are obvious. Educational and contraceptive opportunities   are available to adolescents in developed countries.

The way out of this  problems is through family planning and use  of contraceptive  like  condom. By this, I mean a  way  that is voluntarily adopted by individuals and couples in order to promote the heath and  welfare of the family  and society at large. It also refers to methods that help individuals or couples to avoid  unwanted births, regulate the intervals between pregnancies and determine the number of children  in the family to include avoiding contacting sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS.

Use of condoms  influences the survival, health and development of the society. Also, part from using condoms  the prevent diseases, there have been traditional practices  used to space children which have  been rich and  varied  throughout history. A number of customs and traditions increases the like hood  of abstinence in a society. Some of them are virginity prior  to marriage, female corruption with   sure of vagina, laws prescribing late age at  first  marriage, postpartum abstinence  while breast feeding, polygamous  relationship which  lead to one or more wives  abstaining for a length  of  time, abstinence for women once they have  become grandmothers and religions  orders enforcing celibacy.

The term “sexually transmitted diseases” has recently  replaced the term “venereal diseases”. Whereas  the venereal  disease originally encompassed five traditional infections, Gornorhea,  syphilis,  chancroid, Lymhpogra nuloma venereum and granuloma inguinale. The term sexually transmitted diseases  include more than twenty organisms including  ALDS chylamydia trachomatis, herpes simplex virus, Hepatitis Band syphilis.

The consequence of sexually Tran milled disease range form the pain, discomfort, or psychological distress caused by primary symptoms to the  tertiary manifestations of disease progression which include infertility entopic pregnancy,  chronic pain, fetal wastage, congenital malformation, and even death. Serious  consequences are more  likely  to occur when  sexually  transmitted diseases are undetected, misdiagnosed or inadequately treated.

The federal ministry of Health and other Organizations such as  UNICEF, planned  parenthood federation of Nigeria and society for family health are no longer upraiding the citizenry  for being promiscuous rather, they now educate  them on the ways   of safe sex which of courtse, reduces the higg incidence of sexually transmitted diseases,  problems  associated with unwanted pregnancy and AIDS.

The prevention of these sex- oriented  problems centre on the avoidance of contract with infected blood, total abstinence from sex,  (with  infected people) or the use of condoms during sexual inter course. The avoidance of contract with infected blood and the use of condoms may record some success but the total abstinence from sex may not be so  successful.

In his theory of motivation, Abraham Maslow appeared to reject the option of abstinence when he outlines a hierarchy of man’s needs and posited that thirst, hunger, sex and sleep occupy a central palce which compel satisfaction before other  needs can be satisfied or met. It is  perhaps in recognition of this that concerned medical  experts still favour  the sue of condom and in 1987, research  showed that the consistent  use of condoms had  an 83% success rate in prevention of  unwanted preganacy and sexually transmitted diseases. Around the world, an estimated 46 million couples use condoms  regularly as a method of family planning. (Gallen et al, 1989 as quoted in Hatcher et al 1989).

Currently, prevention of HIV infections is the only way to control the AIDS epidemic. Among the measures through which AIDS  can be controlled in the general  population is using late condom. The  protection  provided by condoms  however, is not 100%.

Latex condoms should be recommended even for woman who may  have chosen other contraceptive methods especially pills because pills provide no known protection against HIV  infection. The female condom was founded because according to the united  states director of the  family planning Association (FPA ), Doreen massey, “we have to face the fact that often women who want safer sex cannot get their patterns co-operate. She can then insist that, if he  won’t use his, she  use her” (Ann Bradley, 1992).

Like an article of  trade that can be seen and purchased anywhere, a man can run into a girl of his choice anywhere. When you must have known yourself and want make love, it is normal these days introducing condoms. Condoms must be used at every act of sexual intercourse. It must also be used even when a partner is sterilized, menopausal or men striating

A sheet worn over the  pen is  can be traced back as far as 1350 B.C when Egyptian men wore decorative covers   for their penises. In 1564 A.D, (Hatcher et al, 1989, the great Halian  anatomist fallopian, described the use of linen sheaths. Protective sheaths from animal intensities soon followed. It was not  until the 18th century  that penile sheath made from animal intestines were given the name “condom” said to have been invested by one Dr. condom, an 18th century English  physician) and popularized as a means of protection from sexually Tran milled  diseases and numerous bastard offspring .

With the advent of valianized rubber in the 1840s came the mass production of condoms (or “rubber”) from synthetic materials  (Dalsimer et al, 1973) as  quoted in Hatcher et al) . Now, it  is made of latex from rubber producing company. It is a finger like tube that is imposed a force fold on it to determine a new one. It is  also baked  with little  powder substance and greased with oil in little  quantity.

Perhaps, condoms would have been a great deal more popular if some of the non-contraceptive benefits received greater emphasis thereby offsetting the stigma often associated with condom use like promiscuity , immorality, prostitution etc. some  of these non- contraceptive benefits, are;

  1. Condoms are relatively inexpensive and may even be obtained free at many sources.
  2. Men who have  difficulty  maintaining an erection may find that the  rim of the condom may have a slight tourniquet effect, helping to maintain  an erection.

iii.      Condoms  are accessible  their  use also does  not require an examination, prescribtion  or fittling. Women have very occasionally been allergic to their partners sperm and / or  semen, multiracial and even  anaphylactic  reactions have occurred.

  1. Messy postcoital discharge of semen from the  vagina, a very annoying aftermath for some women  is avoided easily by  using condoms.

Despite the aforementationed, there are few contra indications to condom  use. Men who  are allergic to the rubber in condom reduces  glens sensitivity although no objective data indicates whether it is true  or not.

Among the measures being adopted to check population  growth and sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS are advertisements through the mass media by producers and distributors of condom, supported sometimes by medial and social workers. An example of such advertisements  is the first Gold circle television  Advertisement a in Nigeria in 1993 says “who  get this raincoat, I say who get is condom” etc. Another  example of television  advert on condom is the Gold circle condom Television Advertisement which tries  to promote the use of  condoms particularly the brand  Gold Circle.

The television advert messages of Gold circle  condom, produced by Alldan   corporation, U.S.A  but packaged by the society for family  Health Nigeria has  removed a considerable extent the stigma attached to going to buy condom of the shelf as there used to be in element of secrecy attached  to sex. Not surprising, many producers, distributors of condoms and concerned health organizations have stepped up the divertissement of the product.

Currently, the society for family Health are taking full charge of the  Gold Circle   condom where it is given an assurance test before packaging. They ‘ve also used television adverts on Gold circle to back up and help reduce diseases .



The issue  of the menace of various  sexually transmitted diseases and the effects of inadequate family planning are problems staring the nation in the face.

According to Y. Kamathi the UNICEF HEALTH OFFICER in Niger, more  than 2000 women die daily child  labour while move  than 85 children die  on hourly  basis.(Onyekachi 1993), Added to the above, child and material mortality figures  is an uncarpeted number  of abortion (sometimes resulting  in death) and  abandoned babies  which arise from unraveled  promiscuity.

On August 23, 1991 former president Ibrahim Babangida launched  the ALDS prevention campaign in the country . according to him, between 1991 and 1995, no fewer than  69, 000  AIDS patients would be occupying about 80% of the nations hospital  beds (Onyekachi 1993). Also speaking on the AIDS  crisis , former minister of health and Human services then, Professor Ransome- kati  (1992) said that seven- out  of 1,000 Nigerians were HIV- infected.

This study  is primarily to ascertain whether  the Gold circle condom television Advertisement has had any  impact/ influence of the perception of the relevance of the family planning campaign  as well as the acceptance of family  planning  message among men and on their behavioural pattern on men with different degrees of exposure  to the  campaign.

It will also seek to determine whether males who have been exposed to the Gold circle condom campaign  have developed a stable  pre-disposition to use condom before any sexual relationship more than  males who have not yet been exposed to the campaign.

This study will  also seek  to ascertain of there  is a high incidence of awareness  and use of Gold circle  condom over other  brands  among  men with varying degrees of exposure to the campaign.

Also, the study will seek  is ascertain  the influence  of Gold circle condom television advertisement  on the behavioural  pattern of  Nigerian men i.e. how the  awareness of Gold circle condom television advertisement has been able to change the behaviour  of Nigerian men prior sexual intercourse and  fear of contacting diseases.



The objective of this study  is to critically examine or analyse the influence  of Gold circle condom  Television Advertisement on the behavioural pattern of  Nigerian men.

The study will seek  to determine if Gold circle  condom Television  Advertisement end does play or have any effects and influence  on the behavioural  pattern of Nigerian men especially in enhancing public awareness  of family planning campaign and  sex- safety campaign mounted by concerned organizations.

Series  of effort will be made to find out from the selected subjects the extent of  attention they pay to the Gold  circle condom television advertisement and how it has influenced their behaviours. The things will be accomplished  by going to the  subjects and ascertaining on how far they watch and imbibe the  Gold circle condom television advertisement.

I hope that the findings of this research would  be of immense help  to future researchers in related areas. The result of this study would go a long way to convincing people that television advert on Gold circle condom can  effect an appreciable change on the behaviour of Nigerian men.

It      would be of great advantage to the government to assess the  effectiveness of the programmes in realizing its objectives .

Moreover, the results of this research would be of enormous  value to the broadcast authority especially  television to improve on the programme and sustain to it.



This  study  no doubt will  reveal whether Gold circle condom television Advertisement is achieving both its particular objectives of promoting the choice of Gold circle  brand of  condom, its  influence on the behavioural pattern of Nigerian men  as well as the more general objectives of promoting the acceptance of  family planning, venereal diseases and HIV/AIDS habits and messages.

In so doing, the study will offer useful insight to all those embarking on similar campaign  on the factors that will condom  to the effectiveness  of their campaigns. At the theoretical  level, the study will definitely contribute to the growing body of literature on development communication in the area of attitudes and  behavioural change.



  1. Are men who ere exposed to Gold circle condom television Advertisement more  favourably disposed towards the use of condom before any  sexual relationship than men who were not similarly exposed?
  2. Are men who were exposed to Gold circle condom television  Advertisement more  favourably disposed towards acceptance of family planning, verneral diseases and HIV/AIDS messages more than those who  were not similarly  exposed.
  3. Does the level of education attainment pre dispose one  to adopt the use of condom?
  4. Does Gold circle condom television Advertisement influence  the patronage and / or  adoption of Gold circle condom
  5. Does the Gold circle condom Television  Advertisement  report a higher incidence of use of condom prior to sexual relationship than men who  were not similarly exposed.



H1     Men who were exposed to Gold circle condom television Advertisement report a higher incidence of use of condom  prior to sexual relationship than men who were not similarly  exposed.

H0     Men who  were exposed to  Gold circle condom television Advertisement do not report a higher incidence of use  of  condom  prior to sexual relationship than males  who were not similarly  exposed.

H2     men who were exposed to Gold circle condom television Advertisement tend to be more favourably  disposed towards family  planning, sexual  transmitted diseases messages than  those who were not  similarly exposed.

H0         Men who   were exposed to Gold circle condom television Advertisement do not tend to be more  favourably disposed towards family planning, sexual transmitted diseases messages than those who were not similarly exposed.

H3     There is significant variation  in the  perception of Gold circle condom television Advertisement among men of different educational background.

H0         There is  no significant variation in the perception of the relevance of Gold circle condom television Advertisement among men of different educational background.

H4     Among those  exposed to Gold circle condom television Advertisement, younger adults tend to have a higher utilitarian  perception of the message of the campaign  than old adults.

H0     Among those exposed to Gold circle condom television Advertisement, younger adults to not tend to have a higher perception of the  message of the  campaign than old adults.




INFLUENCE: The act  of changing one’s behaviour persuasive propaganda like adverts.

CONDOM: AS rubber sheath worn by  man before sexual  intercrosses.

ADVERTISEMENTS: A process used to make a product known by consumers through the mass media.  

PATTERN : A  process of how something is arranged to effect change.

BEHAVIOURAL :- The manner one has  towards other people and functions in situations.

MEN:         Males i.e. boys, man


INFLUENCE:- The power to make one adopt a now  approach that results from the advertisement of Gold circle condom television Advertisement of Gold circle condoms  in relation to  sexual interaction / behaviour. Power to effect one’s behaviour beliefs and actions.

CONDOM: As rubber,  thin sheath of latex which  a man could use to encapsulate his seminal fluid or sperm from getting into contact with seminal fluid of a woman  during  sexual intercourse. It can be used a contraceptive device or as a means to prevent  the transmission of sex- influenced diseases.

ADVERTISEMENT: A communicative effort guard towards influencing  somebody to be favourable disposed towards condoms and to purchase same as a means of preventing sexual problems.

PATTERN :- A way  in which  something happens, moves, develops or is being arranged.

TELEVISION:- A piece  of electrical equipment with a glass screen which shows broadcast programmes with moving pictures and sounds. An electronic  media  which has the advantage of sight and sound used in airing programmes.

BEHAVIUOURAL :- The  way somebody behaves especially towards other people or things. It is one’s attitudes and manners and the way one acts  or functions in particular situations.

MEN:- Males who posses physical features  and a penis which differentiates  them from women used in wearing of condoms before sex.


As usual  with  a study of this nature, were hereby make the following assumptions:

With the advancement of Technology in the field if mass communication especially in electronic   media  like television which has sight and  sound ability, there  tends to  be growing  awareness of  Gold circle condom among societies. Therefore, there is a general belief that people’s perceptions and understanding of media message are considerably high.

It was also an assumption that men attach importance to message and adverts  from the media especially television . so the transmission of persuasive adverts through television on a regular basis has chances of changing behavious  and making impact on men.

It is also assumed that most men in  Nigeria hear and understand English and  pidgin  English  languages in which the advertisement on gold Circle  condom is  produced.

Sit is also assumed  that with the help of  advert messages of Gold circle condom on television , people especially Nigerian men will have  these  fear of contacting sex diseases, unwanted pregnancies  and family planning messages by changing  behaviours through using condoms before sex.



The major limitation of this study  was with respect to the population and  sample size. The study is restricted  to some areas in  Nigeria.

Another  limitation of the study is the time range  of the research which is very short for me to  carry out the research work.

Finally, financial  problems were encountered in the course of the researcher but  was later solved.


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