Military intervention is a common characteristic in developing countries,
it remain a controversial when it happens as well as when it fails. It can also be
said that it is vast among Africa countries.
Military interventions can be defined as when the military wants to control the
policy process largely. Hence, the military uses either legislative or executive
power or in some cases judiciary power. With military interventions, the
military not only changes the executive or legislative powers of government but
also tries to exert strict control over other interest groups or society. Military
intervention is a common characteristic in developing countries, it can also be
said that it is vast among Africa countries but this work will focus on Nigeria
In most developing countries, there is a disruption of the civil-military
equilibrium usually assumed in liberal democracies, in developing countries like
Nigeria however, the military has not only intervened in the political process
but has overpowered the elected civilian authority, but it has also established its
supremacy over elected politicians. Even in those countries where the military
has become almost a permanent feature of politics, military rule is still
considered a symptomatic of a malfunctioning political system. In Nigeria,
which typifies the scenario just presented, military rule was usually seen as a
“rescue” operation necessary to save the country from civilian ineptitude like
corruption. Military rule was not expected to last long; once the rescue
operation was complete, the military should return to the barracks where they
belonged and leave the governing to civilian politicians. The problem was that
although military officers accepted this agreement, military rule became selfsustaining.
After Nigeria gained her independence in 1960 till the end of 1990 the
military rule has ruled Nigeria for twenty one years. It came to power by
January 15 1966 in a coup that was described as igbo master-minded (Dudley
This was because of the corruption in Tafawa Balewa‟s government, law and
orders were broken especially in the west region and also because of the 1965
regional election rigging by the then Nigeria National Alliance (NNA). This
political disorder precipitated this first military takeover of power. There was a
counter-coup on July 29, 1966, which was regarded as a retaliation by northern
soldiers, who were still emotionally deranged by the sudden loss of their
political and military leaders (patrons) in the January 1966 coup (Dudley,
1973), was intended to restore this status quo. The regimes of military
intervention in politics includes: the first military government of General Ironsi
did not last long this was because he was accused of having advise that were his
kinsmen, the second military government was Yakuba gowon‟s government,
this government witness the civil war and it was at this regime the oil in Nigeria
was discovered and also expanded Nigeria into the economic and social sectors.
This government was terminated on July 29, 1975 in a bloodless coup led by
Murtala Muhammad. Muhammad himself was a product of the political
patronage of the First Republic and Gowon’s regime. Murtala Muhammad
regime however lasted for just six months His successor, General Olusegun
Obasanjo continued with the policies of the Murtala Muhammad regime and for
this reason the administration came to be known as “Muhammad-Obasanjo
regime”. The regime after this was the Babangida regime in 1985, the regime
can be described aptly as patrimonialism par excellence. This regime had an
annulment which was on June 12 which gave Chief M.K.O. Abiola of the SDP,
a Southerner, and an undisputed lead, forcefully demonstrates this commitment.
Every available evidence indicate that any power shift from the North to the
South was unaccepted- able to the Northern military by Babangida, and political
elites who have dominated power since I960.
Abacha came to power after overthrowing the Interim Government set up by
Babangida before his exit. The Abacha regime could be said to have been more
patrimonial than Babangida’s. His regime closely fitted Sandbrooks description
of a typical patrimonial rule. He was surrounded by trusted people, this regime‟s
major project was the accumulation of wealth for Sani abacha and for members
of his immediate family and closest associates. Several major state contracts
were awarded to his children and other relatives who reaped huge incomes
when, in most cases, they did not execute the contracts (Adekanmbi, 1998). He
indiscriminately transferred state funds into private accounts (Muhammad,
1998), acquired extensive property, and had business interests in virtually all the
states of the federation (Fraud Incorporated, 1998: 3-7, Tempo, Oct. 15, 1998).
His close friends were not left out of this game of looting public coffers. The
most notable are General Jerry Useni, Minister of the Federal Capital Territory,
Abuja, who is allegedly worth more than 3 billion US dollars in cash with
several billion naira worth of property in the country. Another close ally is
Alhaji Ismaili Gwarzo, Abacha’s Security Adviser whose fortune is valued at
more than 4 billion US dollars (Fraud Incorporated, 1998: 13-14; Dare, S.,
1998: 16-21). Millions of dollars were recovered from some of such associates
after the death of Abacha. Very large sums of money were also discovered at
the presidential villa. Like a typical patrimonial ruler, Abacha did not tolerate
any manner of opposition to his regime including activities that could affect the
regular inflow of revenue into the state coffers. This paper is however focuses
on this regime, its military intervention and human abuses in Nigeria.
According to the Ameze Guouadia in his book title “Human Rights in
Nigeria: A Historical Perspective on Human Rights” said that; there was the
jettisoning of previously held notions following the overthrowing and
diminishing of the authority of the papacy. The papacy with its overbearing
presence had used the fear of hell to deprive kings and peasants alike of their
rights over a long period of time spanning centuries. He also emphasis that the
universal declaration of the rights of man of 4th august 1789 and the American
declaration of independence of 4th July 1776 emphasized the fundamental belief
that every man is created equal. These and many others were the guiding
principles which guide and protected people‟s rights in the early 17th and 18th
More recently the universal declaration on human rights of 1948 is
important emanating as it did soon after the end of the Second World War. The
scale of human rights violation during the war which was perpetuated by Natzi
Germany under Adolf Hitler against the Jews and other races made it imperative
that such occurrences of human rights violation should never be witnessed ever
again. It is important to note that in the charter of the United Nations the
protection of the rights and freedom of people regardless of ethnic racial and
cultural differences is fundamental and non-contentious. In Nigeria there have
existed human rights violations since the military came to power in 1966 but it
came to a crescendo during the Abacha regime. The period between 1993 to
1998 witnessed a rapid degeneration of human rights in Nigeria. This was after
the establishment of the interim government led by Chief Ernest Shonekan after
the former military dictator General Ibrahim Babangida stepped aside, in 1993.
The increase in human rights violations was correspondingly followed by a high
rate of adoption of Guerilla tactics by both the press and human rights activists.
By January 1998 what was known as human rights had virtually disappeared in
Nigeria. The experience of journalists whose rights were blatantly violated was
a sad affair, both for the journalists and the ordinary citizens alike while the
powers that be went on implementing ad-hoc obnoxious decrease promulgated
by the junta. However, since the independence of Nigeria on October 1st 1960
and becoming a republic in 1963, Nigerians have never gone through what they
went through at the hands of General Sani Abacha junta.
Nigerians were like never before exposed to mechanisms that oppressed
them and public participation in government was no longer allowed; individuals
were exposed to the hazards of arrest and intimidations by various organs of
government like the police. However, changes in the countries fortunes coupled
with events that took place immediately preceding the death of General Sani
Abacha in particular the freedom of political detainees journalists, prodemocratic and human rights activists and the introduction of probes panel of
enquiry to look through acts of human rights violation during the regime of
general Abacha by president olusegun Obasanjo followed by the introduction of
structures to check any attempt to tamper with rights of Nigerians and the
bringing of human rights perpetrators to book.
The consequent shift from military dictatorship to democracy called for
the dismantling of all the structures which mitigated against the rights of
Nigeria seen to be inhibiting the effective attempt by a click from a certain part
of the country to hold on to power. The underlying assumption of this is that
some are not happy that the structures that inhibited the rights of Nigerians are
However, Dudley, B.J. said in his book title “Instability and Political order
(1974)” a right consequently, has been given a pride of place once again and the
various organs of government equipped to meet up with the demands of
safeguarding human rights and ensuring the rule of law. The number of N.G.Os,
human rights bodies like C.E.D.A.W. The convention on the elimination of All
Forms of Discrimination Against Women, A.C.H.P.R. The African commission
on human and people rights and Amnesty International among others have
Human rights are also protected by the 1979 constitution. According to the
constitution of the federal republic of Nigeria in chapter 4 section 30 to 40. It
guarantees every Nigeria citizen basic and fundamental human rights. This
include the rights to life, dignity of the human person, fair hearing, freedom of
thought, conscience and religion, expression, peaceful assembly and association
as well as freedom from discrimination and the rights against compulsory
acquisition of property without compensation. In promotion of these rights, the
constitution makes no distinction between the rights of men and women but
envisages the rights of every human being- man and child in Nigeria. Also the
United Nations distinction should be made on the basis of race, color, sex,
language or other status. “This declaration states that all individuals are entitled
to freedom of speech, association notwithstanding their color, sex, race,
language or religion they should be given equal opportunity. The Nigerian state
has been under the burden of obnoxious decrees like decree 2 and decree 7
1.1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
There is no doubt that there exist military intervention in politics and human
rights violations. Nigeria has gone through a harrowing experience in the hands
of the military. It is important to safeguard fundamental rights of Nigerians as
we move into the next millennium and in view of the ever present threat of the
country slipping back to dictatorship and autocracy. Here are some of the
There is the inordinate ambition of some political leaders to remain in
office as long as they could
There is also the ambition of some military officers who wants to taste
power by all means
1.2 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The general objective of this study is to evaluate the effect human rights
violations under the military had on the individual and Nigerians as a whole and
ways or means of minimizing such incidents in the future.
The specific objectives of this study are as follows:
I. To examine if military intervention in politics was a great impact on
II. To examine the cases of human rights that was violation in 1993-1998.
III. To examine cases of military intervention and human rights abuses
in Nigeria politics.
VI. To evaluate the effects of human rights violation on the society.
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
What was impact of military intervention on politics?
Were there many cases of human rights violation in the society?
Do you think human rights were violated under this regime?
Do you think military intervention in politics was needed in Nigeria?
Did this regime create a negative impact on Nigeria?
1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
H0: Military intervention is not a blessing to Nigeria politics.
H1: Military intervention is a blessing to Nigeria Politics.
H0: 1993 regime did not violate Human rights.
H1: 1993 regime violated human rights.
H0: military intervention had no impact on Nigeria politics.
H1: Military intervention had an impact on Nigeria politics
1. 4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study is undertaken with the motive of looking at military
intervention in politics and human rights abuses under the military with
particular emphasis on the regime of General Sani Abacha. It is very evident
and a known fact that there were human rights abuses which occurred not only
during the Abacha era but within regime like Buhari and IBB had a far reaching
implication both on the individual and the country as a whole. This led to a
militarized psyche in the citizen and intolerance for the views of others and also
the brutal suppression by the military government of the opposition which it
termed as its enemies. This study is intended to broaden our knowledge and
focus our attention on military intervention in politics and human rights abuses
to the extent that court orders were openly disregarded and how this rights of
individuals and the society were flagrantly violated and how this trend could be
1.5 ORGANIZACTION OF THE STUDY
The paper will be written in five chapters, this five chapter‟s will consists
of: Chapter one: This contains the introduction, justification, aims and objective
for the study, scope of the study, method of analysis, statement of the problem
and theoretical framework, Chapter 2 entails the review of relevant literature.
Definition of human rights by people such as Harold J. Laski, Rosseau and
many other cases. Chapter 3 this chapter will examine the methodology
showing the designs used, instruments, population size, sampling, method of
obtaining data, Chapter 4: This chapter is the analysis of data obtained in the
course of the research, Chapter5 will be the conclusion, summary of project
work, recommendation and References.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This covers the military intervention in politics and human rights abuses in
Nigeria under Abacha regime. The scope of the study is identifying the impact
of military intervention in politics human rights abuses between 1993 to 1998.
The various structures like civil society. Human rights bodies; their functions,
activities and the various problems they face in society especially under military
regimes and also the military intervention in politics. Extensive case studies,
conclusion and recommendation.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Military Intervention: this is the deliberate act of a nation or a group of nations
to introduce its military forces into the course of an existing controversy.
Human rights: This are moral principles or norms that describe certain standards
of human behavior, and are regularly protected as legal rights in municipal and
Politics: This are ideas and activities related to how a place is governed and who
DISCLAIMER: All project works, files and documents posted on this website, eProjectTopics.com are the property/copyright of their respective owners. They are for research reference/guidance purposes only and some of the works may be crowd-sourced. Please don’t submit someone’s work as your own to avoid plagiarism and its consequences. Use it as a reference/citation/guidance purpose only and not copy the work word for word (verbatim). The paper should be used as a guide or framework for your own paper. The contents of this paper should be able to help you in generating new ideas and thoughts for your own study. eProjectTopics.com is a repository of research works where works are uploaded for research guidance. Our aim of providing this work is to help you eradicate the stress of going from one school library to another in search of research materials. This is a legal service because all tertiary institutions permit their students to read previous works, projects, books, articles, journals or papers while developing their own works. This is where the need for literature review comes in. “What a good artist understands is that nothing comes from nowhere. The paid subscription on eProjectTopics.com is a means by which the website is maintained to support Open Education. If you see your work posted here by any means, and you want it to be removed/credited, please contact us with the web address link to the work. We will reply to and honour every request. Please notice it may take up to 24 – 48 hours to process your request.