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Some years ago, the concept of training and development were widely misunderstood and not fully appreciated in most Nigerian organization. Today, the situation has dramatically changed such that many organizations, business and non business organization have come to appreciate the need for employee development and training as a very important instrument for organization development.

Training and development date back to the beginning of man. In our own families, our parents direct the children on what to do. A little baby is trained / taught to sit, crawl, stand and walk. All these efforts are geared towards developing the child to gain essential skills for adaptability in this  environment. It is this training and development that guides the child as he grows and matures into adulthood.

The above make it clear that although once is qualified to be employed in an office, to perform once duty or the other, yet the staff employed needs to be trained for adaptability in his office environment.

As can even be seen from the Biblical aspect of it, in the book of Samuel chapter 30, David the king of the Israelites realized the importance of training and development. By selecting his distinguished six hundred soldiers he gave the special training and sponsored their scientific and special reading to enable them to satisfy advisory roles in his palace and ultimately meet the nations needs in having a well trained army. It has become increasing apparent to more and more organization that life/long learning     must become a reality for them to remain competitive in an increasingly demanding environment. Such learning can take place through training courses offered by the firm themselves or by outside suppliers of training and education.

According to Buke (vol 41, 1988; 731) it can also take place informally through learning and development on the job. There has recent literature Morrison (1992: and Burke (1994:28 suggesting the impact of both the number of development activities undertaken and their pertinences usefulness on a variety of work attitude and outcomes, such as self reported future career prospects.

Furthermore, training and development is seen as a continuous process, believing that money spent on training and development is money well spent.

According to Ubeku (1975:270) employee who have not received adequate training before assigning them with responsibility lack of necessary confidence with which to  carry out the job. It is evident that the main objective of any organization is profit maximization, complimented with cost minimization. Hence, it is prudent for organizations to manage their resources in the best possible manner. One of such ways is through the manipulation of its labour force in such a way as to yield the highest attainable effective operations.

In the past, organization did not fully accept the benefits of employees’ training just because the results were not easily identified and clear.

The Federal Government of Nigeria recognized the benefit of training and manpower development when they established the Industrial Training Fund  (ITF). Through the promogation of Decree No. 47 of 1971, the objective of which were to “promote and encourage employee training and development as well as the acquisition of skills to industries with a view to generating a pool of indigenous training manpower sufficient to meet the needs of economy”. With these objectives in mind, one realizes that it is very necessary for organizations to expect high productivity in order to accomplish organizational goals and objectives.

It is a truism that without production, the organization will not survive and such survival is usually predicated on the quality, quantity and efficient use of resources.

All these cannot be achieved without the expertise knowledge and skill of the particular job coupled with the right attitudes acquired through training and development. Ogundele (1983:35) stresses that the success of an enterprise depends on the effectiveness of the human resources, the skill and the enthusiasm of the employees.

He observed that a set of objectives will not be achieved if there is no competent employees to effect such objectives. He argues that human development could be effected by the employees concerned through trial and error but error but better by the organization, through as well planned training scheme or programme.

He argued that the question should not be whether or not to train but the type of training to be employed. He concluded that human resources are rather scarce production factors which must be intelligently handled.

This brings us to be the importance of labour. Likert (1967:11) lie of taught is that “all activities of any enterprise are initiated and determined by the person who make up that institution”. The importance of labour force are two folds. First, its indispensability in the organization set up. Second is its unpredictable nature. Mainly because of the later, it is very necessary to take special care of this factor of production i.e labour.

In actually, no man is indispensable but suffice it to say that there are costs associated with recruitment and orientation or new staff. The profit the organization would have reaped from having this in mind, my aim in this research paper is to highlight the influence of staff training and development on effective  operations and hence after make recommendations from the empirical findings.



The Orumba  North local government area is largely seen as the catalyst for industrial development in Anambra State. The expectation resulted from the activities of the small scale business in the area under study.  To achieve her industries development objective for creating the local government area without the training and development of staff institution and other establishment in the area does more hard than expected good.

This study will try identifying why there is so much inefficiency in the institution present in Orumba North local government area. Also it will try to determine reason for low productivity of area in terms of their of their goods and services.


The following are the purpose for which training and development are is being under taken.

  1. What are the prevalent inefficiency and ineffectiveness of workers in institutions located in the areas understudy?
  2. What are various leading theories of staff training and development
  3. What are the major course of low productivity of workers in Orumba North local government area?

The general purpose was The Need For Staff Training And Development In Anambra State.

The specific of study are as follows:

  1. To examine the prevalent inefficiency and ineffectiveness of workers in institutions located in the areas understudy.
  2. To examine various leading theories of staff training and development
  3. To determine the major course of low productivity of workers in Orumba North local government area.


1.6     Significance of the Study

          This research work is of great relevance to the society at large. This is applicable to the government, the readers of this research work and to the researcher.

The benefit of this research work to the government is that by the end of the research, the weak-points and short – comings of all the sectors of the nation would be pinpointed and displayed based on findings, thereby proffering solution to the problem.

To the reader, they will be upgraded intellectually and also will be highly informed of the up and doings of the current administration. It will also give the reader’s insight on how the staff training and development will help the nation growth, also partake in the political affairs of the country geared towards the achievement of national development.

1.7     Scope of the Study

The essence of this research work is to study  The Need For Staff Training And Development In Anambra-State. (A Study Of Orumba North Local Government Area)

1.8     Limitations of the Study

In the course of writing and carrying out this project work, the research encountered many difficulties; some errors in the results of the research and from external sources of data collection. These are factors  standing as constraints thereby limiting the effect of the research result.

Among these are, time finance , scope and use of wrong statistics in data analysis, due to time limit, the research work is a time consuming one. A lot of time is taken to observe the subjects.

Most  times the behaviour of the staff changes even when they are aware that they are being observed by the researcher, this is by taking their behavior. The researcher also observed that these senior staff some time give true and false information in order to cover their branches.

At sometime the research work lasted over two months due to large scope of area of the study.



I am aware that this research work will be useful to different categories of people ranging from student.  Craft and fellow citizen of this country in different work fields based on this, there are words, which will be used frequently in this familiar to users.

Therefore, a conception definition is given to them:


Bureaucracy:-     A term used by max Weber to describe what he called rational legal authority  in which an individuals power arises from the nature of his or her position, as prescribed by the organization rules and procedures.

Job: The name given to a particular individual or position for which the job holder will be held accountable.

iInduction: The process of introducing new employee into their job with the aim of integrating the new comers a quickly and effectively as possible.

Local government:-       This is the lowest unit of administration or government to these laws and regulations, the communities who live in a defined geographical area with common social and political ties are subject.

Small Scale Business:-   This is the small business controls a small share of the market and therefore, constitute a little quota in the large size market.


Deconcentration:-         This defined as the arrangement under which the central government assign responsibility for the collection of revenue and provision of services at the local level to an agency appointed by the government.

Decentralization:-         This is defined as the arrangement by which the management of the public affairs of the country is shared by the central state and local government in such a manner that the local government is given reasonable scope to raise funds and to use its resources to provide a range of scio-economic service establish to those resident in its area of authority.

Training:   This is a process providing scope for the acquisition of knowledge, which enables the beneficiary to achieve self improvement.

Development:- This is  seen as any learning activity which is directed towards future needs rather than present needs and which is concerned more with career growth than immediate performance.


Recruitment:- This is a process of attracting able and willing people into the firm.


Organization:        A group of individual who are co-operating willing and effectively working for a common end.

This is the process of teaching the new employee about your company. How things are done and the tools used in doing them.

1.9 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows. Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (background of the study), statement of the problem, purpose of the study, research questions, significance of the study, scope of the study etc. Chapter two being the review of the related literature presents the theoretical framework, conceptual framework and other areas concerning the subject matter.     Chapter three is a research methodology covers deals on the research design, area of the study, population of the study, sample and sampling techniques, methods of data collection, instruments for data collection, reliability of the instruments, validity of the instruments, distribution and retrieval of instruments and methods of data analysis. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.  Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study



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