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ABSTRACT
This study was on oxidative stress status of rat fed with Pentraclethra
macrophylla, otherwise known as African oil bean seed oil in English or Ugba in
Igbo. Sixteen male rats were distributed into four groups. 1 (control), then group 2,
3, and 4 as test groups. They were fed with their formulated meal (5%, 10%, 20%
inclussions) for 28 days. Group 1 was the control and were fed with the normal
feed, while group 2, 3 and 4 which were the test groups were fed with test feed
formula.. The parameters determined were MDA concentrations and catalase
activity. Serum MDA significantly increased (p<0.05) while the catalase activity
significantly decreased (p<0.05). This finding may be clinically significant to
individuals with predisposition to increased generation of reactive oxygen species
(ROS) and other degenerative diseases.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Title page ……………………………………………………………………………………………. i
Approval page ……………………………………………………………………………………… ii
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Dedication …………………………………………………………………………………………… iii
Acknowledgment ………………………………………………………………………………… iv
Abstract ……………………………………………………………………………………………… v
Table of content …………………………………………………………………………………… vi
Chapter One
1.0 Introduction …………………………………………………………………………………… 1
1.1 Aim and objective ………………………………………………………………………….. 2
Chapter Two
2.0 Literature Review……………………………………………………………………………. 3
2.1 Classification of oil bean ………………………………………………………………… 5
2.2 Composition of seed ………………………………………………………………………. 5
2.3 Fatty acid composition of African oil bean seed ………………………………… 6
2.4 Pharmacological uses ……………………………………………………………………… 7
2.5 Anti nutrient in health …………………………………………………………………….. 9
2.6 Oil bean and humans ………………………………………………………………………. 12
2.6.1 Oil bean seed and animals …………………………………………………………….. 14
2.7 Oxidative stress ……………………………………………………………………………… 16
2.7.1 Malondialdehyde …………………………………………………………………………. 17
2.8 Catalase ………………………………………………………………………………………… 19
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Chapter Three
3.0 Materials and methods ……………………………………………………………………. 21
3.1 Materials ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 21
3.2 Collection and identification of plant materials ………………………………….. 21
3.3 Animals ………………………………………………………………………………………… 21
3.4 Preparation of oil bean seed meal for animal feeding …………………………. 22
3.4 .1 Oil bean seed meal inclusion diet preparations ………………………………. 22
3.4.2 Oil extraction ………………………………………………………………………………. 22
3.5 Formulation of oil bean seed meal diet ……………………………………………… 23
3.5.1 Oil bean seed based treatment diet (g/100g Diet) …………………………….. 23
3.5.2 Chemicals/Biochemicals ………………………………………………………………. 23
3.6 Phytochemical screening ………………………………………………………………… 24
3.6.1 Test for tannins ……………………………………………………………………………. 24
3.6.2 Test for alkaloids …………………………………………………………………………. 25
3.6.3 Test for saponin …………………………………………………………………………… 25
3.6.4 Test for flavonoids……………………………………………………………………….. 26
3.6.5 Determination of phenols ……………………………………………………………… 27
3.7 Determination of fatty acid composition …………………………………………… 27
3.7.1 Determination of anthocyanin ………………………………………………………. 28
3.8 Collection of blood sample …………………………………………………………….. 29
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3.9 Test for malonaldelyde …………………………………………………………………… 29
3.9.1 Catalase assay………………………………………………………………………………30
Chapter Four
4.0 Result and discussion ……………………………………………………………………… 32
4.1 Figure i fatty acid composition of extracted oil of pentraclethra macrophylla
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 32
4.2 Figure ii malondialdehyde concentration of test and control animal …… 34
4.3 Figure iii catalase concentration of test and control animals ……………….. 35
Chapter Five
5.0 Discussion …………………………………………………………………………………….. 36
5.1 Recommendations ………………………………………………………………………….. 38
References………………………………………………………………………………………….. 39
CHAPTER ONE
THE OXIDATIVE STRESS STATUS OF RATS FED ON OIL BEAN
SEED MEAL
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1.0. INTRODUCTION
Ugba also called ukpaka is a popular food delicacy in Nigeria especially among
Igbo ethnic group. It is rich in protein and is obtained by a solid state fermentation
of the seed of African oil bean tree (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth).
The natural fermentation of the seed which at present is still done at the house-hold
level, renders the production nutritious, palatable and non-toxic (Enujiugha, 2002).
Its production, like many African fermented foods depends, entirely on mixed
fermentation by microorganism from diverse source.
Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth is a large woody plant abundant in the rain forest
areas of west and central Africa. It’s origin in Nigeria is believed to be around
1937 (Ladipo, 1984); where it is found in the South Nigeria, (Mbajunwa et al.,
1998).
―Ugba‖ Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth belongs to the Family Leguminosae and
sub-family Microsoideae (Keay, 1989 and NFTA, 1995).
Ugba seeds are irregular and oval; they are flat, black and hard pods. It is
composed of oil, protein and small amounts of carbohydrate (Obeta, 1982).
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1.1 AIM AND OBJECTIVES
(i) To determine the concentration of Malondialdehyde (MDA, which indicates
the peroxidation status) and
(ii) The activity of Catalase (a marker of antioxidant status) in the serum of rats
fed graded doses of African oil bean seed meal

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