This project work was an attempt to investigate the place of personal selling in the achievement of organizational goal. The main objective were; to examine the importance of personal selling as promotional tools to the Hardis and Dromedas Nigeria limited, to examine the different tools available to the motivation of the members of the selling team and to determine the relationship between the effectiveness of the personal selling and achievement of sales target. Based on the objectives of the study, three hypothesis were formulated. The populations of study were draw from the customers, staff and dealers in Enugu metropolis. Bourley’s formular was used to determine the sample size. Questionnaires and personal interview were used to elicit data from respondents. Simple tables and percentages were used to analyzed data collected. Based on the analyses, the following findings were; the researcher observed that 75% of the respondents said yes that personal selling helps to achieving organizational goal while 25% said No. Therefore, personal selling helps to achieving organization goal and the researcher also observed that 63% of the respondents said yes that personal selling is a means of gathering research information for an organisation while 35% said No. Therefore personal selling is a means of gathering research information for an organization. The researcher made the following recommendations; since and also a greater percentage of the respondents agreed that personal selling helps to achieving organisational goal, the researcher therefore recommends that Hardis and Dromedas Nigeria limited should ensure that place of personal selling in the company have a lot to do in achieving organisation goal and also a greater percentage of the respondents agreed that personal selling is a means of gathering research information for an organisation, the researcher therefore recommends that enough money should be contribute in order to carry out a good research information.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Cover Page i
Title page ii
Table of Contents vi
- Background of the study 1
- Statement of the Problem 3
- Objective of the study 4
- Research Question 5
- Research Hypothesis 6
- Significant of the study 7
- Limitation of the study 8
- Definition of Terms 9
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
- Evolution of Personal Selling 12
- Definition of Personal Selling 16
- Forms of Personal Selling 18
- The Personal Selling Process 20
- The Economic Contribution of Personal Selling 27
- The Roles of Personal Selling in a Firm’s overall Marketing Effort 29
- The Strategic Role of Personal Selling 31
- The Personal Selling Function 33
- Personal Selling as Part of the Communication/ Promotional Mix. 35
- Sources of Data 38
- Population of the Study 39
- Determination of Sample Size 39
- Research Instrument 44
- Validation of Research Instrument 45
- Method of Data Analysis and Treatment 45
PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA
- Presentation and Analysis of Data 47
- Test Hypothesis 51
DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS, RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSION
- Summary of Findings 60
- Recommendations 62
- Conclusion 63
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
According to Adirika et al (1996:164) personal selling has changed from a simple process of persuading customers to buy goods and services, to a more complex activity in today’s larger marketing function. The sales function is a major planned area in marketing and it is more vital in the area of offering goods and services and things of value to the customers whilst having a sensitive role to play in other important areas of marketing research. The importance of personal selling is quite obvious in those companies where the bulk of their selling efforts is carried by a sales force. It is necessary from the beginning for management to identify and determine the major role of personal selling in the promotion mix.
Personal selling is usually considered as the last bus stop in the total promotional journey. This is because the ultimate objective of most promotional efforts is the sale, but the actual consummation or function typically depends on effective selling. Personal selling is used to get buying action and transfer of title or closing a sale, while personal selling cannot effectively replace other promotional efforts, the complimentary effort of this promotion mix cannot be over emphasized. Personal selling dominates the promotion policy of most firms, and attracts more expenditure than any other marketing function. Personal selling as an inter-personal communication is considered vital when a message is relatively complex and a recipient is relatively uniformed, hesitant and uncertain about what he or she needs or wants.
Personal selling has a good advantage of allowing each other to observe the other in a close range and making an adjustment as the need may be.
Through personal selling the two parties can cultivate very personal and sometimes intimate relationship that last long and can even lead to life partnership. Not minding ho beautiful a product may have been produced, priced, and made available when and where needed without sufficient communication as to create an awareness to persuade the prospects, the product may lie waste without a demand.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Hardis and Dromedas Nigeria limited has started experiencing a reduction in its sales volumes in recent times. This low sales volume is caused by a keen competition that exists in the market. This is a direct opposite of what the company used to witness in the previous years. The reason for these serious problems like reduced profitability, low market share, and reduction in the rate of promotion as well as that of employment is still unknown to the management of the company. The company has been involved in elaborate advertisement for its products, and has offered wholesalers policy incentives to give their products attention, but these does not positively affected the sales of its product. The proper recruitment, training of sales personnel has not been pursued effectively by the organization, the place of personal selling as part of their promotional mix is the essence of this study.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
- To examine the importance of personal selling as promotional tools to the Hardis and Dromedas Nigeria limited.
- To examine the different tools available to the motivation of the members of the selling team.
- To determine the relationship between the effectiveness of the personal selling and achievement of sales targets.
- To determine the place of incentives for salesmen as a means of achieving organizational goal.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION
Based on the research objectives, we are faced with the following questions which will guide my search for material for this research work. In that case, the following questions are necessary.
- Does personal selling helps to achieving organisational goals?
- Do you think personal selling is a means of gathering research information for an organization?
- Whether personal selling is the only factor that helps to increase turn over of an organization?
- Does personal selling create an awareness to persuade the prospects?
- How accurate is the information generated by the personal selling add to the achievement of organizational goal.
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
The rationale behind this research is to find out the place of personal selling in the achievement of organsiational goal. For this reason, the following hypothesis were made:
H1: Personal selling helps to achieving organsiational goal.
Ho: Personal selling does not helps to achieving organsiational goal.
H2: Personal selling is a means of gathering research information for an organization.
Ho: Personal selling is not a means of gathering research information for an organization.
H3: Incentives help salesman achieve sales target.
Ho: Incentives does not help salesman achieve sales target.
H4: Personal selling can help to increase turn over of an organization.
Ho: Personal selling cannot help to increase turn over of an organization.
- SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY
This research work has significant for both the companies and their consumers. It affords the researcher an insight into the role it could play in any firm. It will bring to the knowledge o the Nigeria entrepreneurs and companies who produce hygiene products to appreciate the use of personal selling to market consumer’s product. Also, they could locate adequate finance of their budget on exercise of personal selling decision.
Furthermore, the Hardis and Dromedas company will be benefiting through the means of knowing where they are lacking and where they are to improve when we talk about the competitors, of course, they gain by knowing to challenges or compete with the competitors.
Finally, this research work will also be helpful to students of marketing and future researchers as reference material or academic literature in their research problems.
1.7 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The major limitation to this study lack fund transportation and time limit as well.
Another limitations was unwillingness of the co-operation that is Hardis and Domedas Nigeria limited to release certain documents which contain vital information for the study due to time problem.
Also, the problem of looking for the material related to project topic creates difficulties and inability of some librarian to easily release the materials.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Therefore, for easy and quick comprehension of this report, the following terms are used.
- Marketing: It is the all important set of creative human activities aimed at identifying, anticipating and satisfying of human needs and wants through exchange as effectively and as effectively as possible. (Adrika, 1997:12).
- Personal selling: Personal selling as person to person communication in which immediate feedback is provided to the audience as it is a conversation between two or more parties. (Edoga, 2005: 193).
- Promotional tools: Promotional tools include all activities or strategies involved in communicating with target market or audience. It seeks inform, educate, persuade and influence the target audience. These messages could be sent through advertising, personal selling, sales promotion and public relations. (Kotler and Keller 2000; 276).
- Organizational goal: This refers to purpose or aims an organization plans or wishes to do or achieve with the components of marketing mix which called short-term.(Ugwu 2009: 17).
Adrika, E. O. Ebue, B. C. and Nnolim, D. (1996) Principles and Practice of Marketing. Enugu: John Jacob’s Publisher Ltd.
Edoga, P. N. and Ani, J. O. (2000) Introduction to Marketing Management and Practice, Second Edition: Enugu: J.T.C. Publisher.
Kotler and keller (2000) Marketing Management. London: Practice Hall International
Ugwu Nonye, J. (2009) Principle of Management. Enugu: Chy Publishers.
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