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The notion that art reflects reality is an ideology set upon works of art to influence the perception
of the audience to decode the message as it is or in a way that relates to the message the artist
intends to pass across. As a result of this notion, the message or massages tend to influence the
audience psychologically altering the way they think, how they behave, and also the perception
to which they perceive reality. Over the years, with the evolution of new mediums whereas these
works of art can be exhibited. The prevalent mediums thesis day are the internet and the
television. Hence countless number of contents are being uploaded and aired every single day.
This is a source of entertainment for many depending on their choices or what is been provided
for the audience. As a result, these content influences the audience psychologically. The aim of
these study is analyzing contents that have violence in it.
Cover page i
Declaration ii
Dedication iii
Acknowledgement iv
Certification v
Abstract vi
Table of Contents vii-viii
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Background to the study 1
1.3 Statement of the Research Problem 2
1.4 Objectives of the study 3
1.5 Research questions 4
1.6 Significance of the Study 4
1.7 Scope of the Study 5
1.8 Limitations of the study 6
2.1 Introduction 7
2.2 Review of Important concept 7
2.3 Review of Related studies 8
2.4 Theoretical frame work 9
2.5 Relevance of Theories to the study 10
3.1 Introduction 12
3.2 Research Design 12
3.3 Population of the study 13
3.4 Sample size and sampling techniques 13
3.5 Method and sources of data collection 13
3.6 Techniques for data Analysis 14
4.1 Introduction 15
4.2 Results and Discussions 15
4.3 Summary of findings 17
5.1 Introduction 18
5.2 Summary 18
5.3 Conclusion 19
5.4 Recommendations 20
References 21
Appendix A 23
1.1 Introduction
Cartoons are mostly 2d animations made from drawing characters and making those
characters move in a designed environment in a story of a motion picture. These days,
cartoons are mostly made for the entertainment of children mainly. With the element of
exaggeration found in these cartoon, children become enthusiastic to watch them and as a
result of these, the cartoon comes to have an effect on the child’s life.
According to a report “The Effects of Cartoon Characters as Motivators of Preschool
Disadvantaged Children”, children tend to develop interpersonal behavior, social growth, and
learning based on characters in cartoons. (Gill). Furthermore, some of these children get
attached to cartoons to the extent that they associate more with cartoon characters more than
they do with grown-ups.
1.2 Background to the Study
The term Violence simply means to cause intentional harm or hurt someone or something
physically. Depending on the context which the word is used, the fundamental concept of
inflicting hurt intentionally is what violence is all about. From the dictionary, violence is
defined as a behavior involving force physically, with the intention of damaging, hurting, or
killing a thing or person.
Cartoons are generally exaggerated drawings of a subject. The inception of cartoons dates
back to the 18th century in Italy. This was derived from the concept of caricature which
means a drawing that adds or exaggerate its subject anyhow. Caricature was derived from the
“caricature” which denotes exaggeration. (Harry)
Content containing violence can be found in cartoons since from its inception. From the early
day of cartoons when it was just a single frame drawing, the aim was to portray what was
going on in the society in an exaggerative way. Cartoonist used this medium to draw and give
their opinion on what was happening in their societies. Some of these drawings had the
elements of violence in them because, at that period of time, there was a lot of tension in
From a single frame caricature, cartoons have evolved from single drawings in a frame.
Eventually, these drawings found its way to appearing in newspapers and magazines through
the 1900’s. (Harry)
In the late 20th century, cartoon started to become popular for the element of humor and
exaggeration. Additionally, in the 20th century a breakthrough in the world of animation and
cartoons. The first motion picture of cartoon was created in 1908 by a French director and
cartoonist Émile Cohl titled Fantasmagorie. (Haward)
1.3 Statement of the Problem
Basically, children start to watch cartoons from when they are babies; few months after they
were given birth to. As children continue to grow and develop, they get attached to anything
that can display cartoons for them to watch. With this action, the drawn motion pictures start
to influence and affect children in different ways. Children’s development socially and way
of thinking come to be influenced by what they watch.
The portrayal on violence in cartoons has been an issue for a long time and somehow parents
or guardians feel is safe and ok for their child to watch these cartoons with violence in its
contents. Knowingly or unknowingly, these cartoons start to affect children based on how
they think and also how they interpret the contents in the cartoons. Although not all cartoons
contain violent contents in them, the element of violence is found in some cartoons from the
inception of cartoons in the 18th century.
Though cartoon is an exaggeration of its characters in drawing and motion picture with
humor, this does not make the violence portrayed in it any less violent. Violence is violence
and no matter how its tweaked and exaggerated with humor it is still violence so far it
involves the use of force intentionally to harm someone or something. Some parents are care
free of the contents shown in the cartoons their children watch on the television. Ironically,
children are not allowed to watch movies that contain violence but, contrary to them
watching cartoon with or without violence. Tom and Jerry for example is a cartoon that a lot
of children watch worldwide and it contains violence. Despite the exaggeration and humor
added to this cartoon, it doesn’t change the violent scenes included in the cartoon.
By watching cartoons, children tend to relate what they watch to their reality. Their way of
thinking comes to be influenced by what they watch. Depending on the way of thinking of
the child, cartoons influences in a negative or positive way and it come to be among the
deciding factors of how children perceive reality. (James)
As the years progressed, DSTV has rolled out a few improvements and adjustments so as to
decrease the issue of brutal substance in toons and kids. These progressions and adjustment
are the parental guardians for the channels they have, parental control to bolt channels that
are not age fitting for kids, and giving numerous cartoon channels. Despite the fact that those
measures have been set up to handle the issue, the strategies have not been insufficient as we
will see further in this study as a result on lack of knowledge and negligence. This conclusion
was made based on the responses from the surveys distributed in the course of this study.
1.4 Objective of the Study
The objectives of this study are:
 To improve the endeavors of giving children a proper upbringing.
 To draw attention to the portrayal of violent content in cartoons.
 To improve the filtering of cartoons children, watch.
 To find out the extent parents have knowledge about the violent content found in
some cartoons
1.5 Research Question
The portrayal of violent content in cartoons has been prevalent and has raised eyebrows. This
issue has invoked questions and controversies. This study aims to look at the following
1. Does the violent content portrayed in cartoons contribute or have an influence on
physical and aggressive behavior of children?
2. Are cartoons with violent content and actions are deemed more interesting than
cartoons without?
1.6 Significance of the Study
Today in our societies, the internet and the television are virtually everywhere and almost in
every house. Due to this advancement in technology, contents and messages passed through
thesis medium influences children. These influences come to affect a child a way of thinking
one way or the other ranging from how developed the defense mechanism is on the child’s


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