Firstly, the primary aim of this project is to examine the Problems of Teaching and Learning of Spoken English in selected secondary schools in Atiba Local Government area of Oyo State.
Specifically, the study sought to determine what really caused the problems to the most widely used medium of English Language(spoken) as well as factors that were responsible for such problems.
Secondly, the instrument used for this research was questionnaire on the performance of students in spoken English developed by the researcher and modified by her supervisor. This questionnaire is divided into three sections which includes Section A that contains items devoted to the general background information about the school and section B which seeks for information on the magnitude of the class and the corresponding students’ academic performance for senior secondary certificate examination while section contains interview to teachers and principals of selected schools which is aimed at gathering information on students performance.
Thirdly, one hundred and twenty(120) teachers and students were randomly selected from secondary schools selected in Atiba Local Government area of Oyo State which includes Community Secondary School, Oke-Olola, Oyo, Alaafin High School, Oyo, Isale Oyo Community Grammar School, Ambassador Private School, Oyo.
Fortly, the method used in this study involves library research and field work. The library research entails gathering of relevant literature from which a hypothesis is formulated.
In conclusion, the causes of these problems include Non availability of instructional materials, ill equipped libraries, lack of English language teachers and lack of conducive teaching environment. If these limitations exist in a teaching and learning condition the aim of Education will be defeated.
However, the following recommendations were suggested that the problems of teaching and learning of spoken English can be overcome, if the government post only qualified English teachers evenly to all secondary schools both at rural and urban centres and instructional materials for Oral English teaching is provided in schools and adequate equipped language laboratories are put in place in all secondary schools.
Moreso, the authority of each school should equip their school library with oral English textbooks and students should be encouraged on the use of school library.
- BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Language is central to human beings and it is the rope that ties members of a speech community in continuing interrelationship.
It is the common instrument that they draw on for social cultural identification and in an attempt to present his view in fewer words.
Bruber(*1994:2) defines language as ‘A learned, shared and arbitrary system of vocal symbol through which human beings in the same speech community or sub-cultured interact and hence communicate in terms of their common cultural experience and expectation’ with Smith’ definitions one would see that language is the tool that distinguishes human beings from other creations and because of its diversity effects, it has over the years remained and will still remain the most important agent of socialization, we shall emphasize here that language has a great impact on the cognitive development of mars, through language, man is able to express his thought and views, we use language to perform a lot of acts like sympathy, greeting, administration, excitements, jokes, reprimand, warning, all these use of language are doing through the methods of either written or spoken.
Although, English language is the language of colonizer which was brought as language of commerce and administration but it is over the year seen as necessary if not compulsory to have its knowledge which is referred to as a second language when one wants to be relevant in one’s territory as well as outside the shore of one’s birthplace. According to statistical data collected, Nigeria has over four hundred indigenous language (JOWHI 1991) with three major ethnics (Hausa , Igbo, Yoruba) but surprisingly, none of those language has been adopted as the official language of the country rather than an English Language which has been seen as the second language has dominated the scene in the country.
However, the important of English language continues tremendously when one looks at the various roles it plays in the field of trade, government, politics,religion, even education, with these importance, no one will query the reason of its being made compulsory in schools, to the extent that a pass in it is a prerequisite for admission into any institution of higher learning in the country. Apart from this, English language has been the only means open to the individuals from different ethnic and linguistic group for interaction, this further shows the kind of colossal status accorded to English language in the country as a result, it is therefore follows that every individual should be able to speak it with high level of proficiency.
It is in the recognition of this great status accorded to the English language that teachers of the language and indeed other concerned educationists pay a great deal of attention to its study also, looking at the principle that underlying the syllabus of West African Examination Council (W.A.E.C) in English language which outlined that: The forms of English and the skill tested should be those which will be useful to students in their later lives, not those specifically cultivated for the examinations should test the ability to use English for communications. These principles recognized the practical communication not only at written level but also at the spoken level, it therefore becomes obvious that emphasis should be laid on both written and the spoken forms English.
- STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
As observed by A. C. Gimson (1992.4) in most schools, it is obvious that emphasis is being laid on the written form to the deterent of the spoken form, not bearing in mind that the written form is an attempt at reflecting the spoken form which proceeds it because for communicative competence which is the goal of second language teaching and learning to be achieved, adequate attention needs to be paid to both the written and spoken forms of the target language. Our target is therefore to see why schools failed in concentrating on spoken form which is the basis of communication and the problems teacher face in teaching spoken English in schools.
- PURPOSE OF STUDY
Spoken English(Oral English) is now an integral and essential part of the English language syllabus that also carries reasonable mark in the school certificate examination. Spoken English is integrated in the school curriculum, not only for the purpose of examination but als, to teach students how to speak English language correctly and meaningfully for effective communication but contrary to have spoken English being improved upon observation have shown that in teaching and learning English.
Language in the country, emphasis is laid so much on the written from to the written form to the extent that as soon as students come back from holiday, the first English language assignment usually given to them is to write a comprehension on how they spent their last holiday or the food they like best, no conscious effort is made to get them speak beyond ‘did you enjoy the holiday’ ‘yes’, the result is that these tends to acquire competence and perform better in written rather than English.
However, the purpose of this study is to identify the problem of teaching and learning of spoken English in selected secondary schools, the strategies adopted by the sampled schools and how they can improve on these strategies if there is any and suggest ways to overcome such problems in secondary schools.
- SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
This study is designed to find out the problems facing the teaching and learning of spoken English in our secondary schools. It would also reveal the difficulties inherent in the learning of second language and so provide appropriate methods in helping students to speak English language properly.
This research will be of great importance to teachers who would now be able to make appropriate choice of the techniques necessary for the teaching and learning of spoken English to students.
It will also be of immense assistance to students who are the nerve centre of the study. The study will also assist educational planners and language planners to examine the problem facing the teaching and learning of spoken English on students.
Finally, students would benefit greatly because they are likely to improve in their speech if the suggestions emanating from the findings of this study are implemented.
- SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The primary target of this study is all secondary school in Nigeria both private owned and government schools, those in the boarding and day students mixed and single schools including the rural and urban secondary schools. However, owing to time factors, mobility and financial constraints, it will be very difficult if not impossible to reach all the secondary schools in Nigeria.
Therefore, four senior secondary schools are selected in Atiba Local Government area of Oyo State as case study. If other variables remain constraints it is assumed that the result of this research could be used to determine what goes on in other secondary schools in Nigeria.
The selected schools are:
- Community secondary school. Oke-olola, oyo
- Aalafin High School, Oyo
- Isale Oyo Community Grammar School, Oyo
- Ambassador Private School, Oyo
- RESEARCH QUESTIONS
This study however sought to answer the following questions:
- What is the level of performance of the students in spoken English in selected schools?
- What is the differences in the performance of students across the school?
- What is the interest of both the teacher and the learners towards the teaching and learning of spoken English in schools?
- DEFINITION OF TERMS
It is appropriate to define such terms as used in this study, so as to avoid misconception and ambiguity. These definition of the following are given to show how they are used in this study
Colonizer:used to refer to the British government’s activities who take over Nigeria’s territorial areas and forced them to be under them till 1960
Territory: One’s own domain, under one’s command and control meaning that one’s country of birth as used in this study
Ethnics: different cultures andrace, a kind of tribe that is associated with a particular language and culture to teach the students.
Academic Performance: it is the display of knowledge or skills attained as shown by the marks or grade achieved by the performance in an examination during and after course content
Syllabus: a summary of topics which will be covered during an academic course
Reiterate: to say or do something for a second time
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