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This research examines the role of accounting in the control of public
expenditures in Nigeria, a case study of control bank of Nigeria, Enugu
State. The researcher adopted descriptive survey design. The
population of the study is the combination of internal audit department
staff and accounting department staff making it a total of 41. The
research used both primary and secondary source of data. In view of
this, three research questions were formulated to generate expected
answers. Literal works were reviewed for proper understanding and
guidance. Questionnaires, personal interview and observation were
used for collect of primary data. Secondary source of data were collect
from text books, periodical, articles and journals. Tables and simple
percentage were used for data analysis, hypothesis were tested using
chi-square statistics. Based on the findings, the researcher found out
that few of the staff were not following due accounting principles
thereby causing inadequate and improper pursuit of the accounting
records Omission of certain book-keeping records, improper audit. The
staff and management of central bank of Nigeria has now adopted
accounting standard, and the balance of power on NASC, financial
analyst government agencies and others. Finally the researcher
proffered among other use of accounting principle and standard in the
Title page i
Approval page ii
Dedication iii
Acknowledgement IV
Proposal VI
Table of content vii
1.1 Background of the study 1
1.2 Statement of problem 5
1.3 Purpose of study 5
1.4 Significance of the study 6
1.5 Research questions 7
1.6 Research hypothesis 7
1.7 Scope and limitation of the study 8
1.8 Definitions of terms 9
References 10
2.1 Review of related literature 11
2.2 Historical development of CBN
(A public company) 14
2.2.1 Ownership and control of CBN 17
2.2.2 Organization 19
2.3 Nature of accounting principles 23
2.4 Types of accounting principles 24
2.4.1 Factors affecting accounting principles 29
2.5 Budgeting and budgetary control 30
2.6 Standard costing of a tool of control 32
2.7 Role of accounting in public expenditure 37
2.8 Summary 38
References 39
3.1 Research methodology 40
3.2 Research design 40
3.3 Determination of sample size 40
3.4 Area of study 41
3.5 Population of study 41
3.6 Sample of study 41
3.7 Method of investigation 42
3.8 Method of data analysis 42
3.8.1sources of primary data 42
3.8.2 Source of secondary data 43
3.9 Development of research instrument 43
4.1 Introductions 44
4.2 Presentations of data 44
4.3 Test of hypothesis and interpretation of result 54
4.3.1 Testing the first hypothesis 55
5.1 Summary of findings 60
5.2 Conclusion 61
5.3 Recommendation 62
5.4 Recommendation for further 63
Appendix 1 64
Questionnaire 65
Bibliography 68
In most developing countries including Nigerian government
participation in economic activity is usually significant. One of the ways
through which government has intervened in Nigerian economy is
through the establishment of public enterprises and statutory bodies
operating service of an economic or social character on behalf of the
Since the colonial era, especially after independence 1960,
Nigerian public enterprises have witnessed a steady growth unit
recently. Its Olisa (1988-133) pet it. Beginning as a trickle in the period
between this era of the second world war and Nigeria risen to flood
level since independence the establishment of public enterprise in
Nigeria are many add to available rational capital for the support of
development and welfare programme, making to be controlled by a
few individual, it possible for important profitable enterprise to be
controlled by a few individual or group organization certain critical
activities national survival and economic stability and providing
employment opportunities (Ademolukun 1983). However, after a long
period of growing starts intervention in the Nigeria economy through
public enterprises, the 1980’s onwards had witnessed a reversed which
has sometimes been dramatic in public opinion therefore public policy.
This has been brought by the persistent losses which state
enterprises that trivet been running over fears. Consequently, there
has been a willingness to look at alternative policy strategies for the
achievement of economic development. At the forefront of these
strategies is the minimization privatization of public enterprises.
In Nigeria, public enterprises are engaged in a while spectrum of
economic activities including agriculture, mining, construction,
manufacturing, commerce and services. The classification of public
enterprises in Nigeria has been made according to varieties of criteria
by different authorities. The public service review commission
(1975:101) classified public sector int.
Public utilities
Regulatory of service body
Financial institutions
Commercial and industrial enterprises
Being a mixed economy, individuals also own and operate private
enterprises. A firm classified as private enterprises when it is founded
and managed by an individual and or a group of individual. These firms
are expected to be registered in the local government within which
they operate.
The rational for the establishment of private enterprises are
numerous just like establishment of public enterprises. They
include amongst others; provision of employment opportunities
generating income for the owner of the enterprises government
interest in profit growth of the enterprises which performance of
the public sector through competition. Moreover, the general
public is concerned with contribution which makes towards social
enlistment which is exhibit to the environment in which the
business is loaded and its willingness to contribute to the
development of the environment.
The activities of the public enterprises have been on the increase
in recent times which necessitated the introduction of the accounting
practice to check and monitor the financial activities of these
enterprises. In this book, titled principles of accounting, by Bimage
(1985) Accounting is defined as a process by which data relating to the
economic activities of an organization are measured recorded and
communicated to interested parties for analysis and interpretation. The
earliest methods of accounting records were kept in physical
quantities. These records came from the Eastern (early) civilization
which involved in the countries around the Mediterranean Sea such as
Mesopotamia, Egypt, Crete, Italy etc. Money was recorded as soon as
money took the place of barter as a medium of exchange and unit of
accounting practice has been closely related to the economic
development of the country. If the business organizations grows in size
and complexity management and outsiders groups which include
owners of the firm (stock holder) creditor, government, employer and
the general public.
The differentiation necessitated the need to have accounting
department in the enterprises to give accurate financial of the
management and to satisfy the outside demands or the general public
who are already interest on whether the enterprises in growing or not.
The role of accounting in public enterprises in Nigeria is primarily to
ensure accurate accountability in these sectors and present the time
and fair financial position of the enterprises. The role is of utmost
importance in any organization. An organization can only grow or profit
when the resources can only be well managed if accounting
department of the organization give accurate financial information to
know how much the enterprises having. It only when this is done that
the firm allocate its resources and knows what is to be done. The role
of accounting seems to be more pounced in the public enterprises. In
recent times, there are cases of mis appropriation of funds in the
public enterprises and improper accountability. These factors have led
to a lot of public enterprises go into Obiwon, if the government has
reorganization the role of accounting, all these feeble should not have
risen. No enterprises can more forward without having a well organized
financial department to give accurate financial, information about the
firm. This is because if improper accounting records are not minimized
or where possible eradicated these is bound to be cases of public
enterprises failure. Consequently, staff of such enterprises will force
out of their job. This will result to economic and social activities in the
Obviously, every privates and public entries in Nigeria has their
accounting department and there are increase cases of financial
mismanagement in virtually all the public and private organization in
Nigeria. The problem of this study lies on how the manages of these
enterprises are able to recognizes the role of accounting in their
enterprises so that these cases of improper accountability will be
minimized or if possible its total eradication in our society.
This study aims at investigating the role of accounting in the control of
public enterprises in Nigeria. The purpose of this study include among
 To determine the extent to which accounting records has
controlled the effect of expenditures in public enterprises.
 To find out factor that affects the accounting department
preventing them from carryout their function as expected.
 To determine government policies which promote accountability in
public enterprises in Nigeria.
In this study, the researchers have set out to examine the role of
accounting in the public sector in this country. Nigeria with the aid of
highlighting the inherent problem encountered in the account
department of most organizations. It is expected that this work will be
of interest to the owners of business enterprises, the government,
students and the general public.
To shareholders, owners of enterprise, interested persons and
the government, this study is expected to en kindle their interest the
more and they will take note of various recommendations mentioned
here and help steer the management team towards forming a study
organizations to present an accurate financial information of their firm.
This study will also help to serve as literature to individual or corporate
bodies into want to carry on further research on the role of accounting
in the public sector in Nigeria.
1. What extent does accounting records has control in affecting the
expenditure of public enterprise?
2. What are the factors that affect accounting department of most
organization which makes them not to function effectively as
3. What are these governments polices which promote accountability in
Nigeria public enterprises?
This research hypothesis is to know the findings or result of this
1. H0
– Good accounting records budgeting has no control effect on
expenditure of public enterprises.
– Good accounting records budgeting has control effect on
expenditure of public enterprises.
2. H
– Corruption do not affects the quality of service rendered by
accountants in public enterprises.
– Corruption affects the quality of service rendered by accountants in
public enterprises.
3. H0
– Government accounting policies do not aid in promoting
accountability in Nigeria public Enterprise
– Government accounting policies aid in promoting accountability in
Nigeria Public Enterprises.
Scope of the study shows extent of coverage done in the study.
The research topic suggests a study on the role of accounting in the
public enterprises in Nigeria. The focus of the study is on Central Bank
of Nigeria (CBN) Enugu State. I take this to be a fair representative of
Nigerian Public Enterprise that is either avoidable or hard to come by.
There are factors as constraints that normally follow this research
work, some of them are;
1. TIME: This which was a major problem was adequately not managed
by the researcher. There is not enough time for the research to get the
project time, get it approved and within a short time we will be talking
about our exams assignment and quiz.
2. LACK OF MATERALS: The un co-operative of most people working in
the library other offices where the research needed to get materials
posed great problem to the research. Some of the staff do not feel safe
letting have access to some materials while other will change you more
than double the cost of Photostat before one can get what he wants.
3. FINANCE: Before now our project use to be a joint project of a group
of four-ten people but now it has to be on individual student. So
finance hinder the projects in one way or the other. Esther by
transportation to where to get the materials or where to obtain the
necessary information.
MANAGEMENT: Its function, it is centered on the running and
controlling of the organization, the way the directors perform their
function to attain a successful operation.
ACCOUNTING: In this context, an accountants records, classify and
summaries all public expenditure in the Central Bank of Nigeria in a
significant manner and in terms of monetary events and transaction
which are in part at least financial character and to interpreter the
result thereof.
FINANCIAL STATEMENT: An accountant makes an accounting
report issued by a business to describe its financial affairs and results
of the operations.
Ademolekun K.O. (1983), The Nigeria financial system, London:
Macmillian Publisher.
Image E.U.(1985), Principals of Accounting, Enugu: Fourth Dimension
Olisa, E.C. (1988), Public Enterprises and Privatization in Nigeria,
Nigeria: Longman publisher.
Ostisumi K.O.(1984), Financial Management in Nigeria Public sector,
London: Pitman Publisher.
Osumbor, O.A.(1991), An overview of Private Enterprises in Nigeria,
Business time.
Willy N.Ugwuyi, (1997), The Nigeria Financial System (A systematic


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