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This research work was carried out in order to find out the roles played by community based organisations (CBOs) in community development.  The efforts the CBOs are making towards development and hindrances, obstacles they encounter to develop their communities.  The study was based on a survey of 170 respondents through the use of multi-stage sampling technique.  The instrument used for data collection was the questionnaire.  Five stated research questions was used to guide the study.  The research findings were analyzed using frequency tables and percentages.

The study revealed that the CBOs are faced with obstacles such as lack of funds and interpersonal conflict towards achieving an equitable development process in their various communities.

Based on the findings, some recommendations were made which if adopted would help in solving the problems of underdevelopment in our communities.



Title page –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        i

Approval page    –        –        –        –        –        –        –        ii

Dedication –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        iii

Acknowledgement       –        –        –        –        –        –        iv

Abstract     –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        vi

Table of Contents        –        –        –        –        –        –        vii

List of Tables      –        –        –        –        –        –        –        xi



  • Background to the study –        –        –        –        1
  • Statement of Problems –        –        –        –        –        6
  • Research Questions –        –        –        –        –        11
  • Objectives of the Study –        –        –        –        –        12
  • Significance of the Study –        –        –        –        13
  • Definition of Terms –        –        –        –        –        15




  • The roles of community Based Organisations

(CBOs) in community Development.      –        –        19

  • Methods or Strategies adopted by community

based organisations (CBOs) in achieving

community development.     –        –        –        –        22

  • Rural-Urban Migration and how it affects the

organizational abilities and participation of

community based organizations (CBOs) in

making positive impact in community development.-        25

  • Problems faced by community based organizations

(CBOs) in community development.      –        –        27

  • Ways of improving the efforts of community

based organizations (CBOs) towards community

development.     –        –        –        –        –        –        30

  • Review of Relevant theories. –        –        –        –        32
  • Theoretical Framework –        –        –        –        –        40



  • Area of Study –        –        –        –        –        –        42
  • Population of the Study –        –        –        –        43
  • Sample Size –        –        –        –        –        –        43
  • Sampling Technique –        –        –        –        –        43
  • Instrument for Data Collection –        –        –        45
  • Methods of Data Collection – –        –        –        45
  • Method of Data Analysis –        –        –        –        45



  • Analysis of personal Data of respondents –        46
  • Analysis of the research Questions –        –        50



  • Summary of Findings –        –        –        –        –        56
  • Conclusion –        –        –        –        –        –        –        57
  • Recommendations –        –        –        –        –        59
  • Limitations of the Study –        –        –        –        61
  • Suggestions for Further Research –        –        –        62

Bibliography       –        –        –        –        –        –        63

Appendix   I         –        –        –        –        –        –        67

Appendix   II       –        –        –        –        –        –        68







  • Sex of Respondents –        –        –        –        46
  • The age of respondents –        –        –        –        47
  • Occupation of respondents –        –        –        48
  • Marital Status of respondents –        –        –        49
  • Educational Qualification of Respondents – 49
  • Religious Denomination of respondents –        50
  • Roles of community based organizations

(CBOs) in development   –        –        –        –        50

  • Problems affecting (CBOs) in development –        51
  • Methods adopted by community based

organizations (CBOs) in achieving

developmental processes in Njikoka LGA. –        52

  • Effects of rural-urban migration in your

community.    –        –        –        –        –        –        53

  • The ways of improving the efforts of CBOs

towards community development in

Njikoka LGA.           –        –        –        –        –        54




The problem of the Third World countries including Nigeria, is how to develop and improve the social, economic, cultural and the total condition of living of their people.  Despite numerous definitions by conferences, international bodies, and writers, the concept of community development remains vague.  Some social scientists tend to dismiss community development as a totally “knowledge free” area, remarkable for “murky banalities, half-truths, and sententious nonsense that abound” in its literature.  According to Ezeh (2002) the term “community Development” denotes various strategies and interpositions, through coordinated actions of the community members in order to usher in for the people social and economic development.  It is an effort geared towards achieving the  solution of community problems, raising their standard of living as well as promoting social welfare, justice, community cohesion and the development of their material and human resources to the fullest extent.  According to Eluma (12992) it is the community that has been the cradle of civilization and much that we have today have been safeguarded and developed by the community based organisations (CBOs) in the communities.  Naturally, community based organisations (CBOs) started as old as when man began his existence on earth.  (Ijere, 1992).  Indeed,. Man’s existence is marked by an almost countless series of actions and activities aimed at improving communal living.  Thus the bedrock of modern community development effort in Nigeria is the traditional self-help tendencies of the community based organisations .  Ijere (2992) also posited that community based organisations approach to community development is the process of bringing about and maintaining a more effective adjustment between resources and needs within a geographical area functional field.  Its primary focus, according to him is upon the needs of people and the provision of means of meeting these needs.  Community based organisations is related to those promotion of coordinating the activities among groups.  It consists of certain enabling technique through which community based organisation (CBOs) by providing leadership, making it possible for citizen group to work out the problems involved in coordinating social services provided by such agencies as health, welfare, and secretion.

Community based organisation have been actors on the development stage longer than the World Bank, the United Nations or any other official aid agency.   Until recently they have played minor parts; doing good works but largely irrelevant to the overall plot.  Throughout the 1980s this has changed.  They have moved closer to the center stage.  Roland and Lyon (1988).  In this light, Sanders (1970) has observed that when conditions in one place become intolerable and promised little improvement, those who dreamed of a better life might move off to set up a new community more to their liking whilst among those staying behind.  Some leaders might emerge who try to organize the people to deal effectively with local pressing problems in their community.  Community Based organisations have frequently demonstrated their ability to help those most in need, who have been missed out by official aid programmes.  And challenged development orthodoxy.  The enhanced role of community based organisations comes at a time when the thinking of the more established actors – “the official development agencies” is in inconsiderable disarray.  Community Based organisations relate to the promotion and coordination of activities, among groups.  They are also formed by individuals, groups or associations to promote, advance or protect the needs and interest or solve the problems specific to such-groups or community. The roles are usually intended to supplement and contribute to the effort of governments at all levels.

However, community based organisations assist in raising public awareness about, acceptable standard of nutrition, clothing, medical care, environmental sanitation, education, good health, social security, shelters, etc.  They also promote efforts to provide infrastructures such as roads, power supply telephones and others.  Community based organisation are organisation of people with special interest in a particular aspect of community or social life of the people and the nation.  Such special interest groups sometimes function as age-grades, town unions, elders-in-council, social clubs, Umu-Adas,. Christian women associations to mention but a few.  Community development is an instrument of solution in society.  It is also a process through which people take initiative and act collectively. This varies from one area to another generally based on the belief that problem in community have solutions in communities and the people should participate in the matter that affect them at the community level.  According to Juke (1987) community development involves the democratic social process in which the people participate in improving their own environment.

In Njikoka Local Government, there are many community based organisations whose activities are focused towards the development of the communities.  Though the type and scale of activities of the various organisations differ, all are garbed towards the economic, social, and political development of their communities.  In view of the above, this study therefore, intends to examine the roles of those community based organisations in Njkoka Local government Area of Anambra State, the problems confronting such organisations, with a view to achieving the goals of community development.  As well as identify ways of overcoming them.



All of us live in some kind of community.  It may be large or small, city, suburb, or village.  Do we feel a part of it, responsible for helping in the solution of its problems?  Or do we say, in effect, I am too busy?   Solving community problems is someone else’s business.  Is that true?  Can one live in a community and not be affected by its problems and by the way they are solved.  Communities today are different from what they were up to fifty years ago.  Have our ideas and our needs changed as much as our surroundings?  It appears that the involvement of community based organisations in community development in Njikoka local Government  is highly insignificant.  More so, evidence abound to show that their level of involvement, if at all, are in jeopardy.  This is associated with the impending lack of functional community based organisations development effort to improve the welfare of the inhabitants of Njikoka Local Government.  Especially in the area of health, roads, shelter, food, security, agriculture, water, environmental protection, electricity, and other basic necessities of life.  The deteriorating material condition of existence of the masses of Njikoka Local Government engendered by decades of economic stagnation and collapse, has continued to attract the attention of the populace and community organisations.  The development that is envisaged is not merely a hand-out of benefits to people in need, but a process of empowerment where communities can acquire mastery over their own destiny through the realization that they individually and collectively – can do something to improve their circumstances.  This is a refocusing strategy from waiting on governmental oil companies or other business organisations to solve all their problems.  These goals can only be achieved through the combined and coordinative efforts of community based organisations who share the conviction that community development must be accorded a high priority in our drive for poverty alleviation and national self-sufficiency.

In essence, what existed as socialization in Igbo pre-contact subsistence economy in relation to the traditional Igbo concept of community welfare and human living is absolutely lacking.  The need to assist society or community in maintaining conflicts within the community are unavoidable and undesirable and the harmony is possible and advantageous.  According to Umeh (2004) success in community development can only be achieved through the dedication, deep conviction and involvement in community development progress arising from a firm belief in rural people  and the importance of their upliftment to general well-being.  The issue of equal distribution of resources is attended to by reforms within, especially the well managed community based organisation or by the new paradigm in community.  However, there is often a tendency for conflicts of interest to arise between central planners and self-help movement.  The perspectives of the two groups of people have often been at variance.   The result has been “mush-rooming” of large numbers of projects, which have come into conflict with the various development plans, which have been drawn up.  There has been a tendency for self-help efforts to be directed, from the planner’s point of view, towards less productive activities.  Some social analyst on community development had alleged that many communities development programmes have failed as a result of corruption, misappropriation of funds and lack of genuine interest and commitment on the part of some community based organisations.  Hence, this evolves the feeling of suspicion amongst some community members.  This no doubt is likely to cause serious strains in working relationship between the CBOs and the community people.  As such positive change becomes difficult because of disagreement between the change agent and the beneficiaries of the change.  The multifarious problems affecting the poor in their communities can be tackled by a variety of means; through government support; co-operation of all vectors – public, private and voluntary associations, government at federal, state and local levels must provide leadership in community development process through clearly establishing priorities in this regard; by promoting and providing in the most effective manner, within the limit of available resources, such essential facilities as basic education, health care, water and community electrification etc.  In case where the all the above facts fail CBOs will tend to come into it.  In view of the above mentioned problems, the researcher considers the absence of community development in most communities as a serious set-back for the country’s quest for national integration.  Studies like the present one have the  potentials to assist in drawing attention to the advantages of community based organisations in community development.  It is therefore, the focus of this research to obtain information on the extent of involvement of these community based organisations in development in Njikoka local government Area and therefore bringing about the needed favorable change in policy.



The following research questions have been put forward to guide this study.

  • What are the roles of community based organisations (CBOs) in the development of community in Njikoka Local Government?
  • What are the problems faced by community based organisations(CBOs) in the development of Njikoka Local government?
  • What methods or strategies were adopted by community based organisations in achieving developmental processes in Njikoka Local Government?
  • To What extent does rural-urban migration affect the organizational abilities and participation of community based organization in making positive impact in community development in Njikoka Local Government.
  1. What are the ways of improving the efforts of community

based organisation  in Njikoka Local government?



The objectives of this study is to find out the major  problems   facing the roles of community based organisation in carrying out development in their communities.  Therefore, the study has the following specified objective.

  • To examine the roles of the community based organization in the development of communities in Njikoka Local Government.
  • To identify the problems faced by the community based organization in Njikoka Local Government.
  • To find the methods or strategies adopted by community based organizations in achieving developmental processes in Njikoka Local Government.
  • To investigate the extent of rural-urban migration and how it affects the organizational abilities and participation of community based organizations in making positive impact in community development in Njikoka Local Government.
  • To find out possible ways of improving the efforts of community based organization towards development in Njikoka Local Government.



The study has both theoretical and practical significance.  A research of this kind is of great significance for a number of reasons.  Since the country has witnessed the expansion and duties of CBOs in Njikoka Local Government, this work theoretically, intends to spur further research on the subject of study and add to the existing field of knowledge through critical examination of existing theories and findings in the area of research.  It will undoubtedly reveal the positive impact of community based organisation role in community development.  The study will also provide solutions to the serious set-back of community development in Njikoka Local Government.  The study will serve as a reference point for future research endeavours to their research project.  The research has the potential of existing literature on community based organisations and their role in community development in Njiokoka Local Government.

Finally, this study or research work on the roles of community based organization will go a long way to provide materials on the topics of study in Njikoka Local Government when such work has not been done in the previous years.  Thus, this study hope to serve as a base for other scholars to conduct further studies on the roles of community based organisations in community development.  However, it will make the policy makers appreciate the contribution of the community based organisations and seek ways of assisting them.  It will help to increase awareness among the community members and perhaps lead to their active participation in the activities of CBOs.


This study will help in improving the quality of life of the people in Njikoka Local Government Area.  The study will also help community based organizations to proffer suggestions that will enable community members to operate and cooperate with maximum participation towards achieving community development.



In order to avoid any technical ambiguity in the use of terms, it is absolutely necessary at this junction to clarity and define some key words in this research work:

Community:   Anyaogu (1990) sees community as “A term applied to pioneer settlement, a village, a nation wherever the members of any group, small or large live together in such a way that they share, not only mutual interest but the basic conditions of a common life.

Development   Capener  (1971) defined development as “The process of bringing about change in societal structure under which institution and organisation can effectively cope with the environment and help; bring about the desired values and goals of members of society.”

Organisation   –   In this  study, organization will be a group of people who work together in a structured way for a shared purpose.

Community  Development:   Chukwuezi (2000) sees the concept as a method whereby the effort of the community are channeled with the effort of the government or cooperating body to improve the living condition of the people thereby encouraging development of various human activities within the community.  It has to involve the anticipation of the real felt-need of the people and the participation of the people in the developmental process.

Community Based Organisation (CBOs):      This is a movement designed to promote better living for the whole community, with the active participation of a group of people – town union, age grade, elders-in-council, etc. This organizations are independence of government control.

Murky Banalities:   In this study, ‘murky banalities’ means the predictable, unpleasant and complicated nature of community development.



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