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The role of Human Resource Manager in the actualization of various organizational objectives cannot be over-emphasized.  Service provision role is all about ensuring and providing services to internal customers.  The aims are to provide effective services to the customers that meet the needs of the bank, its management and employees and to administer them efficiently.  Human Resource Manager designs programmes to develop its human resources, to their fullest capacities and to maintain ongoing employee commitment aimed at attaining organizational goals.  Using a primary source obtained through a structured questionnaire and interview schedule.  The questionnaire was specifically designed and administered to senior and junior staff of Enugu Guaranty Trust Bank and chi-square method was used in the analysis.  This study examined the way at which the profit drive of GTB management undermines the creative and innovative activities of the Human Resource Manager of which the data analysis showed that profit drive of GTB management does not undermine the creative and innovative activities of the Human Resource Manager.  This implies that the Bank is driven by profit and creativity and innovation play a major role in ensuring profitability.  The study also analyzed that poverty of intellectual capital of the Human Resource Manager of GTB has adverse effect on the Bank.  It shows that it has been supported by the data in this study and it confirmed the need to uphold and retain endowed Human Resource Manager that would ensure competitive advantage.  This study ascertained that the constant change in GTB banking technology undermines the functions of Human Resource Manager.  It has been confirmed that there is urgent need to adapt, learn rapidly and continuously embrace technological changes such as Information and Communication Technology.




TITLE PAGE                                                                                                             i

CERTIFICATION                                                                                                     ii

DEDICATION                                                                                                           iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS                                                                                       iv

ABSTRACT                                                                                                               v

TABLE OF CONTENTS                                                                                           vi

LIST OF TABLES                                                                                                     viii

LIST OF FIGURES                                                                                                   ix




Introduction                                                                                                                1

Background                                                                                                                 2 Statement of the Problem                                                                                                 5

Research Questions                                                                                                    8

Objectives of the Study                                                                                              8

Significance of the Study                                                                                           9

Statement of the Hypotheses                                                                                      9

Justification of the Study                                                                                            10

Scope of the Study                                                                                                      11

Definition of Terms                                                                                                     11



Introduction                                                                                                                14

Conceptual Framework                                                                                               14

Theoretical Framework                                                                                               21

Literature on the Subject Matter                                                                                 24



Area of the Study                                                                                                        38

Sources of Data                                                                                                          38

Sampling Techniques                                                                                                 39

Method of Data Collection                                                                                         42

Method of Data Analysis                                                                                            42

Limitations of the Study                                                                                             46




Data Analysis, Findings and Discussion                                                                    48

Findings of the Study                                                                                                 63

Discussions of Findings                                                                                              64




Summary of Findings                                                                                                 67

Conclusion                                                                                                                  67

Recommendations                                                                                                      68

Proposal for Further Studies                                                                                       68




Table   1:         Gender of the respondents                                                                  48

”      2:          Age bracket respondents                                                                     49

”       3:         Educational qualification holders respondents                                   50

”      4:          Provisions of effective services to the GTB customers affect

the Human Resource Manager’s Goal                                                50

“     5:           GTB Human Resource Manager’s employee commitment

undermines compliance and control of personnel management        51

”    6:           Effective and efficient use of Human Resource Manager’s talents

have wrong effect on the Bank goal                                                   52

”    7:           Core competency of GTB Human Resource Manager

undermines the competitive advantage of the Bank                           53

”     8:          Regular payment of salaries undermine quality service of GTB’s

Human Resource Manager                                                                54

”     9:          Lack of training and retraining of Human Resource Manager of

GTB have impact on the Bank                                                           55

”    10:         Individual’s objective influence at work undermines GTB

corporate objective                                                                             56

”   11:         Profit drive of GTB management undermines the creative

and innovative activities of the Human Resource Manager               56

”   12:         Poverty of intellectual capital of the Human Resource Manager

has adverse effect on the Bank                                                           57

”   13:         Constant change in GTB banking technology undermines the

functions of Human Resource Manager                                             58
























Figure 1.  Intellectual capital management                                                                20

Figure 2.  Human resource management system                                                        35

























As a matter of fact, human resource management is part of the process of management in general.  It is a constituent element in this complex business of managing an enterprise such as Enugu Guaranty Trust Bank.  The Human Resource Manager is expected to be a goal getter which is most often the hallmark of every business organization.  The practice of managing people at work with a special attention to the banking staff of Enugu Guaranty Trust Bank gives rise to ensuring the achievement of organizational goals.  Owing to the fact, that Enugu Guaranty Trust Bank renders services to its customers; it is, therefore, necessary to put human energies into productive use.  There is no gainsaying the fact that the tasks necessary to accomplish goals of an organization is performed by human resources.  To accomplish this, a Human Resource Manager with the needed skills, intellectual capital, creative and innovative abilities is expected to contend with this constant change in Guaranty Trust Bank banking technology and should be motivated to perform by the management of the Bank. Regardless of what product or services an organization provides and no matter its size, age and location, it must use human resources in order to remain viable.


Furthermore, if a Human Resource Manager in an organization is to survive, he  must design programmes to develop his human resources, to their fullest capacities and to maintain ongoing employee commitment aimed at achieving organizational goals especially at Enugu Guaranty Trust Bank.  Human Resource Manager should adopt measures that must be put in place to maintain and retain the services of employees who make positive contribution to an organization.  The human resource is unique in yet another significant way.  Managing human resource is complex and problematic.  People as individual or as members of a work group, do not automatically embrace and take as their own, the objective of the organization that employs them as workers. People as individual bring their own perceptions, feelings and attitude towards the organization, systems and style of managing their duties and responsibilities, and the conditions under which they are working.  Invariably, these individual objectives, which are known to influence employees’ behaviour at work, may conflict with the corporate objectives or organizational goals of Enugu Guaranty Trust Bank.



Over the years, the change-management issues emanating from organizational re-engineering, outsourcing, downsizing and above all, political and economic downturn have really re-awakened our consciousness of invaluable of human resources as life-blood of any enterprise.  The so-called re-engineering or manipulation of accounts especially in hiding of information under other assets/liabilities and off-balance sheets has become a sense of worry in achieving the goals in banking industry.  The aforementioned issues are in no doubt precipitated the acknowledgement of Human Resource Manager’s role in attainment of organizational goals which the banking sectors are part and parcel of.


The recent gradual entrenchment, growing use of the term, and much emphasis on Human Resource Manager is our focus in the study. Human resource has become institutionalized as a practice in most Nigerian banks.   Management has been defined as “getting things done through people”.  Management is seen as application of man, material, money and machine in order to achieve organizational goals.  According to Robbins and Coulter (2007:282), they held the view that management recognizes four basic resources: man, material, money and machine.  Those resources are commonly called the 4Ms of management, which are of great importance to management.


However, the most important of them all is the human resource.  Baird and Meshoulam (1988:355), put it right by saying that technological, economic and social changes are causing organizations to depend more and more on human resources to accomplish their objectives.  It is an indisputable fact that Human Resource Manager is always on the driver’s seat to propel an organization to attain its goal.  Human resources are clearly the most valuable assets of any organization, and a resource which needs to be managed cost-effectively and strategically.  No wonder we have been made to be aware of the increasing importance and use of the terminology ‘people management’, ‘the management of people’ or ‘Human Resource Management’.  Weihrich and Koontz (1994:356), did say that managers often say that people are their most important assets.  Taking a cursory look into the Role of Human Resource Manager in the Achievement of Organizational Goals with a particular emphasis on Enugu Guaranty Trust Bank afforded us the opportunity to appreciate the fact that human assets remain sacrosanct.  Virtually, every sector of the economy is manned by Human Resource.  According to Wehrich and Koontz (1994:356) another term now frequently used for the managerial function of staffing is human resource management.  They maintained that this is done by identifying work-force requirements, inventorying the people available, and recruiting, selecting, placing, promoting, appraising, planning the careers of, compensating, and training or otherwise developing both candidates and current jobholders so that they can accomplish their tasks effectively and efficiently.  It is pertinent to note that captains of industry, business organizations, and banking industries place high regard on human resource training and development. Consequently, human resource is a cardinal element of management.  Dessler (2001:22), notes that it is easier to answer the question why human resource management is important?  He itemized some mistakes a manager would not want to make while managing as the answer to the above question.

  • Hire the wrong person for the job.
  • Experience a high turnover.
  • Find his people not doing their best.
  • Waste time with useless interviews.
  • Have the company taken to court because of discriminatory actions.
  • Have the company cited under federal occupation safety laws for unsafe practices.
  • Have some of the employees think their salaries are unfair and inequitable relative to other’s salaries in other organizations.
  • Allow lack of training to undermine the department’s effectiveness.
  • Commit any unfair labour practices.

It is against these and other issues that this study seeks to delve into the usefulness of human assets and work of a Human Resource Manager in the banking industry.  The project work would unravel the problem associated with Enugu Guaranty Trust Bank’s role of Human Resource Manager in the achievement of organizational goals.




Statement of the Problem

The role of Human Resource Manager is bedeviled by a number of problems which do hamper the achievement of organizational goals in Guaranty Trust Bank.  These are as a result of the following short-comings such as high incidence of non-performing loans, capital deficiencies, weak management and poor corporate governance.  In recent times, many banks appear to have abandoned their essential intermediation role of mobilizing savings and inculcating banking habit at the household and micro enterprise levels.  The apathy of banks towards small savers, particularly at the grass-root level, has not only compounded the problems of low domestic savings and high bank lending rates in the country, it has also reduced access to relatively cheap and stable funds that could provide a reliable source of credit to the productive sectors at affordable rates of interest (Soludo 2004:6).  Edvinsson and Malone (1997:108), claim that the knowledge, skills and competence of a company’s employees and managers are seen as drivers of values.  Today, the reverse has been the order of the day.  The spate of frauds, ethical misconduct, falsification of returns by the banks to the Central Bank, unprofessional use of female staff in some banks in the name of marketing; and so on are the effects of misuse of knowledge, skills and competence of banking staff and managers.


Diversification of the productive base of the economy remains a foundational challenge of economic management, and banks will increasingly be challenged to become more innovative in their intermediation function, and especially to increase financing to the productive sectors (Soludo, 2004:7).  In consonance with Polit and Hungler (1978:142), it is better to state problems in an interrogative form (raising it like questions) which answers, the investigative effort aims at answering.

We can summarize the major problems of many Nigerian banks as follows:

Why weak corporate governance, evidenced by high turnover in the Board and management staff, inaccurate reporting and non-compliance with regulatory requirements in the banking industry;

Subsequently, how late or non-publication of annual accounts that obviates the impact of market discipline in ensuring banking soundness;

Accordingly, how gross insider abuses, resulting in huge non-performing insider related credits;

In what way does insolvency, as evidenced by negative capital adequacy ratios and shareholders’ funds had completely been eroded by operating losses; and

Then, finally, on how over-dependency on public sector deposits, and neglect of small and medium class savers affect the banking industry (Soludo 2004:6-7).

Armstrong (2006:26-27) sees the challenge to Human Resource Management as being caused by environmental and contextual changes that present a number of competitive challenges to organizations.  These comprise:

  • Profitability through growth: The drive for revenue growth means that banks or organizations must be creative and innovative.  This means encouraging the free flow of information and shared learning among employees.
  • Technology: The challenge is to make technology a viable, productive part of the work setting.
  • Intellectual Capital: This is the source of competitive advantage for organizations.  The challenge is to ensure that banks have the capability to find, assimilate, compensate and retain human capital in the shape of the talented individuals they need who can drive a global organization that is both responsive to its customers and the burgeoning opportunities of technology.  They have also to consider how the social capital of the organization-the ways in which people interact can be developed.  Importantly, organizations have to focus on organizational capital- the knowledge they own and how it should be managed.
  • Change, change and more change: The greatest challenge banks face is adjusting to-indeed, embracing – non-stop change.  They must be able to learn rapidly and continuously, and take on new strategic imperatives faster and more comfortably.


However, there are three interconnected strands of analyses that explain our problematique.   First, the drive for revenue growth by GTB management undermines the creative and innovative activities of the Human Resource Manager.  Due to the inability and power to develop new ideas, managing and using these ideas such as a new service or a new way of doing things by Human Resource Manager undermine the profit drive.  By and large, intolerance for new ideas, mistakes and not translating them into innovations or practical applications.  Second, poverty of intellectual capital of the Human Resource Manager of GTB has adversely affected the Bank.  Indeed, failure to find, assimilate, compensate and retain human capital in the shape of the talented employees or workforce that is responsive to its customers by Human Resource Manager has negatively impacted Enugu Guaranty Trust Bank.  Finally, the constant change in GTB banking technology undermines the functions of Human Resource Manager.  The challenge for not adjusting to technical know-how or banking technological advancement rapidly and continuously has really undermined the functions of Human Resource Manager at Enugu Guaranty Trust Bank.  That is, not coping with the competitive challenges resulting to technological change in Information and Communication Technology (ICT).


Research Questions

The following research questions guided the study:

  1. Does the profit drive of GTB management undermines the creative and innovative activities of the Human Resource Manager?
  2. Does poverty of intellectual capital of the Human Resource Manager of GTB has adverse effect on the Bank?
  3. Does the constant change in GTB banking technology undermines the functions of Human Resource Manager?


Objectives of the Study

The general objective or purpose of this study is to identify: The Role of Human Resource Manager in the Achievement of Organizational Goals at Enugu Guaranty Trust Bank.


Meanwhile, the specific purposes indicate:

  1. To examine how the drive for profit by the GTB management undermines the creative and innovative activities of the Human Resource Manager.
  2. To analyze how poverty of intellectual capital of the Human Resource Manager of GTB has adversely affected the Bank.
  3. To ascertain the constant change in GTB banking technology undermines the functions of Human Resource Manager.


Significance of the Study

The study is aimed at adding value, benefit all and sundry.  The spectrum of people that would be positively affected directly or indirectly by the results of the work are divided into two major parts: the academic and the practical.

  • The study would provide Human Resource Managers with the right knowledge and application of creative and innovative banking.
  • The study would awaken the minds of Human Resource Managers, bankers, students, related scholars and other researchers on the essence of intellectual capital.
  • To students and other researchers, its findings would be a source of secondary data and avenue for further inquiry into the research topic.
  • Policy initiatives from the government and bankers’ committee (policy makers) would immensely benefit lecturers and students.


Statement of the Hypotheses

There is an apparent need to test hypotheses in every project study without which the research problem would not worth its salt.  Ikeagwu (1998:82) defines hypothesis as a suggested answer to a problem.  Thus, this study will test the following hypotheses:

  1. The profit drive of GTB management undermines the creative and innovative activities of the Human Resource Manager.
  2. Poverty of intellectual capital of the Human Resource Manager of GTB has adverse effect on the Bank.
  3. The constant change in GTB banking technology undermines the functions of Human Resource Manager.


Justification of the Study

It is necessary at this juncture to delve into some of the rationale behind the undertaking of this research project titled: The Role of Human Resource Manager in the Achievement of Organizational Goals (A study of Enugu Guaranty Trust Bank).  Much more than before, it is increasingly dawning on everyone that the future of the banking industry lies on creative and innovative activities of the Human Resource Manager.  The implication is that those who would be at the forefront of banking leadership and productive base of the economy are those who are able to break the frontiers of product and service line to add something new or find a better way of doing old things especially at Guaranty Trust Bank.


Another justifying factor to the research study is the reason for effective banking and managerial decisions.  Human Resource Manager in all spheres of life makes decisions almost on daily basis.  Some of the decisions are strategic while others are operational.  Whichever is the case, workable decisions used by the Human Resource Manager are predicated on the quality of information available.  Definitely, good decisions made would bring about an enduring intellectual capital required by the Human Resource Manager to move Guaranty Trust Bank forward.


Meanwhile, basis for sound policy formulation is one of the justifications of this study.  One expects that the research would add to and provide a sound evidence and platform basis for making feasible and realistic banking, socio-economic and political decisions particularly in the achievement of banking goals at Enugu Guaranty Trust Bank.  Again, it should be borne in mind that constant change in GTB banking technology requires constant sound policy initiatives to cope with modern technology trend.


Scope of the Study

There is no gainsaying the fact that the project topic being discussed narrowed and delimited its focus on Enugu Guaranty Trust Bank.  It should be made clear that a special attention was paid to three interconnected strands of our research problems which bothered on creative and innovative activities of the Human Resource Manager, poverty of intellectual capital of Human Resource Manager and finally on the constant change in banking technology at Enugu GTB.


Furthermore, it is pertinent to note that there are other issues that the research work will not cover such as misuse of knowledge, skills and competence of Human Resource Manager which are seen as drivers of value, the spate of frauds, ethical misconduct, insolvency and the lists are endless.  The scope is on the disciplinary content of the study under investigation.  It is due to the impossibility to cover all the issues in a particular subject of a discipline.  Definitely, the information obtained delimits our research work and help enormously in maintaining and achieving focal, direct and being specific to the points.


Definition of Terms

Generally speaking, an excellent way to improve on one’s working vocabulary is to practice making definition.  Actually, you never have a full command of a word until you can define it.  It is on this note that some of the terms are defined so as to make non-professional in the field to comprehend the meaning and context of making use of them. This will surely embellish the project details.The terms are arranged alphabetically to enhance the beauty of this project work.

Bank: It provides means by which capital is transferred from those who cannot profitably use it to those who can use it most productively for the benefit of the society as a whole.  Hornby (2005:351) defines it as an organization that provides various financial services, for example, keeping or lending money.

Creative: It is an approach which stresses the importance of an imagination in the strategic process or management process.

GTB: Guaranty Trust Bank.

Human Resource Management: Armstrong (2006:3) defines it as a strategic and coherent approach to the management of an organization’s most valued assets-the people working there who individually and collectively contribute to the achievement of its objectives.

Human Resource Manager: Is one responsible for the management of an organization’s most valued assets (human assets) in a strategic and coherent manner so as to achieve its business goal.  He is in charge of management of managers and the like.

Human Resources: A general term for all of the employees of an organization or the workers in a society.

Innovation:  It is the process through which new ideas and inventions become a business reality in the form of new products, processes, marketing strategies and new methods of organization and management.  It is important to banking and human resource manager’s survival and growth.


Intellectual Capital: Is the capability to find, assimilate, compensate and retain human capital in the shape of the talented individuals or workforce that is both responsive to its customers and also ensures rapid increase of opportunities of technology.

Profit: Hartzell (2006:315) has it as any financial gain resulting from business activity.  It is basically the excess of income over expenditure for a given period of time.

Technology: Needle (1994:34) defines it as broad concept referring to the application of available knowledge and skill to create and use material, process and produce.





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