The aim of this study is to ascertain the role of Mass media in the campaign against HIV/AIDS in Nigeria. Factors such as media campaigns, AIDS campaign messages, sexual behaviour and the extent in which the campaigns structures the masses were posed to establish their relative influence on the entire masses toward HIV/AIDS.
An empirical survey diligently conducted from 82 Division Barracks, Federal secretariat complex and the Mass communication students IMT. Enugu HND finals. Data were analysed to determine the effect on the mass media campaign against AIDS.
The findings show that media campaigns have been observed to be the quickest means of eradicating the AIDS menace, as well as restructure the attitude of the masses through the use of condoms stickling to one partner and avoiding casual sex.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE II
APPROVAL PAGE III
- BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY 1
- STATEMENT OF PROBLEM 10
- OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY 10
- SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY 11
- RESEARCH QUESTIONS 11
- RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS 12
- DEFINITION OF TERMS 13
- ASSUMPTION OF TERMS
- ASSUMPTION 15
- SCOPE & LIMITATION OF THE STUDY 16
LITERATURE REVIEW 18
- THE REVIEW 18
- THE MEDIA CAMPAIGN AGAINST AIDS 18
- ASSESSMENT OF THE MEDIA EFFECT 21
- SUMMARY OF THE LITERATURE REVIEW 26
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 31
- RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 31
- RESEARCH METHOD 31
- RESEARCH DESIGN 31
- RESEARCH SAMPLE 31
- MEASURING INSTRUMENT 32
- DATA COLLECTION 32
- METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS 33
- EXPECTED RESULT 33
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.1 DATA ANALYSIS 34
4.2 ANALYSIS OF RESEARCH 48
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, IMPLICATION & RECOMMENDATION
- SUMMARY 52
- CONCLUSION 56
- IMPLICATION OF FINDINGS 59
- RECOMMENDATION 62
- BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
For broadcast media campaign on any issue to interest the public, it must not be regarded as fallacious or unsystematically prepared but rater involving message on existing public interest to the people based on experiences, facts, beliefs, socio- economic and educational backgrounds.
Against this background the federal government in conjunction with other countries of the world through the World Health Organization (WHO) decided to embark on massive campaigns against AIDS pandemic in the country.
The broadcast media, as part of its effort to eradicate this deadly scourge which has defied the federal government through the ministry of Health in 1986 established the National AIDS control Programmes in response to public concerns raised the presence of Human Immune Deficiency syndrome Virus (HIV) infestation in Nigeria.
Again, in response to the evidence and the debate on the existence if AIDS in Nigeria the then minister of Health, Profession Olukoye Ranson Kuti in 1987, instituted the National expert Advisory committee on AIDS (NEACA) and was charged with the responsibility of establishing whether or not AIDS exist in Nigeria . they were also mandated to advise the government as well as draw up programmes strategies and activities to prevent control of HIV infection in the country.
The report from the committee stated that “HID and AIDS existed in Nigeria and warned that unless immediate steps were taken to prevent the spread of the diseases, the country would be faced with tremendous health problem” This necessitate the establishment of AIDS Co-ordinating units and twenty one (21) testing facilities in the various states of the federation. Training was conducted for personnel to man these centres. There were also public enlightenment activities and production of educational materials like posters, handbills, pamphlets, and books on AIDS.
In February 1989, a two weeks workshop was organized by the Federal Ministry of Health, and other Human services Organization including states ministries of health with the technical assistance from the global programme on AIDS (GPA), world bank and other international agencies to address the issue of AIDS in Nigeria. In march 1990, a resources mobilization meeting was convened with participation by the Federal ministry of Health, by the World Health Organization, Global Programme on AIDS and other International denor agencies.
Also in march, the National AIDS Co-coordinating units had the first “All Nigerian conference on AIDS” during which the then vice President, Admiral Augustus Aikomu (rtd) launched the maiden edition on the Hand book on HIV infection and AIDS for health workers. All these efforts were aimed at affecting possible solution towards cursing the AIDS measure in Nigeria and to ensure healthier environment for the popular.
Assertions have been made that the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is a mere fallacy and government propaganda of scaring people from enjoying sexual relationship. Some ridiculous names have been given the acronym AIDS, such as America idea of Dissuading Sex, Animal infected diseases syndrome and so on. It has been discovered that the greater number of people infected by AIDS fall within the range of 20 – 40 years of age which is the prime age of life.
Despite this fact, the non-challance of our masses still prevails in relation, to accept the media campaign on AIDS as a complete truth. Moreover, one should not forget that it takes a lot of courage and grief to affect change in a society .
Though this study may not go into the structure of the AIDS control Programmes or the immanent dangers inherent in AIDS, it will look at the information management and the use of media campaigns to facilities proper public understanding of programme. It will prove the degree of which the entire public have related to the AID campaign and to what extent these campaigns have helped alert the masses the dangers of AIDS, and then make recommendations.
THE AIDS DISEASE IN NIGERIA
Human Immune virus (HIV) infection and AIDS in Nigeria was first discovered in 1984 among researchers at the National Institute for medical Research, Yaba Lagos .The first evidence of AIDS in Nigeria was reported to Health Officials by Nasidi and Heavy in 1986. according to him, the first few cases were seen in prostitutes in Lagos and former Anambra State , now Anambra and Enugu State respectively.
In September 1991, Federal Ministry of health and social services reported officially that out of 125,00 book sample screened for HIV infection nationwide, 830 were seropositive given a seroprevalance rate of about 0.66 percent and these confirmed the existence of HIV infection nationwide.
BROADCASTING IN NIGERIA
British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) started to broadcast to its dominions in 1930. by 1932, Nigeria started receiving BBC, Lagos received and wised those messages into homes through re diffusion sets in the major cities of the colony.
Later in 1959, Nigeria became the first African country to operate and own a television station called Western Nigeria Television (WNT) followed by East central state broadcasting services on October 1st 1960, the former eastern Region transmitted its own radio and Television signals over the air to coincide with the attainment of Nigeria Independence .
In1962, the Northern Region Governors started its own broadcasting system, which was the most successful among the three in commercial advertising and coverage of public awareness programmes. To achieve this, it started a bolster television station near Lagos so that its residents could equally switch on to the regionalization of the broadcast media. They were used as powerful political instrument for the integration of each region and cultivation of regional awareness more than national consciousness and integration. The politicians who established this, tremendously exploited them for sectional politics .
The radio is the most effective medium of information at the grassroots level in Nigeria. The effectiveness of this medium has further been enhanced by the Organizations decentralization. The only radio network in the country is now the Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria, Broadcasting Corporation in 1951. it has in the past embarked on the regionalizing or even localizing greater proportion of radio programming in every part of the country, this leaving the network look up to only essential national programmes. The other regionally based radio stations like Radio Television Kaduna (RTK) , Western Nigeria Broadcasting Service (WNBS), Eastern Nigerian Broadcasting Services, later known as Anambra Broadcasting Services were equally effective in meeting with the regional or local needs which they were set up to satisfy .
The boom of radio in this country was during civil war. The possession of radio set at that time was a necessity and not a luxury. That era developed in the minds of the ordinary Nigerians the awareness of their society, national ideas and objectives and the method of approach. One would seat that time that even the cattle man taking care of his flock, had a radio on his shoulder. Cluster of people perched here and there, listening to latest development in the national pursuit. The origin of Television can be traced to 1884 when a German Scientists Paul Niplow intended the scanning disc, which paved the way for television and particularly 1923, when Doctor V.K Zwongkin patented the iconoscope. The first television in Africa was Western Nigeria Television (WNTV)in Ibadan, which became operational in October 31, 1959. in 1973, all the stations in Nigeria co-ordinated the all African Games under one name. the broadcast organization of Nigeria (BON). This later gave the idea that led to establishment of Nigeria Television Authority
Today ownership of television set is regarded as status symbol or luxury in Nigeria. Television is the most suitable channel or medium for effective instrument in educational broadcasting . in its news items, television tries to visually bring actualities or happenings outsides the society to viewers within the coverage area.
This broadcast media especially from the seventies still date have played vital roles in various campaigns on politics, health, agriculture, literacy learning and formal educational. In the area of health campaigns which is the main falcum in this study, the broadcast media have played key roles in bringing certain health Programmes like expanded Programme on Immunization, OPL, Oral Retardation therapy (ORT), AIDS Polio, and Liver blindness.
Such campaigns are attributed to behavioural or attitude change due to media effect. This study is meant to study the role of mass media in the campaign against AIDS.
- STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Some people still regard the existence of AIDS in Nigeria as a mere fallacy. Yet, the AIDS Co-ordinated unit has proved that there is rapid emergency of AIDS infected person in Nigeria.
Therefore, the urge to identify the information efficiency of these HIV/AIDS campaigns, their acceptance and relevance to people has led to the study.
- OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
This study intends to discover the broadcast handling of health problems. It wishes to know how these campaigns either locally or nationally have restructured people’s attitude towards sexual behaviour.
It is aimed at discovering the hindrance in accepting these jingles from the broadcast media. It also intends to reveal the general out of messages and to know if the broadcast media have lived up to the expectations.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
It has been noted in many parts of the country that AIDS is fast spreading, statistics show that its infected persons are increasing on daily bases. It is very crucial to alert the entire masses of the dangers inherent in curing an infected persons.
It is also necessary to reveal the extent the high rate especially among infants (arriers ) and its remedy for the future generation.
It is hoped therefore that the entire masses, policy makers, media practitioners students, government officials will benefit from the study.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
This following questions from the corner stone of the research.
- Do the media campaign affect the attitudes of the entire masses toward their sexual behaviours?
- To what extent have the campaigns message on AIDS helped to alert the masses on the imminent dangers of AIDS?
- In what ways do the masses perceive the campaigns against AIDS sine its inceptions ?
- What is the remedy for the non-challant attitude of the masses towards the campaigns against AIDS?
1.6 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
H0 :Mass media campaigns on AIDS have changed the sexual behaviour of the entire masses.
H1 :Mass media campaigns on AIDS have not change the sexual behaviour of the masses.
H0 :The information efficiency of broadcast media tends to reduce the spread of AIDS on the entire masses.
1 :The information efficiency of the media does not tend to reduce the spread of AIDS on the entire masses.
H0 The campaigns of AIDS are more to scare the entire masses from causal sex.
H1 The campaigns on AIDS messages are not likely to scare the entire masses from casual sex.
- DEFINITION OF TERMS
AIDS: Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome AIDS is an infections diseases spread by a virus, it is called syndrome it because it consists of several signs and symptoms .
HIV: Human Immune virus, HIV is a retrovirus, a group of virus, HIV is a retrovirus, a group of virus that is still largely known. HIV has been accepted internationally. The virus destroys genetic material and the damage is permanent.
MASS MEDID :-It refers to the major mass communication channels. Radio, Television, Newspaper, magazines, film, Book, Telecommunication, media Training, Advertising and Public relations, news can reach to a large scatted heterogeneous society. The mass media inform and educate the masses based on the conviction that truth and reasoned judgment would emerge from conflicts of many voices on public issues.
CAMPAIGNS : It is organized series of operations in the advocacy of same cause or object.
ROLE: It is a specific task or function played by an actor, an institution or organization for the realization of particular objectives.
TELEVISION :- It is the viewing of distant objects or event by electrical transmission. It serves as the vital force of educational enrichment. Television by its appeal commends more audience because it combines both audit and sound to produce a fashion ting package for the viewing public. It serves as an opinion leader and agenda setter in its news commentary.
RADIO :- It is a genetic term applied to methods of signaling through space without connecting wires by means of electromagnetic waves generated by high frequency alternating currents. Radio can be used to communicate in the language of the people or project audience without any inhabitation and does not need any particular level of literacy.
BROADCASTING:- It is the sending forth of material by radio, television for reception by the public. The international telecommunication union (ITV) defines broadcasting as a radio communication services in which the transmission are intended for the direct reception of the general public.
1:8 ASSUMPTION :-The role of the mass media in the campaigns against HIV/AIDS in Nigeria is assumed that the broadcast media play a key role in their effort to fight HIV in Nigeria. Looking at the agenda setting theory of the mass media, which stated that the media not only inform us but also influence us as what is important to know.
1.9 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY:- The scope of this study is limited to the media handling of health problems. It is also limited to the survey of the broadcast media campaigns against HIV/AIDS. This scope is based on time and financial constraints .
Federal ministry of Health (1993). Hand Book on HIV and AIDS for Health Workers. National AIDS and STD programme. In collaboration with Nigeria medical Association.
Federal ministry of Health, (1991). Files on AIDS information.
Ike S. Ndolo (1998)Foundation of Mass Communication Zik Chuks Communication.
Okechulwu R. Oji and Emma E. O Chukwumeka (1999) Applied Social Behavioural Research .
John Jacob’s Classic publishers Ltd.
What is AIDS (1987) A manual for the health workers. The Christian medical commission Publisher.
World Health Organization ( 1988 – 1993)
AIDS Series 1,2,3,4, and 5 Geneva.
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