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In-service training according to Otto and Sender (2007) is a continued education of person while they are in service. Hass (2007), also opined that in-service training include all activities engaged by professional personnel during service and designed to contribute to professional improvement.

Dillon Peterson (2009) also defined in-service training as professional growth for individuals within a respectful, supportive, positive organizational climate having its ultimate aim to better learning.

The aim of in-service training for the secretaries being to help them overcome many challenges posed to them by the modern technologies such as computers, fax machines, word processors etc. to improve the functionalities of this training for secretaries it becomes imperative to train them in the use of these equipments to enhance their productivity and efficiency. To also improve on the functionalities of in-service training of secretaries in a modern business organization, such must be well articulated and well designed toward personal and organizational goals.

Wyn (2004), emphasized that there are two schools of thought as to the extent the design and running of their services. We are more interested in the second school of thought which agrees that trainees should participate in determining what should constitute an in-service training for them. For it helps to develop a sense of responsibilities. Granting study leave instead of on-the-job training will improve the functionalities of in-service training of secretaries in no small measures. in that, they will have enough time to consulate on the training and also remove stress which will not help in the training. Attachment of incentives like promotion, monetary reward etc, can as well enhance the functionalities of in service training of secretaries. The type of personnel assigned to conduct the training will equally in no small measure improve the functionalities of this training, seeing that in service training is a two way course that really involves a trainee and a tutor. How the tutor handles the course will go a long way to arouse the interest and dedication of the trainees. Using qualified personnel will in turn bring in new motivation, fresh insights, whose teaching techniques is based on many years of experience will impact and improve the functionalities of in service training of secretaries.

However, scholes(2014), noted that strategy determine the direction and scope of an organization over the long term and they say that it should determine how resources should be configured to meet the needs of markets and stakeholders. Michael (2012), emphasized the need for strategy to define and communicate an organizations unique position, and says it should determine how organizational resources, skills and competencies should be combined to create competitive advantages for instance; many successful and productive organizations have a corporate strategy to guide the big picture. Each business unit strategies which its leaders uses to determine how they will compete in their individual markets. Considering the above background to the study therefore, awareness should be created in the need for improved functionality of in-service training of secretaries in modern business organizations in Enugu state so as to be able to promote efficiency and increase in productivity.

Having seen the definitions of in-service training, let us consider the strategies for improving its functionalities.

Jennings (2002) dealt with one of the key strategies for improving the functionalities of in-service training of secretaries which he called “MOTIVATION” he explained that regular training is a source of motivation for secretaries so one of the strategies for improving the functionalities of in-service training is by giving them regular training, as to help them to cope with the recent technological innovation currently invoke. Behavioural psychologist have conducted so many research t find out that when secretaries are motivated through training, this makes for greater efficiency and productivity which is among the biggest aim of in-service training of secretaries. He also found that when secretaries are motivated through training some inner derives of need are satisfied and when this happens, they are naturally phone for greater efficiency and productivity.

Training which deals with adapting of molding of a person to increase his fitness for a specific activity. According to Denyers (2008), is an integral aspect of service which should not be neglected or done half-hazard. In that case designing a training programme will go a long way to help in improving the functionalities of in-service training of secretaries. An effective training programme will improve efficiency and morale, introduces new techniques, provides for succession enabling qualified replacement to be available, and raises the standard of unskilled personnel, thus helping to overcome labor shortages. The development of a training progamme begins with a perceived need from personnel or other organizational process. The process should be systematic, carefully designed and planned, and the result should be evaluated for efficient achievement of objectives. Different models of instructional system have been developed for different institutions, but the one relevant to business organizations is called ASDICE system being as acronym for the six principle phases. The phases are:

Assessment of training: No training programme becomes successful unless the needs of the programme are determine in advance that is why it is needed. The assessment should be detailed and explicit instead of being vague and subjective. The more careful the assessment and explicit statement of the in-service needs, the more likely it is that the programme will satisfy those needs.

Specification of the training objectives: Need diagnosis specify the in-service training objectives. Well written objectives states clearly what the trainee should be able to accomplish if the in-service training program is accomplished or completed it will also indicate conditions under which performance must be maintained and the standard by which it will be evaluated. In this way the goals are made explicit to the designer. The trainee and the trainer to assist in designing the learning situation and identification of evaluation criteria.

Design of in-service training program: A well designed program will be based on the following factors. Training designed experience, organization of training material, organization of practice, learning environment.

Instruction methods of selection: The choice of instruction methods is often left to the trainers. For certain materials or experienced trainers this may be appropriate. Effective in-service training requires methods which are suitable for the materials and trainees.

The conduct of training: Even though all other phases are important, effective in-service training depends on the conduct of the program. It is always assume that people with relevant knowledge can teach others but research has refuted this. An application of learning processes, social and communication skills and specific personal characteristics are needed for effective teaching behaviours. This has the features of selection of participants, the social interaction process, motivation and facilitation of learning, skilled teaching or coaching and off-the-job training. This off-the-job training enables the trainees to be away from the stress and demands of their work places. It also makes them to meet and interact with people from other department or organization hence they will be exposed to new ideas and experience and even give them the opportunity to make contact after the training.

Strategies: This is the optimum use of resources to minimize one or more advantages in an uncertain future.

Improving: This is the act of enhancing or making better in terms of quality value or usefulness. This can be by making ideas, objects or processes more desirable by adding or removing components. This term can also be applied to people as well, via methods such as performance reviews which are meant to try and improve an employee in some manner.

Functionalities: This is said to be the quality of being suited to serve a purpose well. Secretaries in business organizations should be effectively trained in other to execute their work and to increase in their performance towards their job.

In-service: An in-service program is a professional training of staff development effort, where professionals are trained and discuss their work with others in their peer group. It is a key component of continuing profession.

Training: Training is a teaching, or developing in oneself or others, any skills and knowledge that relate to specific useful competencies. Training has specific goals of improving one`s capability, functionality and performance.

Secretary: A secretary is an officer, whose work consists of supporting management, including executives using a variety of project management, communication or organizational skills. Secretary according to act 2009. Sec 2 (45) means one whose office is to write for another, especially one who is employed to conduct correspondence, to keep records and to transact other business for another person or for a society, corporation or public body.

Modern: Modern is of relating to or characteristics of the present or the immediate past.

Business organization: This could be said to be an individual or group of people that collaborates to achieve certain commercial goals. It is one or more businesses controlled in common by a person or group of people.



1.2 Statement of the problem

The inability of employers to send their staffs for in service training posses a lot of problem and pulls down efficiency and productivity. Most modern business organizations in Enugu state lack qualified secretaries. There in experience and lack of training posses a great problem as to what assets of training to give them.

The establishment of staff development and distant education for staff training is one thing but lack of facilities, assessment of training needs, specification of training objectives, instruction methods of selection, non chalet attitude of employers and lack of funds are militating against the upliftment of such projects like in-service training of secretaries. Some of these employers lack adequate knowledge as to how in-service training can really improve their workers and in turn bring about greater productivity and efficiency

Selfishness and greediness is another problem facing the improvement of the functionalities of in-service training of secretaries in modern business organizations in Enugu state. These days, people are mainly interested in the acquiring certificates and not really on skill acquisition. In this situation, such secretaries will inevitably receive what they have asked for which is “inadequate training”.


The main purpose of the study was to determine the strategies for improving the functionalities of in-service training of secretaries in modern business organizations in Enugu State.

Specifically, the study attempted to:

  1. Find out the extent to which assessment of training is used to improve secretary’s performance.
  2. Find out the extent to which specification of training is used to improve the secretary’s performance.
  3. Find out the extent to which conduct of training improves the performance of secretaries in business organization.



The following question guided the study:

  1. To what extent does assessment of training improve the secretaries performance
  2. To what extent does specification of training objectives improve the functionalities of secretaries in business organization?
  3. To what extent does conduct of training improve the secretary’s performance in business organization?


1.5 Significance of the study

The results of the study would be useful to secretaries, Nigerian labor congress, the business organizations in Enugu State and the relation as well as the students and future researchers.

To the secretaries, the result of the study would significantly contribute in building the desire for self development as the secretaries are provided with the opportunity of self education, which will in turn move them to strive for greater competencies in their job to the benefits of their employers.

To competent secretaries, the results of the study would significantly contribute to improve the functionalities of secretaries to achieve organizational goal.

This study would serve as a guide and also as a motivational tool for both the secretaries and the employers of labor in modern business organizations in Enugu State.

This study would help the Nigerian labor congress to put up a common front and fight against mediocrity in the employment and training of secretaries in modern business organization in Enugu state, thereby creating job opportunities for qualified secretaries and creating good ground for qualitative and improved in-service training.

Finally, the students and researchers would find the study useful for further academic activities. Authors and publishers would also use the results of the study in developing or publishing relevant text books on strategies for improving the functionalities of in-service training of secretaries in modern business organization.

1.6 Scope of the Study

This study was delimited to assess the functionalities of in-service training of secretaries in modern business organizations in Enugu state.

1.7 Definition of Terms

Strategies: This is the optimum use of resources to minimize one or more advantages in an uncertain future.

Improving: To enhance in value of quality to make better, to increase the value of something by making it more useful for humans.

Functionalities: This is the quality of being suited to serve a purpose well. Practicality also in the quality of being functional.

In-service: This is something that happens while someone is a full time employee. It is a key component of continuing education and other profession e.g medical doctors.

Training: This is the act of teaching a particular skill or type of behavior through sustained practice and instruction.

Secretary: A person employed by individual to assist with correspondence etc.

Modern: This is a characteristic of present and recent time; contemporary; not antiquated or obsolete, also it involves using the latest technology, design, material.

Business: This is a form of activities conducted with an objective of earning profit for benefit of these on whose behalf the activity is conducted.

Organization: A group of people working together with a common objective.

Enugu state: This is a state in south eastern part of Nigeria. The capital and seat of government is Enugu.


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