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COVER PAGE                                                             i

TITLE PAGE                                                                ii

DEDICATION                                                               iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT                                             iv

TABLE OF CONTENTS                                              v


INTRODUCTION                                                          1
What is paint                                                                 4
Types of paint                                                               6
Primeas                                                                         7
Under coat                                                                    7
Finishes                                                                        7

Varnishes                                                                      8

Lacquer                                                                        8

Stoppers and filler                                                        8

Sealers                                                                          9



Raw materials                                                              10

Pigments                                                                       13

Types of pigments                                                       13

Titanium dioxide (TiO2)                                                13

Zinc Oxide (ZnO)                                                          14

Lithopone ZnS. BaSo4                                                                                  15

Yellow from oxide                                                        16

Lead chrom yellow                                                       17

Coppe phthalocryanine blue                                       17

Extenders                                                                     18

Calcium carbonate (CaCa3)                                        20

Gypsum (CaSo4)                                                          21

Barium sulphate                                                           22

Blame fixed                                                                  23

Silica                                                                             24

Clay (Aluminum silicate)                                              26

Mita extenders                                                              28

Binder                                                                           29

Latex                                                                             30

Polyvinge Acetate (PVAC)                                          30

Acrylic resin                                                                  31

Vehicles                                                                        32

Additives                                                                       33

Protective colloids or thickener                                   34

Coalescing agents                                                       35

Dispersing agent                                                          35

Anti – form agent or deformer                                     36

Plastilers                                                                       37



Preservation and characteristic of rabber later           39

Preservation of rubber latex                                        39

Short team preservative                                              40

Specific  gravity                                                            43

PH value                                                                       44

Viscosity                                                                       44

Refractive index                                                           45

Dry rubber content (solid content)                              45



Formulation of paint                                                     47

Factors guiding formulation                                         49

Binder and vehicle characteristics                               49

Pigment characteristics                                                51

Pigment volume concentration (PVC)                         52

Pigment to binder ration (P:B)                                     55

Typical formulations


Quality control and defects                                          58

Viscosity                                                                       58

Brushability                                                                   59

Dry trine                                                                        60

Opacity (covering power)                                            60

Adhesion                                                                       62

Dispersion                                                                    63

PH  of coating                                                               64



Manicuring process and equipment                            66

High speed disperser (cowlese)                                  69

Conclusion                                                                   72

References                                                                   75




The main area covered by this project was a research into the desirability of using locally obtained rubber later as loinder in paint manufacture.


Considering the huge amount of money being spent on the importation of PVac (Poly vingl acetate) which is widely used as binder for paint manufacturing the efforts of this project cannot be over – emphasized.  Going though this project, it will be agreed that a gaint stride has been made towards the reduction of foreign exchange being siphoned out of the country through the importation of Pavc for paint manufacturing.


The natural rubber later used for this purpose was collected from Ozozo forest Rubber plation in Delta State.  This later will naturally coagulate within 4 – 2,4 house, if unpreserved, therefore the later used for this project was preserved with an anti – coagulant (Ammonia) to avoid coagulation.  Experiments carried out on this later exposed some of its characteristics.  Naturally a freshly tapped Rubber later will have a PH of between 6.8-7.0, but because of the ammonia used in the preservation the PH was found to be 10.97.  Another property of the later which affect the pigment volume concentration (PVC) of paints coating is the dry rubber content or the total solid content which was found through experiment to be 42%.


The normal process of paint manufacturing was employed.  Shere were two samples of paints produced each differing from the other by the weight of either PVAC or the rubber later used.  One sample made of PVAC as a binder was regarded as standard and the other one with rubber later as binder compared with it.


In each case the binder was added last since it is known that it will not withstand the high shear stress developed in the machine during dispersion.

The PH of the various samples were 8.1 and 10.15 accordingly.


The second sample with rubber later as binder has a PH value outside the standard PH.

The paint produced can be compared with the standard favourably.

Difficulty encountered during the formulation include the inability of Natrosol to dissolve due to delay in pouring the dissolved natrosol in the water faskly and then pour into the other dispersed components.  This however was poured off and new formulation made which game the desired result.


The binder power in PVA formulation is much better an concise with that of standard point and it has greater fitness.





The origin of paint and painting started thousands of yeas ago.


It can be rightly said that the desire to decorate their mummies sparked of this concept in Egypt around 15,000.


Since then, this practice has gradually developed through many stages until modern concept of paint and painting came into being.  This modern concept was brought about by gradual transformation from old materials and methods of paint making to the use of synthetic material and more modern machinery.


During these early years, the paints were only used on mammies, cares and tombs for the purposes of decorating them only.  But now the modern use of paint serves the dual purpose of decoration as well as preventing the substrate on which it is applied.  Because of this dual manufactured to meet a specified condition by the use of modern equipment and synthetic materials.


Here in Nigeria, the first modern paint industry was established in 1962, and today we have more than 100 of such industries all using entirely imported materials and equipment for the purposes of producing paint.


Considering the staggering amount of foreign exchange the importation of these materials and equipment by the 100 industries will be directed towards the production of some of these raw materials within the country.


Rubber hater which is a product of hevea brasiciensis tree extensively grown in the western part of the country can be use as a binder in paint formulations against the PAVC which is currently being imported.  It is believed that if these persistent calls from both government and individuals for proper heamessment of local raw materials for our local industries are as serious as they want the public to believe, then initial effort should be towards the use of natural rubber later as a brinder for paint manufacturing as there is sure evidence that it will succeed.


Meanwhile the first slot has been fired in this direction by this project.



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