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Against the backdrop of increasing competition in industrial enterprises and the emergence of packaging and branding as a strategic marketing decision variables, the study sought to address the following issues as they affect the marketing of cosmetics product in Enugu metropolis
– The importance manufactures and consumers attach product packaging and branding
– The function and emotional factors influencing consumer choice of cosmetics products packaging and branding.
– The criteria for evaluating the effectiveness of good cosmetics product packaging and branding.
To answer research questions, primary data were generated from manager of Hardis and Dromedas Ltd. Cosmetic product dealers and consumers found within Enugu metropolis.
Using interview schedule and questionnaire as research instruments generate primary data were analyzed qualitatively.
The major finding of the study include:
– consumer choice of product packages and brands is not influenced more by emotional factors than the conventional factors.
– There is no strong correlation between a products package and brand and its quality.
– Consumer rely very much on packages and brand to provide the information required for purpose of evaluation and choice.
– Manufacturers should pay more attention to cosmetics product packaging and branding.
– More money should be invested in product packaging and branding research to meet up to the international standard.
– Emotional values should not be neglected when considering conventional values.
– Product packages and brands should have all the necessary information about a product.
– Convenience should be considered first in the development of product packaging and branding.
In condusion, the researcher strongly believes that the cosmetics industry should take the problem of package and branding seriously as their survival depends on it.

Title page i
Approval page ii
Dedication iii
acknowledgement iv
Abstract v
Table of content vi
Chapter one
1.1 Background of the study 1
1.2 Statement of the problem 6
1.3 Objective of the study 8
1.4 Research question 9
1.5 Significance of the study 10
1.6 Scope of the study 11
1.7 Limitation of the study 12
1.8 Definition of terms 13
Chapter two
2.1 consumer buying process model 16
2.2 psychological implications to packages 27
2.3 The function of packaging and branding 36
2.4 Packaging and branding consideration 40
2.5 cosmetics market in Nigeria 43
Chapter three
3.1 Research design 52
3.2 Area of study 53
3.3 Population of the study 53
3.4 Sample and sampling procedure 53
3.5 Instrument for data collection 55
3.6 Validation instrument 55
3.7 Reliability of the instrument 55
3.8 Method of data collection 55
3.9 Method of data collection 56
Chapter four
Data analysis and presentation
4.1 Introduction 57
4.2 Dealers survey results 69
Chapter five summaries of findings recommendation and conclusion
5.1 Summary of findings 79
5.2 Conclusion 82
5.3 Recommendation


The conventional purpose of packaging and branding is to function as a container or a wrapper for a product to save it from damage, spillage, or getting contaminated and for easy recognition.
(NKEM, 2009: 67). It also serves as a protection as well as a tool that enables the product to be conveyed from the manufacturing point to the consumption point with full identity.
The packaging and branding objective of most manufactures then was to provide a branded package that performed the above functions of minimal cost, they consider this decision simple enough to be handled not by management staff but by the manufacturing department alone. For them, packaging and branding was not considered as an important marketing instrument. Thus apparent neglect on packaging and brand gave rise to lack of adequate information, as researchers were not encouraged to work on such area.
However, with the advent of modern marketing, packaging and branding has not only established as importance as a marketing variable, but has gone along way in proving itself as a formidable tool for competition in the products
“natural habit which is the retails (shelf), To this and there fore, marketers had not only accorded an unprecedented recognition to the concept of packaging and branding as marketing instrument but went further to use it extensively as one of the major variables they can adjust to their advantage in a competitive market to gain ground maintain a firm stand in they face of still competition. No doubt. The importance of packaging and branding has contributed in no small way to the growth of most industries.
In most economically advanced countries like America, the packaging industries are comparable in size with the automobile and meat industries. In the late seventies, statistics showed that more than 7 billion was spent on packaging and greater parentage of employers of labour are package industries (Bonne and Kuntz, 1977: 228), while branding to identify the product from competitors.
In developing countries like Nigeria, manufactures seem not to have imbed this new development on packaging of products but had been using their products. They failed to recognize packaging and branding as a major variable a marketer can manipulate to his advantage in his marketing strategies. This can be a traced to the level of development in the industrial sector of the economy, the concern of the manufactures are focused on meeting ever increasing demands of the market rather than devising effective competitive strategies. The government in a bid to reverse this trend, designed a new industrial policy aimed at giving a boost to the industrial sector with a view of launching the nation into an era of large production of various products. This era of large production will create an environment for competition, and like in all competitive situation, only the fittest survives. Through effective packaging and brand, one is sure of taking control of the market and thus increased sales.
Cosmetics industry represents one of the industries where packaging and branding as a marketing instrument plays a significant role. Also recent development in the industrial sector has shown that the cosmetic industry has attracted a lot of local manufactures, where each one of them comes with his own brand name to compete with any other known brand and even to force his own brand into the consumer’s shopping bag.
Unfortunately, local companies or industries have had to compete with large multinationals like the pz (Nig), A.C. Christie (Nig) plc . etc. on the other hand, imported cosmetics has taken over the retailers shelves in the market thereby making the industry very competitive and in a bid to rescue the local manufactures, there was promulgation of custom, excise, Tariff, etc (consolidated) Degree 1988 (degree no. I ) by federal military government imposing excise duty ranging from 45% to 60% on imported cosmetics. This imposition went along way to protect the local manufactures of cosmetics from stiff competition, as they have to come up strong to effectively challenge and compete with any either brand in the market imported or locally produced.
Having considered the competition existing in the cosmetics industry as an ideal industry for a study on the effective use of packaging and branding as a marketing instrument in a competitive environment was arrived at.

Nigeria manufactures n have most times been seen not pay adequate attention to branding and packaging in the marketing of their products.
This according to Ozonweke is mostly as a result of the fact that the economy is characterized by scarcity of goods, which necessitated that most goods are sold any condition they are presented to the market.
Alatise (1978:9) Commented that manufactures seldom contemplate changes in the brand and package design since there is no a problem of meeting up order
Recently however, the industrial sector has shown a very high growth potential and as such, the scarcity syndrome is fast varnishing. The market is becoming more competitive and to survive, a manufacturer must give adequate consideration to all aspects of marketing including packaging. The issues to be highlighted in this study are as follows:
– The strategic pasture of packaging and branding in cosmetic industry.
– What are the local manufactures doing to measure up to expectations in packaging their products and branding or rebanding their products.
– The problems associated with packaging and branding in the cosmetic industry in Nigeria.

The study has the following objectives:-
(a) To determine whether the local manufactures considers product packaging and branding as an important marketing variable.
(b) To determines the functional and emotional factors that are likely to influence consumer choice of cosmetics products with or without branding and packaging
(c) To determine the various function of packaging and branding ranked in order of importance as it applies cosmetics industry.
(d) To determine the criteria for evaluating the effectiveness of a package and brand, and its relationship to the sale of product.
(e) To determine ways in which local manufactures in the cosmetics industry can improve their product packaging and branding.

(1) Has the function of package and brand gone beyond its traditional aim of containment and product protection? If so, what are the emerged functions?
(2) Can consumers be influenced by non – functional factor of packaging and brand like desire for their choice of a product?
(3) Do Nigeria managers devote reasonable attention to product packaging and branding.
(4) What are the critical factors used in evaluating the effectiveness of a product package and brand?
The world economy today reveals a high growth in the industrial sector. There is a proliferation of marketing commodities. In Nigeria, this development was supported by the federal government economic policy, which aimed at boosting the out put of industrial sector and a gradual match towards a competitive market situation. One obvious implication of this development is that at the policy conception , the Nigeria manufactures will no longer enjoy the present advantage of selling any thing he can produce in any form become of the then prevailing product scarcity. Policy conception will usher in the era of consumer market where only those manufactures with special creative and innovative ability will survive.
This study will therefore help the manufactures not only to survive on the competitive market but to take a leadership positioning the market through the development and use of creative and function packaging and branding as a tool. It will also facilitate the adoption of product packages as a marketing strategy especially the cosmetic industry. Mostly at my server information and branding will be highlighted. More importantly. If find this works is accepted by manufacturers, it will give a real boost to different industries and create employment opportunities.

The survey also concentrated on the manufacture, dealers and consumers of cosmetic products in Enugu state. The study did not cover the area of porter or wholesaler packaging branding. The study only covers the area of packaging and branding.

Carrying out a research work of this nature is not always an easy task as it is often associated with a lot of constraints; to this effect therefore, this research work no exception.
Time and money were obvious impediments no doubt marketing research generally involves cost in carrying out survey, data administration, and collation as well as production of concluded research work – with limited financial resources, some of these costs became more glaring and provided itself a big challenges.
Another factor encountered was high into of illiteracy on the part of some of the respondents who never understood what was required of them and why a research is being carried out and this affected the collation of data.

The definition of the terms here, is to give the meaning of some terms used in this research which is relative to the study to make more meaning to non – professionals in the field of study. Some of the terms used are as follows:
– CONSUMERS = unless otherwise stated, the category of consumer referred to here are of cosmetic products.
– BRANDING = The identity that a product has and also, it is the set of activities designed to create a band and position it in the mind of consumer.
– LOCAL MANUFACTURES= This refers purely to the small- scale indigenous manufactures of cosmetics products.
– DEPEAT PURCHASE: This is the act of buying the same brand of product for the second, third and subsequent times.
– SELF – SERVICE OUTLETS= Retail outlets where customers are allowed to work freely around the shelves and select the goods they wish to buy
– STORAGE= The holding of product for future use at any level along the marketing channel, including the level of ultimate consumer.
– SURVEY = A scientific method of gathering relevant information on the topic of interest from the public.

Bonne, L.E and Kvits, D’ (1997): Contemporary marketing zed (Hind dale Illionis . The Fryden press
Custom and excise Tanff (Consolidated degree 1988) degree I chapter 33
Nwokye, Nonyely. G (1981): modern marketing for Nigeria
London: The Macmillan press Ltd oriadde, olu (1989) story of packaging in Nigeria, the punch July 19.
Ozonweke, Humphrey O. (2009): The role of packaging in marketing of Goods for Growth and development: A project reject submitted to the department of marketing, Imo state university Owerri march.


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