In recent years, editors, newspaper owners and managers had been faced with the problem of determining the choice preference to their newspaper content by youth in Enugu urban. This research used the sample survey method of social science research to validate its assumptions and research question. And for obvious reasons and constraints, youth in Enugu urban were administered questionnaires. Therefore, it is the case study of this research. This research projects, however, aims at comparing, identifying and analyzing the newspaper readership attitude among male and female youth of higher institutions with the ultimate result of finding out the choice preference as regards to content. Also, this research will in no small way help the editors and newspaper manger and publishers in the determination and prominence given to some items in order to promote wider readership among youths. This study will also increase student’s awareness and contributions to both national and international issues. Also it will enhance and encourage greater patronage among the student’s profit to the publisher’s. Finally, the expected results due to the past studies on this topic will be that male youths read both information on national and international news more than female youths read more of entertainment than male youths.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page ii
Approval page iii
Table of contents vii
- Background of the study 1
- Statement of the research problem 6
- Objectives of the study 7
- Significance of the study 9
- Research Question 9
- Research Hypothesis 10
- Theoretical Framework 12
- Definition Of Terms 14
- Assumption 17
1.10 Expected Results 17
1.11 Limitations of the study 18
Review of the literature
- Literature review 19
- Review Of Relevant Literature 19
- Summary of the Literature Review 31
- Research Method 34
- Research Design 35
- Research Population 35
- Research Sample 36
- Measuring Instrument 38
- Data Collection 38
3.6 Method of Data Analysis 39
3.7 Expected Results 39
Data Analysis and Results
- Data analysis 41
- Results 41
- Discussions 43
- Summary 58
- Recommendations 58
- BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Since the introduction of first newspaper in Nigeria, “Iwe irohin” by a missionary Rev. Henry Townsend in 1859, several of newspaper, both weekly and daily have sprung up. The growth of Nigeria press from later 50’s till now has become more tedious and immense because of the social, political and economic revolution that this country is undergoing. It contributed immensely to the present situation, with increased tasks on the newspaper in order to maintain its role as role as the watchdog of the society.
With many newspapers in circulation, readership attitude have changed considerably. Also the interest in newspaper contents changed variably with the content. Some people like to read about politics, economy, foreign news sports (information), while others are interested in reading cartoons, fashion trends, feminine fancies, human-interest stories or news, crime and accident reports. Many newspaper organizations abroad are constantly carrying out readership attitude researchers to know their reader interest and preferences so that they can adjust the contents of their newspaper in order to sustain and increase their numerous readers.
In Nigeria, however the case is not so similar as editors and newspaper managers are able to carry out readership attitude researches or studies on their newspaper. They instead prefer to talk about increase and decrease in circulation figures. Readership studies in newspapers are very essential because they enable the newspaper organization to know the need of their readers and be able to maintain them increase total turnover and maximize profits.
In view of this readership among the youth in general especially in Enugu urban present a peculiar phenomenon that arouses interest. That is more serious emphasis is laid on habit oriented pattern, a pattern which is more sustaining. This is not to say that these readership patterns influence more positively then the demand and the supply curve. The employment of comparative analysis is vital in the study of this work. The comparative study employ are as follows:
- Sex oriented comparison study
- Finance oriented study
- Educational oriented comparison study
- Politics oriented comparison study
- Religious conviction oriented study
- Age oriented comparison study
- Sex oriented Comparison study: Sex gas long way to determining emotional responses to news content. It is in view of this, that the study seek to investigate the determining factor that make a particular sex to be more or less responsive to news contents in the newspaper.
- Finance Oriented Comparison study: It is no secret in economics that as people spending power grow with their standard of living they can easily afford to indulge in loss “necessities” it will not be out of place for a hungry man to spend his last N30 for a little lunch than buy a newspaper and go hungry. This becomes more acute with the youth who always run a budget line.
- Educational Oriented Comparison study: It is undebtable that the more educated one is; the easier it is for him to appreciate as well as extract information from the newspaper. Hence, ones level of education as still in the case of the youths goes a long way to determining interest and habit in newspaper reading indulgence.
- Politics Oriented Comparison Study: Nationalism and patriotism can compel ardent readership patriots, as they prefer their own local newspapers to be better produced than foreign paper. It is under such a model that we see customer ship due to certain newspaper that advance the cause of independence.
- Religion Conviction oriented companies study: under this study, we find people who for one religious conviction or the fellowship, prefer some kind of news contents in newspaper. The content of which may persuade or dissuade them for patronizing and appreciating their cherished newspaper publishers.
- Age Oriented Comparison Study: This study seeks to discover the more responsive age group to the newspaper readership pattern.
- STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM
Information is very important and crucial in the development of any country and this is obtained through the mass media. The youths are younger generation of the nation who help in running and developing the affairs of the country. So information and the youth are two side of the same coin.
Despite the truthfulness of above statement the youths have been accused of having one allergy toward information dissemination and collection. Yet the important of information to them cannot be over emphasized it is in light of this problem that researcher have to determine the problems associated with forming good reading habit among the youths evaluate the problems of the percentage of the youths that reads newspaper and what difficulties that fashioned them to read their contents they read and also to find out if the youth consider picking and reading newspaper very important or not to their economic and intellectual development.
- OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The objective of this study is generally to identify, define, explain scrutinize and analyze newspaper readership attitude among male and female youths in Enugu Urban, Enugu State. This study, among other things will find out the content of newspaper preference among female youths as well as the male readership attitude or preference in Enugu urban.
This study will try to find out the reason for the non-challant attitude exhibited by female youth towards newspaper reading. The study will in addition establish if women prefer other social activities to reading newspaper and if at all they read newspaper, what they like to read incase they do?
Also the frequency of the male readership attitude will be compared to that of the females. The aim of the study therefore, is to find out the readership
Behavior of the female youths of Enugu youth urban (if any) vis-à-vis the readership behavior of the male youths of Enugu urban.
Efforts will also made in this study to find out if the readership attitude among the youth is a result of time, cost preference for other mass medium, circulation and poor distribution networks. Lack of interest, contents and I – don’t like – to read attitude often exhibited by youths.
- SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Newspaper functions are to inform, educate, enlighten, mobilize, sensitize and entertain its numerous, dynamic and divers readers that are demographic and psychographics in composition. Therefore, because this functions which newspaper are set to perform, this research will enable editors of newspaper to be more armed to execute these function effectively for the benefit of the society which bestow the trust on them. This research is also significant and important because it will enable us to establish the extent to which the content of the media affects the male and female relationship and readership.
- RESEARCH QUESTUION
- To what extent do male youth read newspaper more than their female counterparts?
- To what extent do male youth read hard news, national and international issues more than the female youths?
- To what extent do the female youth concentrate/ on soft and human interest news and stories more than male youths.
- RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
Hi: Male youths are more likely to read newspaper than female youths
Ho: Female youths are more likely to read newspaper than male youths.
H2: Male youths are more likely to read information on national and international events (hard news) than female youths.
Ho: Female youths are likely to read information on national and international news (hard news) than male youth.
H3: Female youths are likely to read entertainment materials than male youths.
Ho: Male youths are likely to read entertainment material than female youths.
H4: Age as a factor is more likely to affect newspaper readership among
Ho; Age as a factor is not likely to affect newspaper readership among the youths.
1.7 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
A theory According to Rodman (2006:455) is a set of related statement that seeks to explain and predict behavior.
When carrying out a communication research, it is necessary to use as theory to support the topic under investigation to make it credible for the purpose of the research, one theory shall be selected from the theories of media effects. The uses and gratification theory is selected.
Uses and gratification theory is a shift from media effect to media use. The theory places more emphasis on the consumer or audience instead of the actual message itself by asking what people do with media (newspaper) rather then “what media does for the people (Katz, 1959).
The theory assumed that members of the publics (audience) especially in this study that youth take an active role in interpreting and integrating media into their lives. The theory also holds that audiences (Youths) are responsible for choosing media to meet their needs. A lot of people use the media (newspaper) to gratify a specific need. Example information entertainment, socialization, education, diversion personal relation, personal identity etc.
One of the studies on uses and gratification theory was “what missing the newspaper means” by,BERELSON, the study was conducted in 1949 during newspaper strike about what they missed in the newspaper. During that period, the newspaper distributors went on two weeks strike and there was no paper to read that time, the newspaper was the only media available to the people. The researcher carried out the study to find out what it means to the people not to read papers for two weeks. From his finding, many read because they felt it was socially acceptable thing to do, and some felt that the newspaper was indispensable in finding out about world affairs. Many how ever sought escape relaxation, entertainment and social prestige. Some wanted help in their daily lives by reading materials about fashion, recipes, weather forecast, and other useful information (Severins and Tankard 1992:270).
The finding shows that different people read different parts of people for different reasons and gratification. In this theory the youths uses /read newspaper to gratify their needs, especially youths in Enugu urban.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Sex: This means that state of being male or female that is gender of particular specie. In other words, it could be described as being male or female. Conceptually, it is used to distinguish male from female in this work.
Readership: This is a position or quality of being a reader.
Readership could also means the number of persons Who read printed material like newspaper, magazine etc. It is also the position to pursue a written or printed material.
Newspaper Content: This is what the newspaper contains. It is also the features in the column of a newspaper e.g. cartoon, fashion, politics, and sport etc.
Sex: This word is used in this work as a gender in terms of specific peculiarities. However, sex defines as a gender of particular specie. It is also total number of males and females used in this study who read newspaper.
Readership: This is the total numbers of Persons that reads newspaper whether male or female. This is referred to amount of money a reader is willing to spend in newspaper in an established pattern of consistency despite all odds. Readers do not imply people who subscribe to newspaper but those who subscribe to newspapers, those who subscribe as well as read the newspapers.
Newspaper content: This word is conceived to mean interesting articles and news materials with particular attention paid to the individual reader. It is also the total number of different material that is editorial feature news etc carried out a newspaper.
Variables: The independent variable here is sex, while dependent variable are readership attitude or behavior and newspaper content.
The research work makes three assumptions.
- That male youth are more likely to be newspaper reader than female youths.
- That male youth are more likely to read information on national and international news than female youths.
- That female youth are more likely to read entertainment material than male youths.
However, the data generated and collected to uphold the assumptions did not invalidate any of the three assumptions.
1.10 EXPECTED RESULTS
The youths are expected to show their attention towards media especially newspaper. Also, the ability of the female youths to compete with the male youths as regards newspaper readership is also expected to be higher since the female folk are taking to be weaker.
- LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
This study is a comparative study of newspaper readership amongst youths in Enugu state. However, only the youths of Enugu urban were sampled for obvious reasons. This is as a result of financial constraints and time back.
Also depleted stock of relevant books in the libraries also hampered the comprehensive outlook of the literature review.
Again, apathy displayed by some youths towards filling the answer in the questionnaires and trying to dodge the scheduled interviews, also hampered the overall study.
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