The purpose of carrying out this research is to find out the need for study of the challenges and opportunities of computer applications on secretaries in some selected business organizations. The research methods adapted in gathering information necessary for carrying out this research work were through questionnaires and oral interview. The population of this research is made up of the selected organization in Onitsha urban. The total population used for this study is 40. from the analysis of data, the researcher discovered that many organizations now depend a lot on the computer application but one major threat is that of repairs when break down. It was equally discovered that establishment that use computers in their operations when job prospects for their employees. There is greater speed and corresponding output. The application of computer in the office creates now job which are normally filled internally. It was discovered that computers are not made to eliminate the secretary but to implement her efforts. It was equally revealed that working with computer can pose some health problems to the operators especially eye strain through constant looking on display screen. Another problem controlling the application of computer in organization were constant power failure and poor staffing. Despite these problems there is still the need for more and more organization to go computerized as the world is changing fast and fast growing everyday.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Cover page i
Title page ii
Approval page iii
Table of contents vii
1.0 Introduction 1
1.1 Background of the study 2
1.2 Statement of the problem 8
1.3 Purpose of the study 9
1.4 Scope of the study 10
1.5 Significance of the study 10
1.6 Research questions 11
2.0 Literature review 12
2.1 Definition and analysis of computer 13
2.2 Types of computers 17
2.3 Classification of computer 19
2.4 Uses of computer 22
2.5 The challenges of computer application of
the secretary 28
2.6 The secretaries job opportunities in the computer age 35
2.7 Advantages of computer to the secretary 40
2.8 Secretaries role and relation with computer 42
2.9 Summary of literature review 45
3.0 Research methodology 47
3.1 Research design 47
3.2 Area of the study 47
3.3 Population of the study 48
3.4 Sample and sampling procedure 48
3.5 Instrumentation 49
3.6 Validation of the instrument 49
3.7 Reliability of the instrument 50
3.8 Method of data analysis 50
3.9 Method of data analysis 50
4.1 Data presentation and analysis 51
5.0 Findings, implication and recommendation 67
5.1 Summary of findings 67
5.2 Conclusion 69
5.3 Recommendation 70
Limitation of the study 73
The advancement in education and the need for efficiency in data processing and storage system has necessitated the need for the innovation of computer system. This invention has been very much helpful in our age for speed and efficient service. Moreso, the invention of computer system has led many people to develop the zeal for computer training.
The introduction of new technology without adequate preparation and general awareness to the directly affected personnel equally lead to resistance to innovation. The technology involved here refers to training and retraining (as need arises) of personnel to keep pace with the technological innovation and to avoid redundancy. It is therefore the intention of the study to find out the challenges and opportunities to secretaries in some selected business organization, and the invention of computer technology.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
There has always been a human need throughout the centuries to device a means for doing addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. Consequently this history of computing instrument with the introduction of “ABACUS” an adding machine. This word Abacus is derived from the Greek work “Abax” or “abakox” to mean a broad, tablet or calculating table. It originated from the orient about five thousand years ago, and are still in use in some parts of the middle and far East today. Abacus is a manually operated storage device that helps calculations. It has a now of many number of parallel wires, rods or grooves on or in which slied small beads or blocks that aids it functions.
The stride beads are divided into two sections, by means of a bar perpendicular to the rods. One section has one or two perpendicular bars to the rods while the other section has one or two beads depending on their position along the rod. The second section has four or five beads representing units. Each bar represents a significant digit with the least significant digit on the right.
The beginning of data processing devices started as early as 500 BC with the development of Abacus. Computer is one of the office machines and its origin could be traced back to the 18th century industrial revolution in Europe.
The following people contributed to the development of computer.
A scotish mathematician and inventor of logarithms made systematic use of the decimal point to separate the fractional from the integral part of number that helped lime in establishing the invention. In 1917 he equally published
PASCAL’S ARITHMETIC MACHINE
A French scientist, philosopher blaise pascal 1643 built a successful digital calculating machine to help him in computing his father’s business accounts. Pascal’s computer was a digital, device that carried out its computations by a process of integral counting. The machine utilized a mechanical gear system to add and subtract number with as many as eight coloumns digits.
LEIBRIZ STEPPED RECKONER
A german mathematician, gottiforied wihelm Leibrim inveted in 1681, and completed in 1964 a more advanced adding machine known as stepped Reckoner. The machine could multiply, divide and extract square roots, a process it accomplished by series of repeated additions similar to that used even today in many modern digital computers. A working model of this type of machine was completed in 1794 and exhibited at the Royal society London. It proved to be unreliable and in 1820 a more sophisticated machine capable of performing all four arithmetical operations was its demonstration of the advantages of the decimal system for mechanical computers.
BABBAGES ANALYTICAL MACHINE
In 1865, Charlse Babbage formulated the idea of an entirely new device called Analytical machine. The engine was able to combine Arithmetic processes with decisions based on its own computation. It has two basic components, a storage unit with a memory device consisting of graphs or 50 counter wholes that could store 1000 figures 50 digits each and the arithemic disk calculator section. The punch card as a central unit for the transfer of numbers and sequence of operations.
George Boole an English logician and mathematician to whom all computer technicians are indebted to his development of symbolic binary logic operations. Boole’s treatics on Differential Equations (1889) contained a licid account of the general symbolic method the bold employment of which led to Boole’s chief discoveries. Boole’s formalism, showing the way to “Mechanse” logic and operating an only Q and I, is the basis for what is now called Boolean algebra, gave rise to formulations and applications in telephone communications and computer switching theory and procedures.
JACAUARD LOOM, HOLLERITH AND PUNCHED CARDS
In the early 1800’s Josephy Marie Jacquard of france invented 100m for weaving cloth, the first use of punched hole in a card to present a number and control the operation of the 100m. in 1886, a vis statistician name Herman Hollerith while working on the 1880 census, developed the idea that such holes could sort and manipulate the aritemetic sums represented by the holes. Thus, Hollerith, inspired by Jacquard, invented the punched card, which is still used as a basic input medium to computers.
COMPUTER EVOLUTION/ REVOLUTION
The history of computer is of ten separated into four distinct generations in used date the time. The term “Dement” refers to the electronic components used to facilitate the circuit functions within the computer.
The four generations and their logical dements are:
|Generations||Date||The tools used for invention|
|Second||1959-64||Transitor instead of tube|
|Third||1965-70||With the introduction of integrated circuits in computer|
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The problem in the third world countries is how to get rid of or abject poverty which is invoked. Surprisingly these countries do not formulate theories that suit their environment, instead they rely on western base management theories. Furthermore, instead of improving and adjusting to their own local sources of materials they indulge in importation.
The imported materials create more problems than solving them. It is in the light of this that this study wishes to emphasize on the implication of environmental contingencies in the sudden introduction of computer in Nigeria organizations.
It is being speculated by the researcher that the introduction of computer will lead to frustration, job dissatisfaction etc. if adequate precautions are not taken, that is, if organization do not look to low productivity, poor performance of the organizations.
It is therefore the hope of the study to find out the difficulties in the training of manpower in terms of cost, length of training and equally to ascertain the level of motivation according to secretaries that operate the computers in terms of promotion and other remunerations.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The public and private organization in both the developed and developing countries have introduced the application of computer. It is on this phenomenon of computerization that the researcher intend to develop the basic understanding of its application in organization and its study of challenges and opportunities to the secretaries. It will also consider the following:
- Effects of computer application
- Challenges of computer application to the secretaries, that is whether or not the secretaries will loose their jobs as a result of its application
- Opportunities fir secretaries interms of remunerations
- Possible health problem that emanate from computer application
1.4 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
In a bid to keep the project within a manageable limit and inview of the limited time and resources available to the researcher she has localized and confined the study to selected business organizations in Onitsha Anambra State.
1.5 SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY
The significant of these study will be of immense benefit to business organization as it will help open their eyes to limitless opportunities in using computer in their business organization.
Secondly it will be immense benefit to all practicing secretaries as the study will bring out the opportunities inherent in the application of computer in secretaries duties.
Finally it will also be of benefit to the researcher as it will help her to acquire more knowledge on the subject it matter and other opportunities inherent in computer applications.
1.6 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
In order to explore the challenges and opportunities of computer applications study in some business organizations in Onitsha urban, the following research questions are prepared and will be tested for the purpose of this study.
- Do machines used by secretaries in the pre-computer era pose any health problem?
- To what extent were secretaries sent on training in the post-computer era?
- How would you assess secretary’s performance in this computer age?
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