The purpose of embarking on this study is to provide a detailed assessment of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) on the performance of Broadcast media Organisation in Nigeria. The objectives were to thoroughly examine the relevance of the new ICTs, to evaluate the value, importance and quality of ICTs in Nigeria Broadcast Media Organisations. The researcher used survey research methods to enable her determine the sample size 137 through the appropriate statistical method to represent the population of the study given as 270. Data gathered from the study were analyzed and interpreted using simple percentage and tables. Also summary of findings, conclusion and recommendations were made on the study for further studies this include regular disbursement of monthly/quarterly subventions from the government to the media and the upgrading of operational equipments, engineering and communication gadgets, these are meant for policy formulation on the relationship between mass media and Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs), its assessment.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Table of Contents
List of Tables
- Background of the study
- Statement of the Research study
- Objective of the study
- Significance of the study
- Research Questions
- Research Hypothesis
- Theoretical Framework
- Scope of the study
- Definition of Terms
- Limitation of the study
2.1. Source of Literature
2.2. Review of relevant Literature
2.3. Summary of Literature.
3.1. Research Design
3.2. Area of study
3.3. Research Population
3.4. Research Sample
3.5. Sampling Technique.
3.6. Instrument of Data Collection
3.7. Method of Data Collection
3.8. Method of Data Analysis
3.9. Expected Results
Data Presentation and interpretation of findings
4.1. Data Presentation and Analysis
4.2. Analysis of Research Question/Hypothesis
4.3. Discussion of Results
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
LIST OF TABLE
Table 4.1: Sex distribution of respondents
Table 4.2: Age distribution of respondents
Table 4.3: Marital status distribution of respondents
Table 4.4: Educational qualification distribution of respondents
Table 4.5: Distribution of work experience in year
Table 4.6: Do ICTs enhance the performance of the
mass media in Nigeria?
Table 4.7: The extent it has enhanced the performance
of mass media in Nigeria?
Table 4.8: Has ICTs enhance mass media development
Table 4.9: Training of mass media workers in Nigeria in
handling the new ICTs in their daily operations.
Table 4.10: Utilization of the new ICTs in ESBS stations
distribution of respondents.
Table 4.11: Distribution of ESBS staff if they were
adequately trained In the use and application of ICTs in their daily operations
Table 4.12: Challenges facing ESBS stations in fully
utilizing the new ICTs in their daily operations
- BACKGROUND OF STUDY
Human existence would have been meaningless without Information and Communication. Ideas, values, policies and every aspect of socio-cultural, political and economic obligation within the human environments would have been difficult to achieve without adequate dose of information and communication. As a result, information acts as grease for lubricating the entire society. However, the invention of modern means communication with the help of civilization made possible the advancement of science and technology the world has become a global village.
Ekwelie and Okonkwo (1983:16-62) recorded that “at one time, man depended on iron and wooden gong, the town crier for the exchange, transmission and dissemination of information and vital news,” but after the second (II) world war, a great leap was made from this tasking mode of information dissemination to a more advanced, mechanized method of transmitting message or news.
Broadcasting came to Nigeria in stages, one of which was the introduction of wired broadcasting more popularly known as radio distribution or re-diffusion in 1939 by the colonial government of British Broadcast Co-operation (BBC) to redistribute its programme by means of wires connected to loudspeakers installed in various homes of subscribers. It was developed in the United Kingdom (UK) in the 1920’s and exported to their colonies. However, its introduction to Nigeria was on the initiative of the engineers of the post of telegraph department in Lagos who had been involved in monitoring the transmission of the BBC on short wave. Since then, the Nigerian mass media industry has witnessed a phenomenal growth since the establishment of Nigeria Broadcasting Service in 1957 and the country’s first television station, set up by the then government of the former western region in 1959. The establishment of western Nigerian Broadcasting Service combined Radio and African first Television service triggered a race by the other two regions to setup theirs. The information and Communication as a loose term in describing ways in which people, machines and communication system can work together to make jobs quicker, more efficient and more accurate.
Siegfried Mandel (1962:22) stated that the world crossed into “information superhighway”, and it is this information superhighway that has tremendously changed the role of communication and information dissemination in the society. Today, with the help of great innovation and scientific inventions, mass communication has been revolutionized with the help of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs). Now we talk about satellite transmission and communication, computer communication, digital broadcasting system, computer, internet information and Communication, digital cellular phones (like GSM), fibre optics, microwave technologies, radio visual systems, robots enterprise software among others.
Information and Communication Technologies has made it possible for dissemination of information evenly and to a wide range of audience especially with the advent of GSM in Nigeria, both the literate, illiterate, urban and rural dwellers alike are kept abreast of vital issues, thereby closing up communication gap or information. Therefore, in realization of this views, it interests the researchers to assess the application of Information and Communication Technologies in the Enugu State Broadcasting Service (ESBS) station.
When Marshal McLuhan talked about the global village many years ago, people at that time thought he was a joker. The new communication technologies have made people become increasingly involved in one another’s life. As Baran, (1999:51) observes, technologies not itself a medium but a social force bringing changes to the media world. Therefore, communication is any artifacts manipulated by man to aid him communicate interpersonally or massively.
The impact of the information technology on media industry has been improved. Information can reach people around the world within seconds, for instance, digital technology has placed us at a point of a new significant way of development in the history of human communication often called “the Information society” and has transformed the way many men and women work in the media industry (Ilo 2002:22) information can be sent all around the world within seconds with the new technologies, and news can reach people when it happens.
- Statement of the Research Problem.
The new information and communication technologies have been envisaged by some by some people as the threshold of globalizing the world. Information Technology acts as a great facilitator in globalizing, uniting the disintegrated world and enabling people to gain access to knowledge and services. There is no doubt that the world is becoming homogenous and differences between people are distinguishing. So, there is need for the Nigeria media to live up to the challenges.
There are many opinions that ESBS station cannot compete well with the rest of its counterparts in Nigeria because of so many teething problems such as lack of facilities, obsolete equipment, inadequate training, poor finance and government interference.As a result, this research will investigate these assertions to ascertain the truth of the matter. Moreover, it will go further to find out whether the application of information and communication technologies has impacted or enhanced the Broadcast media organization in Nigeria by adding value, importance or quality to it.
- Objectives of the Study
- To examine the relevance of the new Information and Communication Technologies on the performance of mass media in Nigeria.
- To ascertain whether the workers/journalist in the broadcast media are well trained to handle and operate ICT facilities in their operations.
- To evaluate the value, importance or quality of ICTs in Broadcast media organization in Nigeria.
- Significance of the Study
The value, importance or quality of ICTs in media development cannot be over emphasized; It is one thing for a medium to adopt the use of ICTs for reliability and efficiency while another which neglects it cannot meet the pace of globalization trend, but it will be an immerse benefit to media outfits who adopt it and make use to it in their operations.
- Research Questions
The research questions adopted for this work includes the following:
- Can the new information and communication technology trends enhance the performance of the mass media in Nigeria?
- Is the development in information technology transforming the media significantly?
- Are journalists in the mass media outfit well trained properly to handle and operate ICT facilities in their operations?
- What are the challenges facing ICT in Nigeria and its effect on the performance of mass media in Nigeria?
- Research Hypothesis
The following hypothesis will be tested in the course of this study;
H1: Information and Communication Technologies enhance the performance of mass media in Nigeria.
H0: Information and Communication Technologies do not enhance the performance of mass media in Nigeria.
H2: ESBS staff are trained in the proper use of Information and Communication Technologies.
H0: ESBS staff are not trained in the proper use of Information and Communication Technologies.
H3: Challenges facing the adoption and utilization of ICTs in Nigeria hinder mass media performance.
H0: Challenges facing the adoption and utilization of ICTS in Nigeria do not hinder mass media performance in Nigeria.
H4: The development in information technology is transforming the media significantly.
H0: The development in information technology is not transforming the media significantly.
- Theoretical Framework
This research work is anchored on the “Technology Determinism Theory” molded by Marshall McLuhan. This theory states that technologies shape how individuals in a society think, feel, act and how the society operate as we move from one technological age to another and that the linking of electronic information media would create an interconnected “global village”. With the advancement in communication technology, the media which has been apportioned key roles as the watch dog of the society will be able to interpret government policy to the people through these new communication technologies.
This research could also be anchored on the magic bullet or hypodermic needle theory. The magic bullet has assumed that a given message from the media is assumed to operate like magic bullet that virtually penetrate the individual’s mind and instantly create immediate response or reactions. Magic bullet theory believed that the rational mind was mere façade incapable of resisting powerful message. In the same vein, the media cannot resist the insistent encroachment of the new ICTs in the global society. The influence of this ICTs is so strong that the mass media in Nigeria cannot resist its powerful influence; rather they should be carried along in order to develop and be in tune with the rest of the digital society and not be left in the digital divide.
- Scope of the Study
The scope of this study revolves around Enugu; suffice it to state that in evaluating an assessment of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) on the performance of broadcast media in Nigeria, the dynamic scope has a national outlook and it will thus be universal to embark on the study. However, it becomes very necessary to narrow it down in relation to the assessment of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) on the performance of Enugu State Broadcasting Service (ESBS)
- Definition Of Terms
A word might mean so many things depending on where and how it is used. To this end, a number of key terms are been defined so as to clearly state their meaning and the context in which they have been used in this work.
Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs):
Conceptual definition: The use of electronic machines and equipment especially computers to access, store, analyze, manipulate and transmit digital data or information.
Operational Definition: ICTs refers to all those electronic or digital technologies used in Broadcast media that enable the handling and efficient management of information which facilitates different forms of communication among human actors between human beings and electronic system.
Conceptual Definition: An evaluation of the value, importance or quality of a thing.
Operational Definition: This is the evaluation, value, importance or quality of ICTs facilities in the Broadcast media organization in Nigeria.
Conceptual Definition: The main wave that large number of individuals in the society receives information, entertainment and education, that is television, radio and the newspaper.
Operational Definition: They are the various channels of communication such as the television, radio, newspapers, magazine, the internet among others through which information and various messages are packaged by trained and professional communicators and sent to a large audience who are heterogeneously anonymous and diversified in nature.
- Limitation of the Study
This research work is being carried out in the face of certain limitation such as time constraints alongside normal academic load. Another problem the researcher encountered is that of inadequate finance in carrying out research work. This is really a major problem because students are not given any fund separately for research purpose, the researcher made with the limited funds available which came little by little. Nevertheless, despite these limitations, reliable data were gathered for the research.
Ernest, Ndukwe (2009). ICT Revolution and vision: The position of the Nigeria Editor. Conferences by Evc, Nigeria Communication commission.
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Liwhu, Betiang (2000:37). Digitalization possibilities and challenges. Journal of NBC vol.10, No.2
Okoye, Josephat (2008). Dynamics of Radio and TV production: A multidimensional approach. Enugu: Ebiboy Business World.
Agbese, Dan (2006). Globalization and mass media in developing world, challenges and prospects the guardian daily newspaper, January 9, 2006 pg. 68.
Longman, (2008). Active study Dictionary. Person education publication Ltd. Edinburgh Gate England.
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